Glucose tolerance tests help to diagnose type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance - a condition that may lead to diabetes. Patients who have current or treated head and neck cancers have potentially difficult airways. Is your Diabetic Heart Killing you softly?Get to know about Diabetes Heart Failure link to more severe complications.
Toward the bottom of this page is a practice exam, almost the same as what you will see when you come to the campus to take the on-campus exam. The ear thermometer (on the right) doesn't contact the ear drum, so it is measuring the amount of infrared light emitting from the ear. This digital thermometer measures the room temperature and can take readings of the ear or forehead.
The ear and forehead measure the amount of infrared light (heat radiation) coming from the ear drum or the skin. I've seen infrared based thermometers like in the picture used to measure the temperature of a wide variety of items at a distance. The science behind these devices is the use of an LED light and a photodiode (a light detector) that looks at the level of two forms of hemoglobin. Because of the heart beat, the level of hemoglobin in capillaries in the fingers are expanding and contracting with each heart beat. Besides useful for people who have breathing problems, these are being used by pilots and mountain climbers who are at altitudes where oxygen levels are low and monitoring their oxygen saturation would be wise.
When a nurses takes someone's pulse, they pump up the cuff to the point where they can't hear the pulse. The low reading is called the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is as rest.
You may be surprised that there is a blood pressure cuff that uses an iPhone for the digital readout and storage.
The science behind these modern blood glucose (sugar) meters is to draw in a set amount of blood.
I was surprised to see a home test for A1C because I heard doctors describe it as a specialized test. I couldn't find out exactly how these A1C test strips and meter work, but I imagine it's similar to the way the blood sugar test strips and meter work. Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can indicate a kidney disease or some other serious condition.
Ketones in the urine (ketonuria) indicate the body is having trouble using sugar for energy, so it's using fat and proteins instead.
Blood in urine (hematuria) gives people some anxiety but isn't always a reason for concern. Another way the density of urine is determined is by measuring how much it bends light (refracts light). When I worked at the Phoenix Crime lab back in the 70's, the breathalyzer available at that time used a solution of sulfuric acid and a salt called potassium dichromate. I think the coolest (but not the cheapest) personal medical device is the portable ultrasound imaging machine. What sensor in the left thermometer is responsible for detecting the temperature and name one of its ingredients?
Answer: Percent (%) that hemoglobin is saturated (S) with oxygen (O2) in a peripheral (p) part of the body (for example, fingers).
The below chart is from a urine test strip that measures the concentration of five different substances. If a person has a high reading for ketones, their urine (and breath) is likely to smell like what? The home pregnancy test will measure the presence of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. Answer: A band at the T region is positive indication of the hormone and therefore indicates the one tested is pregnant. Answer: It means the test is complete and one should then look to see if a band is at the T region. Answer: Cocaine, amphetamine, THC (marijuana), opiates like opium, morphine and heroin, and PCP. THC is tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the psychoactive chemical in the cannabis plant (marijuana). Unlike the pregnancy test, a band of color showing up at the T region on a drug test indicates what?
Answer: Methamphetamine is the same as amphetamine but methamphetamine has an extra methyl group on it.
When ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is completely oxidized (burned) in a fuel cell, 12 electrons are produced as electrical current for each molecule of ethanol. On the exam, you might be asked to balanced one or two of the compounds in the equation, but not the whole equation. As the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, the potassium dichromate gets converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
The initial color of the solution is yellow.  What is responsible for the yellow color? After the alcohol is turned into acetic acid, the solution is dark green.  What is responsible for that color? Let's say you were trapped in a mine and you took 1.2 liters of water and did electrolysis on it to get some oxygen, how many grams of oxygen would you get?
Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the weight of water? Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the number of atoms in water?
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GE and the GE logo are trademarks of General Electric Company and are used under license by Bionime Corporation, NO.
What tests are suggested for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?-->-->Generally, the following screening tests are recommended when diabetes mellitus is suspected in your dog: a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemistry profile, and a urinalysis.
We also offer free, instant access to over 1,500 related articles on your pet's health including preventive medicine, common and not so common diseases, and even informative case studies. Our new site is constantly being updated as we have introduced over 5,000 new products since January 2014. You should have received your account log in details already from us so once you log in to our site you will see all your favourite products and your own custom pricing. Note the marked right axis deviation, positive R wave in aVR and the lack of R wave progression in the chest leads (V1-6).
Alba, What would be the glucose reaction if I eat 2 scrambled eggs with 2 slices of salt-cured bacon and one slice of wholegrain toast? My motivation for doing it was partly because I think the average person should take advantage of the tools of science.


That's a good opportunity to monitor health needs at home and to learn more about the science behind these devices and tests. As electronics got more miniaturized and sophisticated, devices like these have gotten cheaper and common place. Even after she got over the pneumonia, she would often complain about not being able to breath. A pressure of 126 mmHg meant the person's heart beat had the pressure to raise the mercury in the tube to a height of 126 millimeters (about 5 inches).
