A blood test is where a sample of blood is collected to check for certain conditions and diseases. Most blood tests do not require special preparation, although some (for example, blood glucose test) may require fasting for several hours beforehand.
The blood consists of 2 main elements: (1) a pale yellow liquid called plasma and (2) cells that float in this liquid including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. This tests the serum of the blood, that is the bit of the blood that remains behind after blood has clotted and the clot is removed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the measurement of how fast red blood cells separate and fall to the bottom of a test tube. A heart attack causes certain enzymes to slowly leak into your blood stream, and emergency room doctors will take a sample of your blood to check for these enzymes.
A blood test that checks for a tumor marker called CA 125 may be used to detect female cancers.
As part of any good prenatal care program, a pregnant woman will be offered a number of blood tests. Please Note: Information provided on this site is no substitute for professional medical help. A1c chart: understanding the ac1 test, A brief, yet informative article explaining the a1c test, the a1c chart and how they are used in diagnosing, managing and treating patients with diabetes.
A1c chart & calculator using the dcct formula, A1c chart has a1c to bs conversion using dcct formula.
American diabetes association – a true a1c chart, A1c measures the percentage of hemoglobin cells in your blood that have bonded with glucose molecules. A1c chart – diabetes community by diabetes hands, Josh, the chart should be used as a goal.
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This blood test, measuring the amount of glucose, is used to screen healthy people for early signs of diabetes during a routine physical exam. It is advised for pregnant women, people over age 50 and for those at high risk for diabetes.
You shouldn’t eat any food or drink anything other than water within eight hours of your test. Diagnosing diabetes enables the doctors and lab workers to detect and treat diabetes well before complications begin to occur [1]. The A1C test is used for detection of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes but does not diagnose type 1 or gestational diabetes. Diabetes, even though a common disorder which has been fairly widespread throughout the world, is a chronic condition with no definitive cure. The main aim in treating diabetes is to lower the blood sugar level without causing hypoglycemia or a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of blood sugar.
Prediabetes is the stage where one can control the blood sugar level from rising and prevent diabetes from occurring [2]. Type I Diabetes is treated with exercise, diabetic diet and external insulin administration. There are some extremely rare cases in which a transplantation of the pancreas is used in order to treat Type I Diabetes. While there may be many methods to help control the symptoms of diabetes, care must be taken not to lower the blood sugar levels abnormally and also to prevent other potential hazards [3]. Hypoglycemia or a low blood sugar level is also a complication associated with improper treatment of diabetes. Extremely high blood sugar levels can lead to a condition known as hyperglycemia and this can adversely affect the condition of a diabetic.
If any complications and symptoms are experienced by individuals, immediate medical attention needs to be provided at the earliest.
There are some alternative medication procedures and therapies which may prove to help in controlling the symptoms of diabetes. Since diabetes does not have a definitive cure, patients must learn to cope up with the disease and bring about healthy changes to diet and lifestyle in order to lead a close to normal life. A strong mental commitment to fight the disease is the first and foremost step that must be taken in order to beat the symptoms. Any excess weight should be shed off and regular physical activity is highly recommended to diabetics. Diabetics are also advised to always carry along with them a tag which mentions that they are diabetics who may require assistance in cases of emergencies [4].
Medical checkups, which involve not just the monitoring of the blood sugar levels, but also the checking of sensitive regions for any potential damage caused to the blood vessels and the nerve tissues, should be carried out on a frequent basis. Special attention should be given to the gums, the teeth, the feet and also the genital areas when diagnosed with diabetes. In case a person diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is a smoker, cessation of smoking must be done at the earliest [5]. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our [my_terms_of_service_and_privacy_policy]. Conclusion: These results indicate that levels of GGT were raised with increased waist girth, BMI, blood pressure TG and low HDL, all of these are the features of metabolic syndrome according to ATP III criteria.
The liver is a large, complex organ that is well designed for its central role in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Among the measures of abdominal obesity, high WC was defined as >90 cm in males and >80 cm in females. In this study 100 normal subjects were taken as control and their values of BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, blood sugar levels and blood pressure were compared with 47 type 2 diabetic patients. In Table-1 comparison of anthropometric measurements and blood pressure was done in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects. In Table-2 the comparison of lipid profile and liver enzymes was done between normal subjects and type 2 diabetics. In Table-3 Pearson correlation two tailed study the value of GGT and blood sugar levels and blood pressure values were compared between normal and in diabetics.
