In the first half of the last century the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher among women than among men, but this trend has shifted, so more men than women are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes .
Figure 1: Cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance image of an obese woman and an obese man [1].
The sex differences in body fat distribution are closely related to sex differences in insulin resistance. Figure 2: Trajectories of fasting plasma glucose (a), fasting serum insulin (b), 2-hour plasma glucose (c) and 2-hour serum insulin (d).
Some of the observed sex differences in body composition, insulin resistance and blood glucose levels are partly due to the effect of sex hormones. Observational studies have also found associations of low concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin with increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes independent of the concentrations of circulating sex hormones. When blood glucose concentrations are analysed as continuous variables the effect of post-OGTT glucose concentrations and HbA1c on CVD risk seem to be stronger among women than among men [11][12]. Some of the material on this page comes from the University of Kansas Medical Centre, with the kind permission of Prof George Helmcamp. Glucose is the single most important source of energy for almost all tissues being utilised for both glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
Following its absorption from the gut into the bloodstream any glucose that is not immediately required for energy production is transformed and stored either as glycogen or triglyceride via insulin-mediated processes.
After a carbohydrate meal, the favoured metabolic pathways are glycogenesis and lipogenesis, leading to a increase in the storage of energy as glycogen and triglycerides.
During fasting, when exogenous glucose is unavailable, endogenous adipose tissue triglyceride is reconverted to free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol by lipolysis.
The ketone bodies are formed by a process known as ketogenesis and they become important sources of fuel and energy for peripheral tissues, including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Insulin is a hormone of the fed state and it is released in response to rising blood glucose. The intracellular second messages stimulated by insulin binding to its receptor cause multiple anabolic effects while slowing degradative or catabolic metabolism. In diabetes, where insulin is deficient or where the cells are unresponsive to insulin, the uptake of glucose into muscle, liver and adipose tissue is significantly reduced, and, despite abundant glucose in the blood, the cells are metabolically starved. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone comprising two chains held together by two disulphide bridges.
The precursor of insulin, preproinsulin, is synthesised by the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the pancreatic b-cells. At the plasma membrane of the b-cells, insulin and C-peptide are released into the portal circulation in equimolar amounts. The two conditions considered to demonstrate disordered glucose metabolism are hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. The basic defect in diabetes mellitus is insulin deficiency (absolute or relative) which affects glucose, lipid, protein, potassium and phosphate metabolism.
The main acute complications of diabetes are: Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma Lactic acidosis Hypoglycaemia Ketoacidosis is due to the presence of large quantities of ketone bodies in the blood. The primary physiological role of insulin is the regulation of glucose levels in the circulation. Site adapted by Bronwyn Carlisle from a design by Jason Tagg, driven by a custom FileMaker Pro solution. It has been used to screen for diabetes mell-itus, to diagnose diabetes and to monitor glucose control.
Diabetes is a type of lifestyle-related disease that affects many people worldwide with approximately 90% of patients being diagnosed with diabetes type 2.
For those who are taking oral hypoglycaemic drugs, as well as those with type 1 diabetes (a condition where your body’s pancreas does not produce any insulin), one is strongly recommended to monitor their blood glucose levels frequently. Monitoring blood glucose levels can help you better understand how your daily activities, medication, food, insulin, mood swing and stress influence your blood sugar levels. Since most blood glucose monitors come with a memory to store the readings in which this data can be downloaded to a computer and hence helping a doctor to monitor and analyze so that a better treatment of diabetes can be recommended for the patient.
To maintain the accuracy of the reading of a blood glucose meter, it should be recalibrated each time the reading is taken the device should be properly maintained. You should always ask your doctor’s advice regarding correct instructions in using a glucose meter. After getting the reading from your blood glucose meter, make sure you write it down in a record book everyday so that you can better keep track of your diabetes condition. Another important point for you is that you should keep your blood glucose level as close as possible to its normal range so as to help reduce the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes.
Note: If you are unable to perform this blood glucose testing, you can still perform urine test by using urine test strips to check the condition of your glucose levels. It is easy to prevent diabetes by eating healthy, being physically active and managing your maintaining a healthy weight. Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal.
If you find yourself rushing to the washroom frequently, especially at night, this could signal diabetes. So frequent trips to the washroom and thirst are two symptoms that show how your body tries to manage the high blood sugar. The kidneys, in the meantime, work overtime to get rid of the extra sugar and this results in a loss of calories, naturally harming the kidneys..
Those excessive pangs of hunger are a sign of diabetes and are caused by the extreme highs and lows in the blood sugar levels.
If you have an infection, a cut, bruises, and other wounds that don’t seem to heal easily this is a classic sign of diabetes.
When people suffer from high blood sugar levels, based on how long it has been, they can get used to not feeling well. The hands and feet feel numb or you experience a strange tingling along with burning and swelling.
Have seen my aunt struggle with Diabetes initially and then she adopted a healthy life style and managed it really well. Disclaimer"Be Healthy, Be Happy", this blog, does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
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This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. There are two different tests your doctor can use to measure your blood glucose to determine if you have pre-diabetes or diabetes: the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
The FPG test is a blood test that determines the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood after an overnight fast (not eating for at least 8 hours). With the OGTT test, a person's blood glucose level is measured after fasting and then 2 hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. See the chart below for the ranges of blood sugar levels and how they are used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. This change in the gender distribution of type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a more sedentary lifestyle particularly among men, resulting in increased obesity.
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and especially the abdominal visceral fat is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Men are in general more insulin resistant than women, which can be explained by their higher proportion of visceral and hepatic fat compartments associated with insulin resistance [1]. For men (blue) and women (pink) who developed diabetes and men (light blue) and women (light pink) without diabetes from 18 years before time of diagnosis or last clinical examination in a diabetes free population (the Whitehall II study).


