The Lewis Structure of D-Glucose consists of 6 carbon elements, 6 hydrogen elements, and 12 hydrogen elements.
Before we dive into how to lower the caloric content of wine as reported to the 37th World Congress of Vine and Wine (yes, that’s a real thing, and yes, I want to go next year) let's start with the basics.
Fermentation is a natural biochemical process that actually occurs in some cells in your body. There is much research concerning the best type of yeast to use during the fermentation process. Disclaimer: I want to be clear that I am not certain how the RHONY star keeps the calories in her brand of wine down.
Fermentation doesn’t just produce alcohol and gasses, it also produces energy in this reaction. These are just some ways in which you can change the alcohol content (subsequently caloric content) and also alter the flavor profile of wines. In a recent episode of the series the New York socialites enjoy a boozy brunch at Frankel’s home. Ethanol is the chemical name for the type of alcohol found in wine and other alcoholic beverages. Researchers identified some strains of yeast that ferment with lower alcohol concentration.
There are several different kinds of alcohols, but the general chemical definition of an alcohol is any organic compound whose hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.In the case of wine, ethanol is produced when yeast take the sugar from grapes and converts it to alcohol in a biochemical process called fermentation.

When cells are in an oxygen-lacking environment, they must use the process of fermentation as a main route for energy production. Yeast can also be genetically modified  (yes, this would be a GMO) to become less efficient at the chemical fermentation process. Created in April 2011, the Skinnygirl cocktails and foods are one reason the NYC ladies stay lean. Grapes are about 80% water and 20% sugar, so the end product, the wine, is predominately water-based.
This can come by way of changing the genes that produce the substrates (beginning products) needed for fermentation to occur, for example.
Frankel’s brand makes not just low calorie food, but also low calorie wine and cocktails. As I sipped my glass of full calorie chardonnay I asked myself: how do you reduce the caloric content in in wine?
Remember that alcohol is a chemical that your body can break down into other products or remove from your system as waste.In addition to the ethanol and water, wine contains small amounts of glycerin, pectin, acid, and polyphenols. In this way, the genes of the yeast populations are modified through a human selection process- a sort of evolutionary engineering. From changing the time grapes are harvested, to altering fermentation, or post-processing of the fermented wine, all these modifications also change the flavor of the final product along with its alcohol content. Yeast can be selected for traits such as their ability to move carbons through the fermentation pathway or their efficiency of sending the carbons to alternative pathways.

Since fermentation converts the glucose sugar of grapes into the final products of ethanol and carbon dioxide, the amount of glucose starting product in the grape is related to the amount of end product, the alcohol.
Alternatively, yeast can be cultured in special "off-normal" conditions over a long period of time. Fermentation is optimal in certain conditions (the amount of oxygen and the temperature) so the chemical reaction is affected. Because this reaction has been reduced from optical efficiency, the resulting alcohol content is lower. By lowering the alcohol content of a beverage, you will consequently reduce the calories in the drink. All of the processes described above not only change the alcohol content of wine, but also the flavor.
Now that I know more about the alcohol content in my wine I can focus on getting into the next World Congress of Vine and Wine!

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