The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to gauge how well a person has been managing his or her diabetes. The more the inner tube extends above the surface of the urine, the more dense the urine is. Anti-bodies are proteins created by the immune system to neutralize a foreign bacteria or virus, but also can attach itself to a specific protein. Dark green is after reacting with alcohol, which forms the dark green chromium(III) sulfate. The device is a personal or portable breathalyzer for measuring blood alcohol content in the blood. Even though it's called the personal ultrasound device, it's marketed more to doctors than the average consumer, but eventually it will be affordable to consumers. It means that it either adds oxygen atoms or it behaves like oxygen, which is to strip electrons away from things. The reading is the percent of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are coated with sugar (glucose).
Reduce false test results due to coding errors with the one-of-a-kind True Auto Coding feature. Palm-sized meter and big buttons combined with extra large, plastic reinforced test strips make handling easier than ever.
We encourage you to read any of these popular articles below or search our extensive pet health library.
With over 600 hospitals and 1,800 fully qualified, dedicated and compassionate veterinarians, we strive to give your pet the very best in medical care. This makes urine testing with Combur-TestA® strips the first step on the way to a reliable diagnosis in both clinics and practices.
If you need any help in finding what you're looking for please feel free to call the team using our customer Freephone number. Please contact us using our Freephone number our customer support team will be happy to discuss your requirements and arrange special pricing. This ECG should be repeated with the chest leads across the right side of the thorax and the limb leads switched over. Even in case youa€™re not a diabetic, you can perform this test to get to know if you have diabetes or not. The exam will ask questions about what you learn below plus there will be some questions from the online exam. As the temperature goes up, the electrical resistance comes down and that is converted to a temperature reading on the display. For this wrist version, you can see the wave which is the changing levels of hemoglobin from which the pulse can be calculated.
Using a blood pressure monitor like the one in the picture could have warned him that his blood pressure was too high despite the medication he was taking. These are often placed on the wrist but not always as accurate as those placed on the upper arm. The glucose in the blood reacts with an enzyme called glucose oxidase that pulls 2 hydrogen atoms off of the glucose molecule. The science behind it must be like the blood glucose strips and meters, but with an additional enzyme to identify the level of cholesterol. The computer chip in the devices translate the degrees the light bends into density (specific gravity) of the urine. As the alcohol got converted, the potassium dichromate got converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
Since people don't breath out hydrogen, then this test uses ethyl alcohol as the fuel to generate electricity.
Can't diabetes be diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar value alone?While confirmation of elevated fasting blood and urine glucose (sugar) values is absolutely essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, other screening tests may give us additional information regarding the severity of the diabetes, any conditions that may be contributing to the diabetes, and any complications related to the diabetic state.
Not good toward boarding, grooming, prescription and non-prescription medication, and retail items. However, after realizing how unsafe these were, you can't really find these in the stores anymore. One type of thermocouple is used by your gas water heater or gas oven to sense if the pilot light is on. In the hospital I noticed they used a device called the Pulse Oximeter to measure her pulse and oxygen levels.
That might have saved him the devastating effects from the stroke that he still suffers with. The test strip has a reagent (a chemical that reacts with some other chemical) that is specific for acetoacetic acid (a common ketone found in urine). This is the same kind of instrument used to measure the charge of a battery (by measuring sulfuric acid density).
Saliva is placed on the bottom indentations, and it travels up the strip to where the letters are. To make that conversion, an oxygen atom is added to the alcohol and a hydrogen atom is removed. However, when computers got smaller and less expensive, it was possible to own a computer and take advantage of everything it could do.
So the Breathalyzer had a light pass through the solution and the change in the color correlated with the amount of alcohol in the breath. It cost $200, but was very useful in discovering that her oxygen levels were truly very low. So we bought one of these automatic blood pressure monitors and checked his blood pressure about 3 times a day.
One problem density can indicate is an imbalance in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium ions. The electron flows down a wire and is measured with an electrical meter which shows up as a reading on the display.
To find the amount of alcohol in the blood, the machine multiplied by 2100 because the blood always has 2100 times more alcohol in it compared to the alcohol in the breath.
The metals that are selected to be sandwiched together to make these thermocouples can be chromium, nickel, copper, tungsten, and platinum.
This prompted the doctor to prescribe a portable oxygen concentrator that gave her pure oxygen when she needed it. Again specific antibodies for each drug is present in the strip along with a dye attached to the antibody.
The more alcohol present the more electron current will flow, which makes the reading go up.


As they are exposed to heat, they generate an electrical voltage, which can be converted to a reading on the display window. Blood cells live for 2 or 3 months, which is why this test gives you an idea of the blood sugar level over the last 2 or 3 months. Apparently the drug attaches to the antibody and dye and creates a group that is not carried along by the urine to the T area. This device is called a fuel cell because it is using alcohol as a fuel to generate electricity.