Figure is comparing the values of fasting blood sugar and random blood sugar with serum levels of GGT. This study was done with the purpose to identify the effects of raised blood sugar levels on liver enzymes. Our study is in total agreement with this study however we have excluded subjects with any history of alcohol.
Our results suggest that liver enzymes are closely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and that among these enzymes serum GGT is the most powerful risk indicator for developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
9.National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).
This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. ABCD sponsors treatment for those in need regardless of gender, race or creed, helping them to reach their full potential, to live life with dignity and to take their rightful place in their community.
ABCD works through local Palestinian partners, the Bethlehem Arab Society for Rehabilitation (BASR) based in Beit Jala, The Sheepfold in Beit Sahour and two UNWRA Refugee Camps in Jalazone and Nour Shams. Funding is constantly needed for new projects and to update and refurbish existing facilities. Abnormal levels could indicate many blood disorders including sickle cell anemia, anemia and thalassemia. Low levels indicate a blood clotting problem and high levels indicate too much clotting (thrombotic disorder). A fast rate (15 to 20 in one hour for women and 10 to 13 for men) is associated with a variety of conditions including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, anemia, arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. It is done to detect the presence of liver disorders, blood clotting problems and to monitor the progress of medications taken to lower the risk of blood clots forming (anticoagulants such as warfarin and heparin).


These tests are referred to as CK (creatine kinase), CKMB, Troponins and C-reactive protein test. When organs like the liver, pancreas or heart are damaged, some of their enzymes can leak into the blood. If the blood contains too much bilirubin it could indicate that too many red blood cells are being broken down (hemolytic anemia). This marker is present in about 85 percent of gynecological cancers including ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. People with liver disease or those taking diuretics (water pills) can have abnormal levels of electrolytes.
For example high levels of calcium could be a sign of cancer, hyperthyroidism, overactive parathyroid gland or sensitivity to vitamin D. Although high levels in the blood are not dangerous, they often occur in people with high risk factors for heart disease, such as hypertension, obesity and high cholesterol levels. These may be done to test for the presence of STDs and rubella (both of which could be harmful to the unborn). He or she will discuss steps you can take to lower your glucose levels and whether or not medication is necessary.
It also helps to detect and cure prediabetes, which indicates greater risk of developing diabetes in future. OGTT measures blood sugar after 8 hours of fasting and 2 hours after the intake of a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water. It is a blood test that determines the average blood glucose levels of a person over past 3 months but does not detect daily fluctuations.
It is the most common test used for the diagnosis of diabetes as it is more convenient than other tests like OGTT besides being less expensive.
Even the non-chronic types of diabetes, namely prediabetes and Gestational Diabetes leave individuals at a risk of developing Type II Diabetes in the future.
Whatever the type of diabetes may be and whatever treatment plan is being adhered to, care must be taken that the blood sugar levels are monitored on a frequent and consistent basis.
This can be treated with adequate amounts of exercise followed in conjunction with a diabetic diet. Insulin may be injected intravenously or an insulin pump may be used to administer the dose. This is only carried out if some other organ of the body has also failed and requires transplantation such as the kidneys. In case these measures prove to fail in controlling the disease, oral hypoglycemic drugs such as metformin, prandin, glimepiride and pioglitazone are used. People who have a BMI greater than 35 may see improvements in conditions by undergoing this type of surgery. Only 15% of women with gestational diabetes need medications like oral hypoglycemics or sometimes insulin analogues. Weight reduction and exercise increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin, thus helping to control blood sugar elevations.
Ketones are toxic produces of the body when it breaks down fat for energy rather than using glucose.
This is likely to happen if, during the course of treatment, a meal is skipped or higher than normal physical activity is undergone.
