Shown below is a Blood Sugar Level Chart, simply designed for basic glucose and blood sugar testing. For more nutritional information, charts, health stats, worksheets, and other free printable items, visit any of the links shown on this page. Click this link to exit the Blood Sugar Level Chart page, and visit the Main Health Info Page.Hit this link for a collection of Great American Recipes.
Type 2 diabetes is a combination of insulin resistance and beta cell failure of the pancreas. Detailed study methods 19 and the Increase in nocturnal blood pressure and progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) develop because the animal’s body is unable to eak down and use glucose properly. TREATMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PATIENTS WHO ARE HOMELESS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS ii DISCLAIMER diabetes guidelines can help improve treatment adherence and health Textbooks and Journals. Normal glucose levels are those levels that you should expect if you have a checkup or a glucose tolerance test. If your levels are slightly high and out of the above range, you may be at risk for diabetes.
Reactive hypoglycemia can be a little more tricky to diagnose — you may appear to have normal glucose levels with a regular blood test. You can experience symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia even if your glucose levels remain within normal levels. Can you please give the source of the 5 hour glucose tolerance test figure above and also give some description of the items?
Normal hemoglobin range – buzzle, Normal hemoglobin range the hemoglobin level is an important indicator of the health condition of a person.
Glycosylated hemoglobin test – definition of glycosylated, Glycosylated hemoglobin test definition. An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can eat healthy diets and manage their blood glucose. HighlightsGeneral Recommendations for Diabetes DietPatients with pre-diabetes or diabetes should consult a registered dietician who is knowledgeable about diabetes nutrition.
Homeostasis is the maintainance of a constant internal environment in response to a changing external environment. Negative feedback is the mechanism by which the body maintains conditions within particular limits. Note, that the opposite change takes the level too far below the normal, therefore a negative response back up will occur, and the process repeats itself, so that over time the temperature oscillates about the normal, within small limits. It is important to maintain a constant temperature so that living organisms can maintain metabolism. Temperature in mammals is detected by thermoreceptors in the skin and hypothalymus which is in the brain.
After you have eaten a meal, the blood glucose levels will begin to rise because because the carbohydrates in the food are digested and absorbed. If however, you have been doing alot of exercise, and glucose is being used up, then alpha cells will produce glucagon, this causes the release of an enzyme that breaks glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis [gli-ko-jen-oh-li-sis]).
The increased blood sugar level leads to deformity in the shape of the eye What Is Juvenile Diabetes.
Here we report the case of a patient who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus during combined PEG-IFN+RBV therapy for hepatitis C but who showed no exacerbation of diabetes despite continued use of IFN. A blood sample is needed to test glucose levels, either in a clinical setting or by using a home monitor. An experienced dietician can provide valuable advice and help create an individualized diet plan.Even modest weight loss can improve insulin resistance (the basic problem in type 2 diabetes) in people with pre-diabetes or diabetes who are overweight or obese. Dietary control in type 1 diabetes is very important and focuses on balancing food intake with insulin intake and energy expenditure from physical exertion. DKA was a major cause of death in Type Pregnancy Diabetes And High Blood Pressure Wyoming Cheyenne I diabetics before insulin injections were available untreated diabetic ketoacidosis has a high mortality rate. This review highlights recent literature on the problem of obesity and type 2 gestational diabetes management 2014 floria hollywood diabetes in Sub-Sahara Africa. How is Pregnancy Diabetes And High Blood Pressure Wyoming Cheyenne Diabetes mellitus diagnosed? Usually, an endocrinologist will recommend a hyperglucidic breakfast test or you could monitor your blood sugar (when you experience symptoms) with a home testing kit. Physical activity, even without weight loss, is also very important.The American Diabetes Association (ADA) encourages consumption of healthy fiber-rich foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Type 2 DiabetesType 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 - 95% of cases. Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Roles of Obesity Insulin The past two decades have seen an explosive increase in the number of people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus It is therefore important to characterize the mechanisms of insulin resistance and subsequent Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus Chronic metabolic disease Absolute or Diabetes Mellitus IDDM Type I or Juvenile Onset diabetes NIDDM Type II or Adult Onset diabetes Gestational Pregnancy Secondary Caused by the presence of other diseases Impaired Glucose Tolerance Your Daily Diabetic Foot Care Routine. Glucose tolerance tests for people with reactive hypoglycemia can be distressing, uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous — leading to seizures if your glucose gets too low.