Only if the drug is NOT present does the urine carry the antibody and dye combination to the T area.
In the future, your cellphones will likely run off of drinking alcohol (ethyl alcohol) or methyl alcohol because alcohols can produce a lot more electricity for a longer period.
Again, if the antibody-dye combination forms a line at the T area, then that drug was not present.
In other words, your cellphone will stay charged for a month without adding more alcohol to it. Although most diabetic animals drink large quantities of water, they still lose a lot of body water because they produce such dilute urine. Dehydration can be indicated on the CBC by increases in the packed cell volume (PCV - the proportion of the blood volume that is actually occupied by red blood cells) as well as increases in the total red blood cell count. In some severe diabetic states, lysis (rupture) of red blood cells within the blood stream may occur because of the loss of electrolytes. A reduction in the PCV and red blood cell count will be seen on the CBC if this is occurring.
The presence of an infection may be indicated on the CBC by an increased number of white blood cells. What might the serum biochemistry profile indicate if my dog has diabetes mellitus?The serum biochemistry profile is performed on a separate blood sample from which the serum (the liquid portion of blood) has been separated from the cellular portion. Serum contains many substances including glucose, enzymes, lipids (fats), proteins, and metabolic waste products. Determination of the serum glucose concentration is vital to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A fasting sample is best because even in healthy dogs, the serum glucose may be mildly increased for up to four hours following a meal.
Hormones are chemicals that are released into the bloodstream and work on various parts of the body. Most diabetic dogs will have moderate to marked increases in fasting serum glucose concentrations.
These increases are usually far greater than those mild, transient increases noted after eating. They are involved in many of the body's daily functions, including nerve conduction and maintenance of proper hydration. Because of the large volume of dilute urine that diabetic dogs produce, excessive amounts of electrolytes may be lost in the urine.
For example, severe deficits in the electrolyte phosphorus may result in the rupture of red blood cells within the blood stream.
The liver related enzymes ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate transaminase) may be increased mildly in diabetic dogs. These increases may reflect mild liver cell damage that is related to decreased blood flow due to dehydration. Alterations in lipid (fat) metabolism because of diabetes may also contribute to increases in these liver enzymes. What might a urinalysis indicate if my dog has diabetes mellitus?-->-->A urinalysis is necessary for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Other important features of the urinalysis that need to be evaluated in diabetic animals include evidence of urinary tract infection. The presence of glucose in the urine makes conditions ideal for bacterial growth; therefore, urinary tract infections are common. A glucose tolerance test helps to distinguish between this normal pattern and the patterns seen in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The urine is evaluated for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. If a bacterial infection is identified or suspected, a culture of the urine may be indicated to identify the types of bacteria and determine the most appropriate antibiotics to treat the infection. The presence or absence of ketones in the urine should always be evaluated in diabetic animals. Increased utilization of fat occurs in diabetic animals because their insulin deficiency results in poor utilization of carbohydrates as an energy source.
Depending upon your dog's clinical signs, the presence of ketones in the urine may indicate a more severe or long-standing case of diabetes. Once my dog has been started on insulin therapy, what monitoring tests will be necessary?-->-->When insulin therapy is first started, we will need to monitor your dog's blood glucose values frequently.
Typically, this involves serial blood or serum glucose determinations, often in the form of a glucose curve.
Blood samples will then be taken every 2 hours throughout the day, and the results will be plotted on a graph.
This will show how well the insulin is controlling his blood glucose, when the insulin reaches its peak effect, and how long the action of the insulin lasts. While further adjustments in your dog's insulin dosage will undoubtedly need to be made, the blood glucose curve is valuable in evaluating your dog's response to the prescribed insulin product. At home, one of the most simple and important things you can do for your dog is to monitor his appetite, water consumption, energy level, and urine output.
Additional home monitoring can involve the evaluation of urine for the presence of glucose.
This involves 'catching' a urine sample in a clean container and simply dipping a urine test strip that has an indicator pad for glucose. The presence of large amounts of glucose for two or three days in a row, or the complete absence of glucose, may indicate the need for adjustments in insulin dosage. Once your dog's optimal insulin dosage has been determined and his diabetes is well regulated, monitoring may involve weekly 'spot checks' of urine for the presence of glucose.
Serum fructosamine concentrations are another way of evaluating your dog's response to insulin therapy. Fructosamine forms through the irreversible binding of glucose to proteins in your dog's blood stream. Serum fructosamine provides us with a retrospective view of the average blood glucose concentration that your dog has achieved over the past 2 to 3 weeks. However, recent changes in blood glucose concentrations will not be detected with the serum fructosamine test. Therefore, if your dog is showing any behavioral changes that might signal changes in his insulin requirements, then a direct blood glucose test will be more appropriate.



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