The HbA1c test (also called glycosylated haemoglobin level) is a laboratory blood test which measures your average blood glucose over the previous weeks and gives an indication of your longer-term blood glucose control.
Most diabetes specialists and GPs have a lot of confidence in this test and will use it to help show people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes how they are going with their blood glucose management.
When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin.  The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time. Because red blood cells in the human body survive for 8-12 weeks before renewal, measuring glycated haemoglobin (or HbA1c) can be used to reflect average blood glucose levels over that duration, providing a useful longer-term gauge of blood glucose control.  If your blood sugar levels have been high in recent weeks, your HbA1c will also be greater.
A major study, the UK Prospective Diabetes (UKPDS) Study* published in 2000, managed to quantify many of the benefits of reducing a high HbA1c level by just 1%.
If you are pre-diabetic or diabetic, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose helps you understand how certain foods or food combinations effect your blood glucose level – for the better or worse.
If you are struggling with pre-diabetes or diabetes and you would like information about how to manage your blood glucose and HbA1c levels within optimal range, make an appointment to see me and we can work together to start you on your journey to wellness with Real Food and healthy lifestyle choices. Breast Cancer is not, in most cases, fast moving or aggressive.  There are better ways than mammograms to monitor the health of your breasts and things you can do to improve or maintain healthy breast tissues. If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer, take a breath - you have time to consider all your options.
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Diabetes is a disease caused by the absolute (lack of production) or relative (increased resistance at the tissues of the body) to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. The dose of insulin required for individual patients depend on the type of diabetes, height, weight, blood glucose level, insulin resistance and comorbidities (diseases the patients are suffering apart from diabetes). There are different methods of delivery such as jet injectors, infusion pumps, and bolus injections; here injecting insulin using a syringe or insulin pen is the commonest method. Another method of delivering insulin is Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) delivered via insulin pump using rapid acting insulin analogs; the advantage of this is that it allows great life style flexibility but here patient must be strongly motivated and requires skilled professionals. Adverse effects of insulin therapy are,· Hypoglycemia (sudden reduction in the levels of blood glucose)· Weight gain· Lypodystrophy (abnormal distribution of fat in a disfiguring manner)· Antibody formation· Allergy· Insulin odemaIn spite of all the complications and the trouble of injecting everyday, insulin is the most physiological way of treating diabetes mellitus. The test is used as a regular monitoring tool if you have been diagnosed with diabetes. It may also be used as one of several screening measures in the general population to look for elevated blood glucose levels, which are suggestive of diabetes. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKDPS 35): prospective observational study. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. Lack of insulin secretion or its action in the target tissue is the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and replacement of insulin as a drug is one of the commonest and standard treatments of diabetes.
This leads to abnormally high levels of blood glucose accompanied by excessive passage of urine, excessive thirst and loss of weight.
The healthcare professionals should be well aware of the injection technique in order to educate the patients and the care givers.1.
The response to treatment is assessed by measuring glycosylated haemoglobin called HBA1C which is high in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.


Red blood cells have a lifespan of about six weeks and so the test gives a good indication of what your overall blood glucose levels have been throughout that time. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. As the high levels of bllod sugar can leads to many complications as described in another article by the author, it is important to control the level of blood sugar in the physiological range. The best method which is mostly physiological is called Basal-Bolus regimen where rapid acting or short acting insulin is given half an hour before meals and give intermediate or long-acting insulin is given in the evening at bedtime.What is the correct technique of injecting insulin?
Area of skin in which about 1 inch of subcutaneous fat can be pinched between two fingers should be chosen2.
Insulin becomes second only to the drug Metformin among all the treatment modalities in reducing HBA1C. Inhalational insulin is an alternative to monomeric insulin which carries greater patient satisfaction and convenience. However, the problem is here that the absorption is inefficient and therefore requires 10 fold higher doses of insulin compared to other standard routes of administration.What are the side effects of insulin?
Insulin absorbed fastest from the abdominal wall, slowest from leg & buttock, intermediate from arm6. Absorption varies inversely with subcutaneous fat thickness so pre-meal regular should be injected to abdominal wall and intermediate acting to leg or buttockWhat are the emerging methods of insulin delivery?



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