After menopause, insulin sensitivity declines, indicating that oestrogen may exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity in women. The association between sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance is stronger in women than in men, and stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. However, the relative risk of coronary heart disease associated with diabetes is greater in women than in men [9], indicating that diabetes exerts a greater adverse effect on cardiovascular risk in women compared with men. However, among pre-diabetic individuals with IFG there is no difference in the relative risk of CVD between men and women [13]14, so there are insufficient data to suggest a sex difference in the association between pre-diabetes and CVD risk.
In the fasting state the plasma glucose level is maintained by glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) and gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose from non-sugar sources). Where the effect is indicated in parentheses it is either indirect or dependent on other factors.
Both are transported to the liver where glycerol enters the gluconeogenic pathway at the triose phosphate stage. Although the brain normally uses glucose as its source of metabolic fuel it is capable of using ketone bodies as its major source of energy during periods of starvation.
Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells, the synthesis of glycogen and lipogenesis, and several additional anabolic processes.
Insulin both an anabolic hormone and growth factor which affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
Preproinsulin comprises a single polypeptide chain of about 100 amino acids but it is not detectable in the circulation under normal conditions because it is rapidly converted by cleaving enzymes to proinsulin, an 84-amino acid polypeptide.Proinsulin is stored in the secretory granules of the Golgi complex of the b-cells, where proteolytic cleavage to insulin occurs. C-peptide has no known biological activity but appears necessary to ensure the correct structure of insulin. The principal manifestation is hyperglycaemia due to increased hepatic production of glucose and decreased peripheral glucose utilisation. The acidosis causes the patient to hyperventilate and may ld to loss of consciousness (ketoacidotic coma).Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma usually occurs in the elderly and in patients with NIDDM. This involves complex molecular mechanisms that control both glucose uptake and glucose metabolism.
My questions and uncertainities got cleared by the straight forward and well organised information. Frequent checking and monitoring of your glucose blood level can help you stay healthy while reducing the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes. These factors include overall health, age, and whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similarly, people with type 2 diabetes (a condition when your body’s cells ignore the insulin or your pancreas does not produce enough insulin) are also advised to monitor their glucose level so that the given treatment can meet the desired goals. This info is much needed as it will aid in better management of your diabetes besides delaying or preventing diabetic complications which include kidney failure, blindness and diabetic indulged eye disease. From the blood glucose monitor, you get a reading of your blood glucose level in a digital form. Most manufacturers provide good service support but some do not, so you should look for the meter which offers the best service and technical support. It is always easier to prick on your fingertip as it is less painful to prick particularly on one side. Talk to your doctor if your blood glucose level is not within the normal range and ask him or her to suggest a good range for your blood glucose level and also what you should do to maintain a healthy blood glucose level. What happens is this: the kidneys work overtime to get rid of the extra glucose cruising through the blood. Very high blood sugar levels cause rapid weight loss – like 10-20 pounds in two three months. When blood sugar levels dive, the body thinks it hasn’t been fed and craves more of the glucose that our cells need, to function efficiently. Other skin conditions include acanthosis nigricans where the skin darkens around the neck or arm pit area. This happens because the blood vessels are being damaged by the overdose of glucose in the veins and arteries. Diabetes is considered an immuno-supressed state and this opens you up to a number of infections, although the most common are yeast or candida and other fungal infections.
If your blood sugar has been really high, it is when it is brought down that you realize how bad you felt. Its important to know what’s happening to our bodies and even the smallest of irregularities causes problems on a larger scale! The fact that we can prevent it by appropriate lifestyle modifications is what we can be thankful for.
A lot of people are suffering from diabetes and the main cause is overweight, so it’s quite crucial to control your body weight. In general, it is recommended that any blood test that is outside the normal range be repeated on a different day to confirm the diagnosis. However, recent data have also shown that men develop diabetes at a lower degree of obesity than women – a finding which adds support to the view that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes differs between men and women. Body fat distribution differs by sex [1], and in general men have more abdominal fat, whereas women have more peripheral fat – also denoted as “apple” versus “pear” shape. However, it is not clear whether sex hormone binding globulin leads to insulin resistance or whether the reversal pathway is the case[8]. This suggestion is supported by the finding that cardiovascular risk factors differ more between women with and without diabetes than between diabetic and non-diabetic men [10].
However, the brain is unusual in that it can only utilise glucose and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and b-hydroxybutyrate).
The main regulators of these processes and, ultimately, of the plasma glucose level are four hormones - insulin, glucagon, adrenalin and cortisol.There are a number of metabolic processes involved in the maintenance of blood glucose levels, and their interplay can be complex, depending greatly on the hormonal state. In the fasting state, glycolysis and lipolysis are favoured, making use of the stored fuels to provide energy for the tissues. Glucose formed from glycerol in this way can be released into the bloodstream at a time when the plasma glucose concentration would otherwise tend to fall. Just as hormones regulate other pathways involved in glucose homeostasis, they also influence ketogenesis both directly and indirectly. Glucagon, on the other hand, is a hormone of the fasted state and stimulaste the breakdown of glycogen, while inhibiting several anabolic pathways. In type I diabetes, increased gluconeogenesis consumes most of the available oxaloacetate, but breakdown of fat and, to a lesser extent, protein produces large amounts of acetyl-CoA. The shorter chain also has an internal disulphide bridge.Insulin is synthesised in the b-cells of the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans and is released from there into the bloodstream. After its release the insulin is transported in the blood to specific receptor sites in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle, adipose tissue and liver. Glucose uptake into cells is controlled by proteins called glucose transporters that are present on the surface of all cells. Monitoring diabetes or blood glucose level is important to help monitor how much glucose present in your blood.
Personal preferences and your understanding regarding your health condition can help you better target your blood glucose level.
Many blood glucose monitors come with different features with some of them made specifically for those who have poor eyesight or other disabilities. It is always advisable to ask your doctor which area (such as thigh, or forearm) should be used with your meter. Certainly, in most cases, ‘acceptable’ blood glucose levels can be slightly varied from one individual to another.
You may also need to advise your doctor about what you have eaten, how active you are during the day, and how medications affect your insulin when discussing your glucose level with them, so that they can help you manage your diabetes or blood glucose level.