The signs and symptoms of the condition include the frequent need to urinate, dehydration and dryness, fatigue and blurred vision and the condition requires adjustments made to both the dietary plan as well as the medications used for treating diabetes. This condition is extremely serious and is known as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome and is characterized by the sugar present in the blood to turn thick and syrupy. These conditions can potentially be life-threatening and must be controlled at the earliest before too much damage has been inducted. While there are some such therapies, none of them are clinically proven and there is no established or agreed benefit upon resorting to these therapies. Diabetics must take care to adhere to a strict treatment plan which is recommended and also approved. This means that the diabetic individual will require to actively take measures through all aspects of life and to also seek proper medical treatment. Diabetic individuals are urged to find out as much about the disease as possible, its methods of containment and also the various complications that may be associated with diabetes. This highly increases the sensitivity of the body to insulin and also makes sure that the cells of the body can absorb sugar more effectively. A glucagon kit should also be carried along at all times and the close friends and family of a diabetic should learn how to properly administer insulin in cases of emergencies.
Diabetics are more prone to develop infections and the healing process is also slow in diabetics.
These regions of the body are much more prone to infections than other parts and medical attention needs to be provided at the earliest in case of any problems.
Not only may the alcohol and the associated mixing drinks upset the diabetic diet, but excess of alcohol can prove to cause complications in diabetics. Use of tobacco greatly increases the risks of complications and may also lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics.
This stress will always need to be effectively managed as there is already enough abnormal pressure on the delicate blood vessels and the nerves of a diabetic. We excluded patients with acute or chronic liver, kidney and heart disease, history of alcohol addiction, patients taking drugs affecting liver enzymes, patients suffering from cancer, and pregnant women.
The table is showing significantly increased levels of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and decreased HDL among diabetic subjects.
The regression value "r" in diabetic was significant with FBS, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The fasting and random blood sugar levels were divided into normal and high according to WHO criteria. In the present study comparison of high sugar levels was done with BMI, waist hip ratio, liver enzymes, lipid profile and blood pressure. Previous study18 on patients with type 2 diabetes after a three year follow-up period had showed that raised gamma GT was correlated with the central obesity, increased fasting glucose, Triglycerides, and blood pressure in both sexes. Our results are consistent with those of previous studies8,20 and indicate that elevated serum GGT is associated with an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Genetic covariation between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
Liver enzymes as a predictor for incident diabetes in a Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with the metabolic syndrome.
Gammaglutamyltransferase is a predictor of incident diabetes and hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. The ESR is not a very specific test, even if you have a high rate, it does not necessarily mean anything is wrong with you. As spikes in blood sugar levels can occur in healthy people (due to stress and vitamin B1 deficiency for example), this test may need to be repeated several times.
If these enzymes are detected in a blood test it can signal disease of one of these organs. Or it may be a problem with the liver (a blockage in the bile duct for example) which interferes with the normal disposal process of bilirubin and causes it to accumulate in the blood (instead of being directed to the intestines for dumping). Some doctors also recommend an AFP test at about 16 weeks to check for signs of birth defects, and a blood glucose test at 28 weeks to check for signs of gestational diabetes in the mom.
Blood glucose may also be tested in emergencies to determine whether a low or high glucose level is responsible for unconsciousness.


The A1C test can be performed at any time of the day and doesn’t require fasting which makes it convenient for patients. This test requires measurement of blood glucose in a person after fasting for a minimum of 8 hours.
As such, the signs and symptoms of any type of diabetes must be taken seriously and the only possible methods of treatment include controlling these signs and symptoms and trying to make the bodily functions return to normal. Monitoring is the first step in determining the severity of diabetes and it is then followed up with deciding on the appropriate measures to be taken in order to control the condition. In some rare cases, oral medication may also be prescribed, especially if there has been a history of preeclampsia or Gestational Diabetes in the past. Active medical and scientific research is being done in order to come up with newer and more convenient methods of externally administering insulin to diabetics. However, this process may yield dangerous effects on the body and also results in higher chances of infections to internal organs. If oral medications are still insufficient, treatment with insulin or insulin analogues like insulin Lispro, insulin Glargin and insulin Aspart are considered useful. However, any female who has experienced an episode of Gestational Diabetes stands a risk of developing the condition again in subsequent pregnancies and may also develop prediabetes and Type II Diabetes in the future.
This condition is known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis and is accompanied with an extreme loss of appetite, a general feeling of weakness and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, stomach pains and also fever. This condition is characterized by a feeling of dizziness, sweating, jitters, extreme hunger, blurring of the vision and palpitation of the heart, confusion, faintness and even seizures.
It causes hallucinations, loss of vision, confusion and seizures and can also lead to death. If individuals are keen on seeking alternative medications and therapies, they should do so only after proper medical consultation.
