How would you like to get rid of unsightly body fat, maintain a trim figure and address symptoms that cause diabetes – without having to go on a radical, demanding diet or suffer the side-effects of drugs? Celergen, the world’s only Swiss Marine oral cell therapy supplement, can help you avoid unhealthy body fat accumulation, restoring your normal body weight naturally.
Banish Unsightly FatPeptide N – lowers dietary GI, slowing glucose entry into blood after meals and preventing unhealthy fat storage in the body. Maintain a Healthy WeightPeptide N – supplementation suppresses appetite and promotes satiety via its actions on 2 metabolic hormones. Alleviate Diabetic SymptomsPeptide N – blunts blood glucose and insulin peaks, alleviating symptoms of type II diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases.
Celergen, the world’s only Swiss Marine oral cell therapy supplement, is proven to prevent unhealthy body fat accumulation, which aids in maintaining a healthy body weight and reduces the risk of obesity, whilst alleviating symptoms of type II diabetes. That’s because one of Celergen’s ingredients is a marine protein hydrolysate known as Peptide N, proven to reduce dietary glycemic index or GI. Glucose that enters blood from food is used for energy production in the body’s cells, while excess glucose is transformed into fat and stored for later use. Blood samples were taken from each volunteer to assess levels of glucose, insulin and other biomarkers in the fasting state and 7 times after each meal, for up to 240 minutes. This study found that Peptide N supplementation resulted in a significantly blunted blood glucose response than with fish fillet protein or soy protein isolate. I’ve read in dozens of articles across the internet that reactive hypoglycemia is one of the first signs of diabetes. In other words, if you have true reactive hypoglycemia (with symptoms appearing at 2-3 hours), the statistics say you are more likely to have a lower risk of diabetes. In order to illustrate why it isn’t easy to give a diagnosis for any particular disease, here is a graph of two patients who have just had a Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT). Blood glucose levels alone tell you practically nothing about your possible prediabetic status!
It’s very interesting because it explains how doctors and diabetic associations have it all wrong about diabetes risk. There are economical interests as to why the Diabetic Association don’t change their criteria for diabetes diagnosis and risk. Considering this data it seems that many people with Reactive Hypoglycemia are indeed at risk for diabetes, because they have an impaired glucose tolerance.
If you are just discovering your RH – please understand that it takes time for the carbo-cravings to subside. I have not found a reason to avoid meat, but do best when I also include a sizable amount of vegetables. Biochemistry Online by Henry Jakubowski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. 2008 Guidelines2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines - Full guidelines2008 clinical Practice Guidelines - Executive Summary2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines PowerPoint Presentations20132013 Clinical Practice Guidelines are coming! Discuss various statistics regarding diabetes mellitus, including its prevalence in the United States. Differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including pathogenesis and prevalence for each type. List and explain the various tests and methodologies used for the identification of diabetes. Discuss various features of hemoglobin A1c and other glycated proteins, including fructosamine and glycoalbumin and their use in the detection of diabetes. Explain long-term monitoring of diabetes mellitus, including the use of estimated average glucose.
Although simply defined on the basis of hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus today is known to be a highly heterogeneous disease. In the past, the diagnosis of diabetes was based on either fasting plasma glucose or two-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose [75 g] tolerance test (OGTT).
The glycation of hemoglobin occurs at several amino acid residues and, as a result, several adducts of hemoglobin A (HbA) and various sugars are formed by the nonenzymatic post-translational glycation process. Various methods for the measurement of HbA1c have been described and reviewed.6 These methods can be classified in two major categories.
Because of their ability to process a large number of samples and their superior precision, automated HPLC and automated immunoassays are among the most widely used methods.
Besides the standardization of various methods, one may also be aware of the clinical situations in which HbA1c may not provide an accurate estimation of glycemic control. Several assays designed to measure glycated serum proteins (fructosamine and GA) have been described. Despite these limitations, measuring fructosamine or GA provides some advantages over measuring glycohemoglobin A1c as they are not affected by RBC life span, and the glycated protein levels respond more quickly to changes in glycemic control than glycohemoglobin A1c. The effective clinical management of diabetes requires accurate measurement and monitoring of blood glucose levels.
Several studies have explored the relationship between HbA1c and chronic glycemia and have supported the association of HbA1c with average glucose levels over the preceding five to 12 weeks.17 These studies have relied on infrequent measures of capillary glucose levels, calling into question the validity of their assessment of chronic glycemia. Recently, HbA1c has been incorporated into diabetes diagnosis, and is recommended by the International Expert Committee based on advances in instrumentation and standardization that make it an accurate and precise marker.
International expert committee report on the role of the A1c assay in the diagnosis of diabetes.
It also alleviates symptoms of type II diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases without the need for demanding diets or harmful drugs. Foods with high GI cause high and prolonged peaks of blood glucose and insulin levels, while foods with relatively low GI cause smaller peaks and fluctuations in blood glucose and insulin levels.