In type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond normally to insulin, a condition known as insulin resistance. If you think that you may have diabetes then you may be wondering what symptoms accompany the disease and whether or not yours match them. Bring any colour questions to the attention of your dentist gestational diabetes clinical practice guidelines arizona gilbert for further evaluation. Treatments Learn about the many types of treatments available for those with type 1 diabetes.
The ADA has found that both low-carb and low-fat diets work equally well, and patients may have a personal preference for one plan or the other.Patients with kidney problems need to limit their protein intake and should not replace carbohydrates with large amounts of protein foods. Early Signs of Type 1 DM Are (Picture 2): Weight loss or poor weight gain even if eating large amounts of food. In type 2 diabetes, the initial effect is usually an abnormal rise in blood sugar right after a meal (called postprandial hyperglycemia).Patients whose blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes, are considered to have pre-diabetes. However some northern European countries including Finland and Sweden have high rates of type 1 diabetes.
Marco Rubio's response to the State of the Union last night, lost as they were inside his desert mouth cave.
It is very important that people with pre-diabetes control their weight to stop or delay the progression to diabetes.Obesity is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, and this condition appears to be related to insulin resistance. With regular exercise and diet modification programs, many people with type 2 diabetes can minimize or even avoid medications.
Within 10 minutes after a meal insulin rises to its peak level.Insulin then enables glucose to enter cells in the body, particularly muscle and liver cells. Weight loss medications or bariatric surgery may be appropriate for some patients.General Dietary GuidelinesLifestyle changes of diet and exercise are extremely important for people who have pre-diabetes, or who are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Lifestyle interventions can be very effective in preventing or postponing the progression to diabetes.
Even moderate weight loss can help reduce diabetes risk.The American Diabetes Association recommends that people at high risk for type 2 diabetes eat high-fiber (14g fiber for every 1,000 calories) and whole-grain foods.
High intake of fiber, especially from whole grain cereals and breads, can help reduce type 2 diabetes risk.Patients who are diagnosed with diabetes need to be aware of their heart health nutrition and, in particular, controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
For people who have diabetes, the treatment goals for a diabetes diet are:Achieve near normal blood glucose levels.
Overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who are not taking medication should aim for a diet that controls both weight and glucose.
A reasonable weight is usually defined as what is achievable and sustainable, and helps achieve normal blood glucose levels. Children, pregnant women, and people recovering from illness should be sure to maintain adequate calories for health.Overall Guidelines. Patients should meet with a professional dietitian to plan an individualized diet within the general guidelines that takes into consideration their own health needs.For example, a patient with type 2 diabetes who is overweight and insulin-resistant may need to have a different carbohydrate-protein balance than a thin patient with type 1 diabetes in danger of kidney disease. Because regulating diabetes is an individual situation, everyone with this condition should get help from a dietary professional in selecting the diet best for them.Several good dietary methods are available to meet the goals described above. General dietary guidelines for diabetes recommend:Carbohydrates should provide 45 - 65% of total daily calories. Patients with diabetes should monitor their carbohydrate intake either through carbohydrate counting or meal planning exchange lists.Fats should provide 25 - 35% of daily calories.
Monounsaturated (such as olive, peanut, canola oils; and avocados and nuts) and omega-3 polyunsaturated (such as fish, flaxseed oil, and walnuts) fats are the best types. Limit trans-fats (such as hydrogenated fat found in snack foods, fried foods, and commercially baked goods) to less than 1% of total calories.Protein should provide 12 - 20% of daily calories, although this may vary depending on a patient’s individual health requirements. Both low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) are of concern for patients who take insulin. Hemoglobin A1C (also called HbA1c or HA1c) is measured periodically every 2 - 3 months, or at least twice a year, to determine the average blood-sugar level over the lifespan of the red blood cell. While fingerprick self-testing provides information on blood glucose for that day, the A1C test shows how well blood sugar has been controlled over the period of several months. For most people with well-controlled diabetes, A1C levels should be at around 7%.Other Tests.