Regular exercise should always be combined with a diabetic diet after taking consultation from healthcare providers or dieticians.
The recommended amount of alcohol to be consumed is not more than one drink for a woman and not more than two for a man. Cessation of smoking is not easy and often, special alternatives and other nicotine products are the starting point to quitting smoking. Plenty of sleep, meditation and relaxation are recommended to diabetics in order to keep stress levels in check. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.This website is for informational purposes only. The pearson regression analysis showed a positive relation with systolic, diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar. Prospective studies have found that high levels of hepatic enzymes including ALT6 and GGT7 are associated with later development of diabetes.
The table also compared the levels of liver enzymes between normal and type 2 diabetics and showed significant increase in GGT, SGPT, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase in diabetics. The table showed that as the levels of blood sugar were increased both in fasting and random conditions the levels of GGT were also raised. The significant correlation with GGT, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found with increase in blood sugar levels. In another study when results of GGT, FPG, and Triglycerides were compared,19 the concentrations of FPG and triglycerides markedly increased among the higher GGT categories. Thirteen and one-half years of folow up of the participants in a study of sweedish men born in 1913.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee.
For most blood tests however, a larger sample must be taken by needle from a vein in the arm or hand.
It usually helps to avoid looking at the needle, the sight of your own blood may make you feel anxious and worsen the experience. For example, raised levels of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase can indicate disease of the liver or bile ducts. It the levels are very low it may be a sign of liver cirrhosis, over use of diuretics, vomiting or malnutrition.
Insulin cannot be administered orally as the enzymes present in the human stomach interfere with the functioning of insulin. As such, care and treatment procedures will need to be continued throughout the life of the diabetic. It is recommended that diabetics have more of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in the diet. At the same time, ultrasonographic and pathological series have shown that excess deposition of fat in liver, usually termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has strong cross-sectional associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.8 The aim of the present study is to measure the levels of liver enzymes among normal subjects and then compare them in known type 2 diabetic subjects.
The blood sugar level was analyzed by dividing them into normal and high sugar levels and then liver enzymes and lipid profile was compared with them using independent t test. Similar studies on the relationship between liver enzyme and diabetes in both sexes in general population12,13 have found higher levels of gamma GT. Similarly, the frequency of FPG and hypertriglyceridemia increased steadily with levels of GGT. In addition, certain mechanisms related to oxidative stress might play a role because cellular GGT has a central role in glutathione homeostasis by initiating the breakdown of extracellular glutathione, a critical antioxidant defense for the cell.1 Increases in serum GGT activity may be a response to oxidative stress, making increased transport of glutathione into cells. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Your doctor may perform a blood test as part of a routine checkup, or it may be done to test for something specific. First the skin is wiped with an antiseptic and an elastic band called a tourniquet is placed around the upper arm.
All participants were asked to fast at least 12 hours and to avoid heavy physical activity for at least 2 hours before the examination. Pearson correlation 2 tailed was done with GGT and blood sugar levels and with GGT and blood pressure. A significant positive associations of GGT and ALT with diabetes were seen with, BMI, waist hip ratio, and alcohol consumption. A diabetic diet often involves a calorie count which is supposed to be strictly adhered to.
Study on diabetic individuals and patients of metabolic syndrome14 shows that the values of waist circumference, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, fasting glucose, AST, ALT, fasting insulin increased according to the increase level of serum GGT in both genders. Height was measured in standing position without shoes while the shoulder was in a normal position.
All participants went through a clinical examination with measurement of; resting blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumference. Recent studies on diabetic middle aged men and women15-17 have showed increased levels of GGT when compared with age, ALT, AST, alcohol consumption, and BMI. It is therefore strongly suggested that GGT is advised in patients who are suspected to develop metabolic syndrome.
When the needle is taken out, a cotton swab is applied to the puncture wound for a few minutes until the blood has stopped leaking. Daily physical activity, addiction history, history of previous illnesses and types of medication use was also recorded. GGT was also correlated with insulin resistance-markers, waist-circumference, Triglycerides, Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Although the study does not elaborate mechanism of how serum GGT is associated with a higher risk of diabetes and how obesity may modify or strengthen this associations but their significance is certainly highlighted.



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