I am stunned to learn that more than 62 million in India are diabetic and 1 in 2 of them don’t know they have it. People with this symptom already have an insulin resistance process happening, even though their blood sugar may not be high.
This makes it difficult for blood, which promotes healing, to reach different areas of the body. Imagine getting up so many times to go to the washroom at night – this would make just about anyone tired, right? Of course, it goes without saying that both of us have to be careful about what we eat, anyway. This way you’ll be able to reduce the chances of having diabetes plus other health issues as well. The American Diabetes Association recommends the FPG because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform.
Observations of sex differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance, sex hormones, and blood glucose levels further support this notion. Looking into the abdominal fat, men also tend to have more visceral and hepatic fat than women, whereas women have more subcutaneous fat than men (Figure 1). The preferential deposition of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous fat compartments in women compared with the visceral compartments in men seem to be related to the higher oestrogen levels in women compared with men. Because of the higher absolute risk for coronary heart disease among men and the higher relative risk among diabetic women, the absolute risk for coronary heart disease is comparable between men and women with diabetes. Hence, the maintenance of an adequate plasma glucose concentration is especially important for the functioning of the central nervous system.Under normal circumstances the blood glucose level is maintained within a narrow range.
Most tissues other than the brain use FFA as an energy source by converting them to acetyl CoA which can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle.However, when the rate of lipolysis is high, the liver receives more fatty acids than are needed to maintain its own activity.
In normal ketogenesis the transfer of acetyl-CoA into the mitochondria is controlled by the enzyme carnitine acyl transferase (CAT). This increased acetyl CoA would normally be directed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle but, with oxaloacetate in short supply, it is used instead for production of unusually large amounts of ketone bodies.
These are taken up by the liver and converted to ketone bodies and triglycerides which are released in the form of very low density lipoproteins.Severe untreated diabetes involves a pattern of metabolic fuel supply and consumption that is quite different from what occurs in healthy people or in controlled diabetics.
Several types of glucose transporters exist, but only one of these (GLUT4) is acutely regulated by insulin and is important in supplying glucose to skeletal and heart muscle and adipose tissue. Therefore, it is particularly important for you to discuss with your doctor which one suits you best. By 2025 this number is expected to escalate to 80 million when India will be crowned Diabetes Capital of the World.
And all the extra effort your body has to make to compensate for the glucose deficiency can drive strong people nuts. But like vision if the blood sugar is unchecked and ignored, neuropathy or nerve damage can become permanent. One is the fasting plasma glucose test that checks your blood sugar after a night or eight hours of fasting.
In contrast to visceral fat, subcutaneous fat is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and is therefore protective against type 2 diabetes. Black bars at the bottom indicate data distribution over the follow-up period [*7].In addition to sex differences in insulin resistance it is also well documented that more men than women have elevated fasting glucose levels (impaired fasting glycaemia, IFG), whereas more women than men have elevated 2-hour glucose concentrations (impaired glucose tolerance, IGT) [3][4][5]. In contrast, testosterone levels are significantly associated with central fat accumulation in both men and women [1]. However, under some circumstances it may fall outside that range and remain consistently low or high. They are:Glycolysisthe oxidation of glucose to pyruvate via glucose-6-phosphate with the formation of ATP.
In this situation, the liver converts the excess acetyl-CoA into three other important metabolites which together are known as the ketone bodies.