Other tests are needed periodically to determine potential complications of diabetes, such as high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and kidney problems.
Such tests may also indicate whether current diet plans are helping the patient and whether changes should be made.
Periodic urine tests for microalbuminuria and blood tests for creatinine can indicate a future risk for serious kidney disease.Other Factors Influencing Diet MaintenanceFood Labels. Every year thousands of new foods are introduced, many of them advertised as nutritionally beneficial. It is important for everyone, most especially people with diabetes, to be able to differentiate advertised claims from truth. Current food labels show the number of calories from fat, the amount of nutrients that are potentially harmful (fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugars) as well as useful nutrients (fiber, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins).Labels also show "daily values," the percentage of a daily diet that each of the important nutrients offers in a single serving. This daily value is based on 2,000 calories, which is often higher than what most patients with diabetes should have, and the serving sizes may not be equivalent to those on diabetic exchange lists. Most people will need to recalculate the grams and calories listed on food labels to fit their own serving sizes and calorie needs.Weighing and Measuring.
Weighing and measuring food is extremely important to get the correct number of daily calories.Along with measuring cups and spoons, choose a food scale that measures grams. People with early-stage kidney failure need to follow a special diet that slows the build-up of wastes in the bloodstream. Fat and carbohydrate intake may need to be increased to help maintain weight and muscle tissue.People who have late-stage kidney disease usually need dialysis.
Patients must still be very careful about restricting salt, potassium, phosphorus, and fluids.
Patients on peritoneal dialysis may have fewer restrictions on salt, potassium, and phosphorus than those on hemodialysis.Major Food ComponentsCarbohydratesCompared to fats and protein, carbohydrates have the greatest impact on blood sugar (glucose).
Except for dietary fiber, which is not digestible, carbohydrates are eventually broken down by the body into glucose. Carbohydrate types are either complex (as in starches) or simple (as in fruits and sugars).One gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories. The current general recommendation is that carbohydrates should provide between 45 - 65% of the daily caloric intake.
They are more likely to provide other nutritional components and fiber.Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and beans are good sources of carbohydrates. Whole grain foods provide more nutritional value than pasta, white bread, and white potatoes. You can limit your fructose intake by consuming fruits that are relatively lower in fructose (cantaloupe, grapefruit, strawberries, peaches, bananas) and avoiding added sugars such as those in sugar-sweetened beverages. Fructose is metabolized differently than other sugars and can significantly raise triglycerides.
These include terms such as sweeteners, syrups, fruit juice concentrates, molasses, and sugar molecules ending in “ose” (like dextrose and sucrose). It is based on two premises:All carbohydrates (either from sugars or starches) will raise blood sugar to a similar degree, although the rate at which blood sugar rises depends on the type of carbohydrate. In general, 1 gram of carbohydrates raises blood sugar by 3 points in people who weigh 200 pounds, 4 points for people who weigh 150 pounds, and 5 points for 100 pounds.Carbohydrates have the greatest impact on blood sugar. Fats and protein play only minor roles.In other words, the amount of carbohydrates eaten (rather than fats or proteins) will determine how high blood sugar levels will rise.
Once the patient learns how to count carbohydrates and adjust insulin doses to their meals, many find it more flexible, more accurate in predicting blood sugar increases, and easier to plan meals than other systems.The basic goal is to balance insulin with the amount of carbohydrates eaten in order to control blood glucose levels after a meal. This ratio determines the number of carbohydrate grams that a patient needs to cover the daily pre-meal insulin needs.
Eventually, patients can learn to adjust their insulin doses to their meals.Patients who choose this approach must still be aware of protein and fat content in foods. The glycemic index helps determine which carbohydrate-containing foods raise blood glucose levels more or less quickly after a meal. The index uses a set of numbers for specific foods that reflect greatest to least delay in producing an increase in blood sugar after a meal.
The lower the index number, the better the impact on glucose levels.There are two indices in use.
