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High blood sugar or hyperglycemia is a common problem which can sometimes be difficult for the diabetics to control and reduce. If the sugar level for a longer period is constantly elevated, you may feel symptoms such as confusion, lethargy and mood swings. Recent Commentsmarijuana oil benefits on The Importance of Drinking Rather Than Smoking CannabisHealthy Natalie on Natural Botox And Filler For Instant Effect!
Are you considering getting an insulin pump therapy as a way to treat type-1 Diabetes and insulin-dependent type 2 Diabetes?
Well, more and more people are wearing insulin pumps to control blood glucose levels and showing excellent results.
One needs to have clear understanding on pros and cons of insulin pump therapy before opting for it.
You may possibly be able to level out the body’s frequent blood glucose swings because you receive constant low dosage of insulin. Your risk of getting infection increases if you do not change the insertion site of cannula for every 2-3 days. You can be at greater risk of developing diabetes ketoacidosis as the pump uses rapid-acting insulin. Wearing an insulin pump at all times can bother an individual as it causes weight gain or results in skin infection. Glycogen is the major storage carbohydrate in animals, corresponding to starch in plants; it is a branched polymer of ?-D-glucose.
Liver glycogen helps to maintain blood glucose level: Liver glycogen functions to store and export glucose to maintain blood glucose level between meals.
Although muscle glycogen doesn’t yield free glucose (as muscle lacks Glucose-6-phosphatase), pyruvate formed by glycolysis in muscle can undergo transamination to alanine, which is exported from muscle and used for gluconeogenesis in liver.


Glucose-6-phosphate is converted into glucose-1-phosphate by the action of Phosphoglucomutase, passing through an obligatory intermediate step of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate. Glucose-1-phosphate is converted into UDP-glucose by the action of Uridyl Transferase (also called UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and pyrophosphate is formed, which is hydrolyzed by pyrophosphatase into 2 molecules of Pi. Glucose molecules are assembled in a chain by glycogen synthase, which must act on a pre-existing glycogen primer or glycogenin (small protein that forms the primer). Here, glycogen phosphorylase cleaves the bond at the 1 position by substitution of a phosphoryl group. The 2nd step involves the debranching enzyme that moves three remaining glucose units to another 1,4 end of glycogen. The 3rd and last stage converts G1P (glucose-1-phosphate) to G6P (glucose-6-phosphate) through the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Acid maltase or alpha-1,4 glucosidase is a lysosomal enzyme that continuously degrades a small quantity of glycogen. The control is carried out in such a way that glycogen synthesis is increased when substrate and energy levels are high. The hormones, through a complex series of reactions bring, about covalent modification : phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of enzyme proteins. Calcium binds to calmodulin (calcium modulating protein) and directly activates phosphorylase kinase without the involvement of cAPM-dependent protein kinase. The metabolic defect concerned with the glycogen synthesis and degradation are collectively referred to as glycogen storage diseases. Symptoms of high blood sugar levels significantly depend on how high blood sugar levels is – mild, moderate and intense. Lutein Mask That Iron The Wrinkles Like Crazy!Elke on Natural Botox And Filler For Instant Effect!
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Glycogenesis: The synthesis of glycogen from glucose occuring in the cytosol in the presence of ATP, UTP and glucose is called glycogenesis.
The mechanism for joining glucose units is that glycogen synthase binds to UDPG, causing it to break down into an oxonium ion, also formed in glycogenolysis. Glycogenolysis: The degradation of stored glycogen in liver and muscle constitutes glyogenolysis.
It breaks down glucose polymer at ?-1-4 linkages until 4 linked glucoses are left on the branch.
The final action of the debranching enzyme is the hydrolysis of the glucose attached as a 1,6-branched mono residue, giving one free glucose molecule. On the other hand, glycogen breakdown is enhanced when glucose concentration and energy levels are low. Content (text, audio, video) on this website is only intended to provide general information to the reader and for academic purpose of medical students. Lutein Mask That Iron The Wrinkles Like Crazy!Healthy Natalie on Natural Botox And Filler For Instant Effect!
Due to more muscle mass, the quantity of glycogen in muscle (250gm) is about 3 times higher than that in the liver (75 gm). This oxonium ion can readily add to the 4-hydroxyl group of a glucosyl residue on the 4 end of the glycogen chain. Cell injury attracts macrophages that ingest the lipids becoming foamy macrophages and release toxic oxygen radicals which further injure the cells., Prerenal failure due to impaired renal blood flow, the growing plaque continues to build obstructing blood flow in the vessel decreased blood flow past the occlusion deprives areas of the body past it of nutrients,and oxygen, there is also decreased b-cell response to glucose along with an abnormal glucagon secretion.



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Comments

  1. 22.04.2016 at 15:51:35


    Which blood sugar levels drop a few hours.

    Author: Eshqim
  2. 22.04.2016 at 21:47:25


    Have used graphene to create similar patches.

    Author: BAKILI_QAQAS_KAYIFDA
  3. 22.04.2016 at 16:56:27


    With remission of diabetes and discontinuation of insulin therapy muscle.

    Author: BALveBIBER