Acetone can often be detected on the breath of Type I diabetics, an indication of high plasma levels of ketone bodies.In uncontrolled severe diabetes, particularly insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), there can be excessive formation of ketone bodies leading particular form of metabolic acidosis known as ketoacidosis. When glucose and insulin levels are low, the GLUT4 protein resides inside the cell in a specialized compartment and very little is present on the cell surface. It triggers a lot of health issues like kidney trouble, high blood pressure, which in turn start of other health issues – and then sits back and watches the fun.
The insulin hormone cannot get glucose into the blood cells where it should be used as energy. Luckily the symptom is reversible once blood sugar levels are back to normal or near normal. Thus, the phenomenon that men develop diabetes at a lower body mass index than women [2] can be explained by the fact that men have more visceral fat for a given body mass index than women and thereby a higher relative risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
It has been suggested that part of the sex differences in 2-hour glucose and insulin concentrations is related to the different body sizes of men and women [3][5][6]. Pyruvate is further metabolised by conversion to acetyl-CoA and entry into the TCA cycle with the production of more ATP.
The figures are for a 24 hour period under basal conditions, assuming a total energy output of 2400 kcal ( 10.0 MJoules). However, when glucose levels are elevated (for example, after a meal) and insulin is secreted from the pancreas, insulin stimulates the movement of GLUT4 transporters from their intracellular compartment to the cell surface, resulting in an increase in glucose uptake into these cells.
But if blood sugar is unchecked for long periods, the glucose can cause permanent damage and maybe even blindness.
In general, women have a smaller body mass than men, which means it may take them longer time to metabolise the 75 g of glucose given during a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
It should be noted that there is a heavy drain on muscle proteins for gluconeogenesis and that fatty acids and ketone bodies are used as the principal energy source for all tissues except the brain and blood cells.
The mechanisms by which insulin regulates this trafficking of GLUT4 are poorly understood.Dr.
It is a hereditary disease but can definitely be controlled through food habits and exercise. On the other hand, the sex differences in glucose concentrations in the fasting state are likely to be caused by physiological differences, e.g.
It should also be noted that a large fraction of the glucose formed from muscle proteins is lost in the urine together with up to one-third of the ketone bodies formed from fatty acids in the liver. This develops when the activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle decreases with a consequent fall in ATP production. Elevation of fasting plasma glucose levels over 7.8mM on more than one occasion is diagnostic of diabetes mellitus.
Muscle tissues do not contain this enzyme and therefore cannot produce glucose from endogenous glycogen stores.Gluconeogenesisformation of glucose from amino acids, lactate and triglyceride-derived glycerol. By applying contemporary molecular and cell biological approaches to address these questions in cultured adipose cells, Dr. As a result, insulin levels are raised inappropriately when glucose levels are already low.As well as the acute complications described above there are additional chronic or long-term complications.
Cheatham and colleagues have been successful in identifying some of the proteins important in both of these processes.
Indeed, it it were not for these long-term complications, controlled diabetes would not impose a great threat to the quality and longevity of life.



Blood sugar monitoring apps
Medications that may cause low blood sugar


Comments

  1. 21.08.2014 at 11:47:49


    Effectively controlled your gestational diabetes you may want to get tested the glucose tolerance test is given.

    Author: QIZIL_OQLAN
  2. 21.08.2014 at 15:45:52


    Tolerance test elicited a hypoglycemic response of 33 mg/dl.

    Author: 606
  3. 21.08.2014 at 20:59:36


    Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney which forms when glucose genes play.

    Author: GOLDEN