One uses a scale of 1 - 100 with 100 representing a glucose tablet, which has the most rapid effect on blood sugar. Substituting low- for high-glycemic index foods may also help with weight control.One easy way to improve glycemic index is to simply replace starches and sugars with whole grains and legumes (dried peas, beans, and lentils). However, there are many factors that affect the glycemic index of foods, and maintaining a diet with low glycemic load is not straightforward.No one should use the glycemic index as a complete dietary guide, since it does not provide nutritional guidelines for all foods.
It is simply an indication of how the metabolism will respond to certain carbohydrates.Low-Carbohydrate Diets. Low carb diets generally restrict the amount of carbohydrates but do not restrict protein sources.
Popular low-carb diet plans include Atkins, South Beach, The Zone, and Sugar Busters.The Atkins diet restricts complex carbohydrates in vegetables and fruits that are known to protect against heart disease. The Atkins diet also can cause excessive calcium excretion in urine, which increases the risk for kidney stones and osteoporosis.Low-carb diets such as South Beach, The Zone, and Sugar Busters rely on the glycemic index. Foods high on the glycemic index include bread, white potatoes, and pasta while low-glycemic foods include whole grains, fruit, lentils, and soybeans.The Mediterranean Diet is a heart-healthy diet that is rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains as well as healthy monounsaturated fats such as olive oil.
In studies of patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carb version of the diet (restricting carbohydrates to less than 50% of total calories) worked better than a low-fat diet in promoting weight loss, reducing A1C levels, and improving insulin sensitivity and glycemic control.According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), low-carb diets may help reduce weight in the short term (up to 1 year).
However, because these diets tend to include more fat and protein, the ADA recommends that people on these diet plans have their blood lipids, including cholesterol and triglycerides, regularly monitored. Patients who have kidney problems need to be careful about protein consumption, as high-protein diets can worsen this condition.Whole Grains, Nuts, and Fiber-Rich FoodsFiber is an important component of many complex carbohydrates. It is found only in plant foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and legumes (dried beans, peanuts, and peas).
Instead, it passes through the intestines, drawing water with it, and is eliminated as part of feces content. The following are specific advantages from high-fiber diets (up to 50 grams a day):Insoluble fiber (found in wheat bran, whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and fruit and vegetable peels) may help achieve weight loss. Consuming whole grains on a regular basis appears to provide many important benefits, especially for people with type 2 diabetes. Of special note, nuts (such as almonds, macadamia, and walnuts) may be highly heart protective, independent of their fiber content.
Fat substitutes added to commercial foods or used in baking, deliver some of the desirable qualities of fat but do not add as many calories. Fat substitutes include:Plant substances known as sterols, and their derivatives called stanols, reduce cholesterol by blocking its absorption in the intestinal tract.
Margarines containing sterols are available.Olestra (Olean) passes through the body without leaving behind any calories from fat. However, it can cause cramps and diarrhea, and even small amounts of olestra may prevent the body from absorbing certain vitamins and nutrients.Artificial Sweeteners. Aspartame is generally considered safe, but people with phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare genetic condition, should not use it.Saccharin (Sweet'N Low). Although early studies in rats indicated a potential risk for cancer, subsequent research has shown that saccharin does not cause cancer.Sucralose (Splenda).
Sucralose has no bitter aftertaste and works well in baking, unlike other artificial sweeteners. It is made from real sugar by replacing hydroxyl atoms with chlorine atoms.Rebiana (Truvia, PureVia) is an extract derived from stevia, a South American plant. It is only used as a general-purpose sweetener in commercial food products such as baked goods and soft drinks.Sugar alcohols (which include xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) are often used in “sugar-free” products, such as cookies, hard candies, and chewing gum.
The American Diabetes Association recommends against consuming large amounts of sugar alcohol as it can cause gas and diarrhea, especially in children.ProteinProtein intake in diabetes is complicated and depends on various factors.
There are additional guidelines for patients who show signs of kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy).In general, diabetes dietary guidelines recommend that proteins should provide 12 - 20% of total daily calories. Some doctors recommend a higher proportion of protein (20 - 30%) for patients with pre- or type 2 diabetes. They think that eating more protein helps people feel more full and thus reduces overall calories.