Each volunteer consumed these proteins in random order, always as part of composite meals of similar macronutrient composition with a 1-week gap between each meal. In other clinical studies, Peptide N has been shown to reduce appetite and promote satiety via its actions on metabolic hormones. As a mathematician who teaches statistics classes at the college level, I have a pretty good idea. The patient with the red line is overweight (with most of her fat around the hips and thighs).
A Hyperglucidic Breakfast Test is the only test that will be able to tell you if you have a high sensitivity to insulin (and therefore a lower statistical risk of diabetes) or a low sensitivity to insulin (and an increased statistical risk for diabetes). It seems that a high fasting blood glucose is not even necessary to be diabetic and that it is the worse predictor of diabetes. Reactive Hypoglycemia when connected with diabetes can be understood as resistant phase 1 insulin but excessive phase 2 insulin, whereas diabetes is resistant phase 1 insulin but unadequate phase 2 insulin. Sitting on the couch, eating that litre of Oreo Cookie ice cream (yes, I remember the carbo-munchies!) will lead you to diabetes just as fast as the non-RH crowd.
I do better with rice, but even after 20 years I only consume a few tablespoonfuls with my meal.
Recently, the International Expert Committee (2009) and the ADA Clinical Practice Guidelines (just published in 2013) recommended the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to diagnose diabetes.2-3 This article will review the current state of the laboratory testing with special focus on the role of  HbA1c and other emerging glycated protein biomarkers, including fructosamine and glycated albumin (GA), in the diagnosis and long-term monitoring of diabetes.
For decades the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) was made on the basis of an elevated fasting glucose level. Furthermore, in spite of standardization, many factors, including noncompliance for fasting and inability to tolerate the glucose load, among many other factors, influence the final test outcome. Glycemic biomarkers are important tools to monitor glycemic control.5 Measurement of glycated proteins, primarily HbA1c, has been widely used for routine long-term monitoring of glucose control and as a measure of risk for the development of diabetes complications.
Hemoglobin A1c was first discovered in 1969 as an abnormal hemoglobin fraction in blood from diabetes patients. This process involves the formation of a labile Schiff base intermediate followed by the Amadori rearrangement.
One category is based on separation and detection of HbA1c on the basis of charge differences and includes ion-exchange chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and agar gel electrophoresis. Glycation of HbA1c not only depends on average glycemia but also on the rate of production or destruction of RBCs.
Like glycohemoglobin, glucose molecules are joined to protein molecules through a nonenzymatic glycation mechanism to form stable ketoamines termed fructosamine. However, these assays are currently used only to complement glycohemoglobin A1c assays to manage diabetic patients when the detection of short-term metabolic changes is required. Traditionally, plasma glucose has been the lab test used for monitoring the patient with diabetes. More recently, an international multicenter study examined the relationship between average glucose, as assessed with a combination of continuous glucose monitoring and frequent finger-stick capillary glucose testing and HbA1c levels over time, and demonstrated a close relationship between the two. Currently HbA1c is widely used as a glycemic marker for long-term monitoring of diabetes, as it provides valuable information about the degree of glucose control during the previous eight to 12 weeks. Repeatability of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.
Effects of hemoglobin variants and chemically modified derivatives on assays for glycohemoglobin.
Defining the relationship between plasma glucose and HbA1c in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Second, frequent sharp, prolonged peaks of blood glucose and insulin (from high GI foods) are known to increase risk for insulin resistance and type II diabetes. According to many prominent researchers (including Achim Starke, MD and Jean-Frederic Brun), it does not. Giving a patient a diagnosis of reactive hypoglycemia (or prediabetes) involves looking at a few numbers, analyzing those numbers, and coming up with a diagnosis for the patient. Another 20% said she had a 1% chance, and an incredible 60% got it wrong and said she had an 81 or 90 percent chance of having cancer! The red patient looks borderline, but the GTT cannot be used to accurately diagnose reactive hypoglycemia (to find out why, see my article on tests for reactive hypoglycemia). It seems that fasting blood glucose as low as 95 are already sign of impaired glucose metabolism. There are many diabetics in my family and none of them have diabetes markers: they are all thin, with no large waist and with low blood pressure. However there’s other literature that suggests such a low score would indicate further testing to find out the cause. It took me a good 12-18 months for the cravings to fully subside, but eating a diet containing a balance of protein (I am not vegetarian), fat, and (after a couple of months) very complex carbohydrates worked for me.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency due to autoimmunity leading to ?-cell destruction and can be identified by serological markers of autoimmunity (islet cell autoantibodies). The ADA proposes that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) should be measured in all asymptomatic people ?45 years of age and screening should be considered at a younger age in individuals at increased risk for diabetes. Based on current recommendations from the National Diabetes Data Group, the OGTT must be done after three days on a diet containing a minimum of 150 g of carbohydrates per day. The test accurately assesses the mean blood glucose level during the preceding two to three months; therefore, it complements the more traditional measures of glucose control (blood or urine glucose testing). It was later shown that glucose binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, and the term “glycohemoglobin” is applied to a number of chemically distinct hemoglobin components that are generated when glucose binds to hemoglobin.
