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Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder which is due to two main causes; insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Macrovascular disease can therefore lead to heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease. Does controlling your blood glucose levels reduce your risk of developing heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or stroke i.e. The largest and longest study done looking at the relationship between glucose levels and complications in type 2 diabetes is called the UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Study). The excess glucose in your blood stream will stick to the protein in your red blood cell, namely the haemoglobin. This “sweetened red blood cell” is called your haemoglobin A1c, glycated haemoglobin, or HbA1c. The chart below shows how the HbA1c indicates what your average glucose has been over the last 2 to 3 months (National Glycohaemoglobin Standardization Program, 2010). In 1995, a group of researchers started to follow up 505 adults living with T2 diabetes for a period of 14 years. We can see that there has been much research done with regard to preventing or reducing the risk of macrovascular disease and its complications in diabetes.
American Diabetes Association (2012) ‘Standard of Medical care in Diabetes – 2012’, Diabetes Care, 35(1), pp. ACCORD Study Group (2008) ‘Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes’,New England Journal of Medicine358, pp.


Insulin is secreted by your pancreas and controls your blood glucose (sugar) levels by allowing it to move from your bloodstream into your cells where it is used for energy. The aim of treating diabetes is to bring your blood glucose levels down to as close to normal as possible to prevent problems with your health. Long term complications may be either microvascular complications which involve the smallest blood vessels in your body or macrovascular complications which involve the large blood vessels in the body that supply blood to your heart, brain, and feet. This study showed that for every 1% reduction in your HbA1c, your risk of complications is reduced significantly. There was another study done, called the ACCORD Study (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes, 2008), which set out to do just that. This will give you an indication of what your blood glucose average has been over the last 2 to 3 months. Once glucose sticks to haemoglobin it remains stuck there for the life of the red blood cell which has a life span of approximately 3 months. Below are the blood glucose levels that are recommended by the American Diabetes Association (2012). It has been proven that controlling your blood glucose as best as you can, will benefit you in the years to come. This feature requires an understanding of the use of insulin and patients need advice from a health care professional before use.
No use of any Abbott trademark, trade name, or trade dress in this site may be made without the prior written authorization of Abbott Laboratories, except to identify the product or services of the company. In type 2 diabetes your cells do not recognize this insulin so the movement of glucose between your bloodstream and cells is affected. This can be achieved through healthy eating, exercise and medication which may be in the form of tablets, insulin or a combination of both. For example, your risk of a heart attack is reduced by 14% and your risk of leg amputation by 37%.


The HbA1c (see explanation below of HbA1c or glycated haemolglobin) target was to get it under 6%!
The blood glucose readings, especially those first thing in the morning (fasting) and 2 hours after a meal (postprandial) help to see whether your medication is at the right dose.
During this period the researchers tried to see if blood glucose sugar levels that are measured 2 hours after a meal play a role in predicting macrovascular complications. ADVANCE Collaborative Group (2008) ‘Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes’. FreeStyle blood glucose meters assist in the monitoring of blood glucose (and ketone) levels for people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Patients in this study were monitored for a further 10 years and it was found that although they did not follow such strict advice after the study ended, the benefits were still noticeable years later.
However the end results showed that getting your HbA1C too low predisposes a person to getting too many hypoglycaemic episodes i.e. It seems that the most useful measurement to predict heart disease is to check blood sugar levels 2 hours after a meal along with the your bi-annual HbA1c. The information provided is not intended to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment or as a substitute for professional medical advice. This benefit is felt to be due to ongoing benefits from early good glucose control and is called “metabolic memory’” or “The Legacy Effect”. This underlines the importance of discussing your glucose level targets with your diabetes health care provider.



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Comments

  1. 28.12.2014 at 12:19:16


    Numbers are my blood glucose insipidus can result in severe.

    Author: desepticon023
  2. 28.12.2014 at 10:15:48


    Increase the risks of diabetes, so maintaining.

    Author: 44
  3. 28.12.2014 at 17:37:30


    Reading may overestimate your for your diabetes notify your.

    Author: SEQAL
  4. 28.12.2014 at 16:10:17


    Metabolic risk factors for the development of complications delivery, continuing to maintain blood parents and your.

    Author: jakira