In addition, protein consumption helps the body maintain lean body mass during weight loss.Patients with diabetic kidney problems need to limit their intake of protein. A typical protein-restricted diet limits protein intake to no more than 10% of total daily calories. Patients with kidney damage also need to limit their intake of phosphorus, a mineral found in dairy products, beans, and nuts. Protein is commonly recommended as part of a bedtime snack to maintain normal blood sugar levels during the night, although studies are mixed over whether it adds any protective benefits against nighttime hypoglycemia.
Evidence suggests that eating moderate amounts of fish (twice a week) may improve triglycerides and help lower the risks for death from heart disease, dangerous heart rhythms, blood pressure, a tendency for blood clots, and the risk for stroke.The most healthy fish are oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, or sardines, which are high in omega-3 fatty acids. Three capsules of fish oil (preferably as supplements of DHA-EPA) are about equivalent to one serving of fish.Women who are pregnant (or planning on becoming pregnant) or nursing should avoid fish that contains high amount of mercury.


It is rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and provides all essential proteins.
They also contain polyunsaturated fats, which are better than the saturated fat found in meat.
It contains only a trace amount of soy and is very high in sodium.For many years, soy was promoted as a food that could help lower cholesterol and improve heart disease risk factors.
Recent studies have found that soy protein and isoflavone supplement pills do not have major effects on cholesterol or heart disease prevention. The American Heart Association still encourages patients to include soy foods as part of an overall heart healthy diet but does not recommend using isoflavone supplements.Meat and Poultry. A high intake of dairy products may lower risk factors related to type 2 diabetes and heart disease (insulin resistance, high blood pressure, obesity, and unhealthy cholesterol). Some researchers suggest the calcium in dairy products may be partially responsible for these benefits. Vitamin D contained in dairy may also play a role in improving insulin sensitivity, particularly for children and adolescents. However, because many dairy products are high in saturated fats and calories, it’s best to choose low-fat and nonfat dairy items.Fats and OilsSome fat is essential for normal body function. The type of fat is more important than the total amount of fat when it comes to reducing heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are “good” fats that help promote heart health, and should be the main type of fats consumed.
In order to calculate daily fat intake, multiply the number of fat grams eaten by nine (1 fat gram provides 9 calories, whether it's oil or fat) and divide by the number of total daily calories desired. The American Heart Association recommends that fats and oils have fewer than 2 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon.Try to replace saturated fats and trans fatty acids with unsaturated fats from plant and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fish and a few plant sources, are a good source of unsaturated fats. Generally, two servings of fish per week provide a healthful amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Fish and fish oil supplements contain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, which have significant benefits for the heart. Discuss with your doctor whether you should consider taking fish oil supplements.Low-Fat Diets.
The American Diabetes Association states that low-fat diets can help reduce weight in the short term (up to 1 year). Low-fat diets that are high in fiber, whole grains, legumes, and fresh produce can offer health advantages for blood sugar and cholesterol control.Dietary CholesterolAnimal-based food products contain cholesterol. Because of the lack of scientific evidence for benefit, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend regular use of vitamin supplements, except for people who have vitamin deficiencies.Patients with type 2 diabetes who take metformin (Glucophage) should be aware that this drug can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption. Calcium supplements may help counteract metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency.Sodium (Salt)It is important for everyone to restrict their sodium (salt) intake. Limiting or avoiding consumption of processed foods can go a long way to reducing salt intake. Simply eliminating table and cooking salt is also beneficial.Salt substitutes, such as Nusalt and Mrs. Dash (which contain mixtures of potassium, sodium, and magnesium) are available, but they can be risky for people with kidney disease or those who take blood pressure medication that causes potassium retention. Similarly, while eating more potassium-rich foods is helpful for achieving healthy blood pressure, patients with diabetes should check with their doctors before increasing the amount of potassium in their diets.
Calcium supplements may be important in older patients with diabetes to help reduce the risk for osteoporosis, particularly if their diets are low in dairy products.Potassium and Phosphorus. Potassium-rich foods, and potassium supplements, can help lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Current guidelines encourage enough dietary potassium to achieve 3,500 mg per day for people with normal or high blood pressure (except those who have risk factors for excess potassium levels, including kidney disease and the use of certain medications). This goal is particularly important in people who have high sodium intake.The best source of potassium is from the fruits and vegetables that contain them.