The reaction is slow, continuous, and irreversible, and the reaction rate depends on the ambient glucose concentration.

There is no convincing data to show that one method is superior to the other, as practically all commercial methods are standardized to a common reference standard. Findings from the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial demonstrate that maintaining blood glucose close to normal reduces diabetes complications.17 This study compared the standard versus intensive blood glucose control on the complications of diabetes. It is also being used as a primary treatment target, as it has been shown to have close association with diabetes complications.
However, it should be reiterated that there are some limitations, and HbA1c may not provide accurate information in certain clinical situations that affect RBC life span—for example, certain hemoglobulinopathies (hemoglobin S, C, or E), anemia, and renal dysfunction.
On the other hand, a gradual release of blood glucose (from low GI foods) does not affect this risk and also delays hunger pangs. Unfortunately, physicians frequently misread health statistics, and do not know the probability that someone has a particular disease given the results from a screening test.
Additionally, the red patient has excess body fat around her hips, which actually protects from diabetes! It seems that a reading above 145 at any moment in the glucose tolerance test is the best predictor of diabetes. My understanding was that RH+weight gain put more of a strain on the pancreas, resulting in a higher chance of diabetes. The three-to-five hour oral glucose tolerance test, once the gold standard for diagnosing diabetes, is currently not recommended either by the ADA or the International Expert Committee.2-3 However, both the ADA and International Expert Committee continue to recommend use of the two-hour oral glucose challenge test, especially in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
The clinical utility of insulin measurement is limited, primarily because when fasting glucose is elevated, ?-cell responsiveness decreases, and when the fasting glucose level is normal, late hyperinsulinism may occur in type 2 diabetes or in the early phase of type 1 diabetes.
In addition to hemoglobin, other proteins in blood can also be glycated, and glycated proteins such as fructosamine and glycoalbumin (GA) can also be measured and used as an estimation of glucose control.5 Today the use of HbA1c is also recommended by the ADA and other organizations for diabetes screening and diagnosis. Minor components of HbA were first recognized because of the differences in their electrical charges and were called “fast hemoglobin” as they migrated at a faster rate than an entire HbA molecule when placed in an electrical field. Albumin is the most abundant serum protein, and it contains multiple lysine residues, all of which can be glycated.
There are clinical situations in which fructosamine or GA should not be used, such as for thyroid disease (as in thyrotoxic or hypothyroid patients in whom protein turnover is increased or decreased).
Now HbA1c levels can be expressed and reported as eAG for most patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, its value can be translated into eAG values, providing valuable information to clinicians in monitoring patients with diabetes.
If a discrepancy between blood glucose and HbA1c is observed, one must consider the measurement of extracellular glycated proteins (fructosamine or GA), as these are not affected by RBC life span or iron status. Finally, Peptide N has been shown to reduce appetite and promote satiety via its actions on metabolic hormones. That’s according to a report by the journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest published in US News. Today, diabetes-associated complications remain the leading cause of heart disease- or stroke-related deaths and are associated with long-term damage including the failure of organs such as eyes and kidneys. Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and lack of compensatory insulin secretory response. However, it has some limitations, indicating the need for the use of other glycated protein biomarkers. Also, HbA1c levels can be false high in situations that increase the production of RBCs, as in patients with chronic kidney disease who receive erythropoietin for anemia or in patients who receive a blood transfusion.11 In brief, HbA1c levels are shown to be positively associated with hemoglobin levels and are negatively associated with erythropoietin dose. Levels are also influenced by low albumin levels, as seen in patients with protein-losing enteropathy, nephritic syndrome, or liver failure.
Today, use of HbA1c is accepted as a long-term monitoring tool for the management of diabetic patients and is used in conjunction with plasma or finger-stick glucose testing.
The calculated eAG level gives healthcare providers a more useful index of chronic glycemia. However, their relationship to average glucose and their prognostic value to diabetes complications are not clear, as in the case of HbA1c. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent and accounts for 90% to 95% of all diabetes cases. The most important HbA component in diabetes is HbA1c, which has glucose attached at the N-terminal-amino groups of both ? chains of hemoglobin.
Just like glycohemoglobin, fructosamine and GA measurements serve as an index of the mean concentration of glucose in the blood during the preceding several weeks. Portable glucose meters are routinely used either in physician offices or by patients at home. However, because of rapid turnover of serum proteins compared to hemoglobin, the fructosamine and GA levels reflect glucose control over a shorter period of two to three weeks rather than six to 10 weeks for glycohemoglobin. The current recommendation, therefore, is to normalize fructosamine results to a given serum albumin or total protein concentration.
Day-to-day management as guided by self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients with the use of glucose meters is a common practice today. Also, with a colorimetric analysis, bilirubin, hemolysis, and lipemia will likely interfere in the measurement.

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