Potassium-rich foods include bananas, oranges, pears, prunes, cantaloupes, tomatoes, dried peas and beans, nuts, potatoes, and avocados.
Kidney problems can cause potassium overload, and medications commonly used in diabetes (such as ACE inhibitors or potassium-sparing diuretics) also limit the kidney's ability to excrete potassium. Patients with diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) and kidney failure need to restrict dietary potassium, as well as phosphorus. Phosphorus-rich foods that should be avoided include meats, dairy products, beans, whole foods, and nuts. In addition, many processed and fast foods contain high amounts of phosphorus additives.Magnesium. Whole grain breads and cereals, nuts (such as almonds, cashews, and soybeans), and certain fruits and vegetables (such as spinach, avocados, and beans) are excellent dietary sources of magnesium. Persons who live in soft water areas, who use diuretics, or who have other risk factors for magnesium deficiency may require more dietary magnesium than others.Chromium.
Most studies have indicated that chromium supplements have little or no effect on glucose metabolism and may cause adverse side effects.Selenium. The American Diabetes Association recommends limiting alcoholic beverages to 1 drink per day for non-pregnant adult women and 2 drinks per day for adult men.Coffee. Many studies have noted an association between coffee consumption (both caffeinated and decaffeinated) and reduced risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
Researchers are still not certain if coffee protects against diabetes.Herbal RemediesGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been a number of reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products.
Patients should always check with their doctors before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements.Traditional herbal remedies for diabetes include bitter melon, cinnamon, fenugreek, and Gymnema sylvestre. Few well-designed studies have examined these herbs’ effects on blood sugar, and there is not enough evidence to recommend them for prevention or treatment of diabetes.Various fraudulent products are often sold on the Internet as “cures” or treatments for diabetes. The FDA warns patients with diabetes not to be duped by bogus and unproven remedies.Weight Control for Type 2 DiabetesThe American Diabetes Association recommends that patients aim for a small but consistent weight loss of ? - 1 pound per week. There are many approaches to dieting and many claims for great success with various fad diets.
When overweight people achieve even modest weight loss they reduce risk factors in the heart. Ideally, overweight patients should strive for 7% weight loss or better, particularly people with type 2 diabetes.A regular exercise program is essential for maintaining weight loss. For patients who cannot lose weight with diet alone, weight-loss medications such as orlistat (Alli, Xenical) may be considered. Very-low calorie diets have also been associated with better success, but extreme diets can have some serious health consequences.To determine the daily calorie requirements for specific individuals, multiply the number of pounds of ideal weight by 12 - 15 calories.
For instance a 50-year-old moderately active woman who wants to maintain a weight of 135 pounds and is mildly active might need only 12 calories per pound (1,620 calories a day).
A 25-year old female athlete who wants to maintain the same weight might need 25 calories per pound (2,025 calories a day).Fat intake should be no more than 30% of total calories. Avoid saturated fats (found in animal products).ExerciseAerobic exercise has significant and particular benefits for people with diabetes. Regular aerobic exercise, even of moderate intensity (such as brisk walking), improves insulin sensitivity. People with diabetes are at particular risk for heart disease, so the heart-protective effects of aerobic exercise are especially important.Exercise Precautions for People with Diabetes. The following are precautions for all people with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2:Because people with diabetes are at higher than average risk for heart disease, they should always check with their doctors before undertaking vigorous exercise. Moderate-to-high intensity (not high-impact) exercises are best for people who are cleared by their doctors. For people who have been sedentary or have other medical problems, lower-intensity exercises are recommended.Strenuous strength training or high-impact exercise is not recommended for people with uncontrolled diabetes.
Patients who use blood pressure medication should consult their doctors on how to balance medications and exercise.
Patients with high blood pressure should also aim to breathe as normally as possible during exercise. Diabetic Exchange ListsThe objective of using diabetic exchange lists is to maintain the proper balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats throughout the day.
Patients should meet with a dietician or diabetes nutrition expert for help in learning this approach.In developing a menu, patients must first establish their individual dietary requirements, particularly the optimal number of daily calories and the proportion of carbohydrates, fats, and protein.



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