Endocrine glands are ductless glands that produce and release hormones to the blood through diffusion.
Endocrine glands may be strictly endocrine, such as the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus; or they may be organs that have hormone production as one of many functions, such as the pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus, and others. Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that are secreted by the cells to the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic functions of other cells. Most hormones are amino acid based, but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are steroids, derived from cholesterol.
Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) exert their effects through an intracellular second messenger that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor. Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) diffuse into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific target sequences of DNA. Target cell response depends on three factors: blood levels of the hormone, relative numbers of target cell receptors, and affinity of the receptor for the hormone. The concentration of a hormone reflects its rate of release, and the rate of inactivation and removal from the body.
The half-life of a hormone is the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood, and is shortest for water-soluble hormones. Permissiveness occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present (reproductive hormones need thyroxine to properly stimulate development of reproductive organs). Synergism occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified (glucagon + epinephrine together stimulate more glucose release from the liver than when each acts alone).
Antagonism occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone (glucagon antagonizes insulin).
Nervous system modulation allows hormone secretion to be modified by the nervous stimulation in response to changing body needs. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via a stalk, the infundibulum, and consists of two lobes: the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis.
Two neurohormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) indirectly (through insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) stimulates body cells to increase in size and divide. Direct effects are insulin-sparing: mobilization of fatty acids for fuel, inhibition of insulin activity, release of glucose from liver to blood, and stimulation of amino acid uptake by cells.
The thyroid gland consists of hollow follicles with follicle cells that produce thyroglobulin, and parafollicular cells that produce calcitonin.
Thyroid hormone consists of two amine hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), that act on all body cells to increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production. The parathyroid glands contain chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone, or parathormone.
The adrenal glands, or suprarenal glands, consist of two regions: an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids from three distinct regions: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells that synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine (stimulus is acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers).
Insulin is an anabolic hormone and will stimulate not only glucose uptake but also storage in the form of glycogen (glycogenesis), fat (lipogenesis) and amino acid incorporation into proteins (inhibits amino acid breakdown by liver to form new glucose molecules - gluconeogenesis).
Stimuli for insulin release are primarily high blood glucose levels but insulin release is also potentiated by rising blood levels of amino acids and fatty acids and release of acetylcholine by parasympathetic neurons (all of these things happen after a meal). Glucagon is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels (primarily) and raises blood glucose levels back to within normal range by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood by the liver. Indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine the timing of day and night. Adipose tissue produces leptin, which acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety; secretion is proportional to fat stores. Adipocytes also produce adiponectin, which enhances insulin activity, and resistin, an insulin antagonist.
Osteoblasts in bone produce osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin. Adiponectin levels are low in type II diabetes, suggesting higher levels may help reverse the insulin resistance characteristic of type II diabetes. Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones; those derived from ectoderm or endoderm produce amines, peptides, or protein hormones. Environmental pollutants have been demonstrated to have effects on sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids.
Low carb diet is one of the most controversial issues in the past decades when it comes to a healthy lifestyle.
Some health professionals believed that this kind of diet could cause heart diseases or even elevate cholesterol levels.


A low carb diet offers many benefits, including a diversified and balanced menu, sustained weight loss, and others. A low carb diet is based on the idea that foods low in carbs lead to a decrease in the body’s insulin production, causing it to use fat and protein (muscle) stores as its main energy source. Avoiding foods that are high in simple carbohydrates and consuming low carbohydrate foods that contain protein, dietary fiber, and healthy fats, including omega-3 fatty acids, forces the body to use fat as its main energy source.
The aim of low carbohydrate diets is to experience metabolic changes, avoid spikes in blood sugar levels, speed up burning of fat, and eventually lose weight. On a low carb diet, dieters consume protein-rich foods, including poultry, lean meat, fish, cheese and dairy. Simple (bad) carbohydrates, which come in the form of sucrose, maltose, lactose, galactose, and fructose, are a no-no. Low carb diets focus on foods such as nuts and seeds, whole wheat grains, non-starchy vegetables and low carb fruits.
Too many ketones causes a state of ketosis, which is characterized by acetone breath (nail varnish-like breath), and side effects such as nausea and fatigue. With a ketogenic diet, the body burns fat and uses it as an energy source, instead of using simple carbohydrates as an energy source and storing fat. There are many benefits to a low carb ketogenic diet, including lower blood pressure, improved cholesterol levels, and increased physical activity.
Other benefits include lower blood insulin and diabetes prevention, improved mental concentration and dental health.
However, the great thing about a low carb diet is it will directly lead you into automatic reduction of the appetite, if you stick with it.
Cutting your carbs and eating more proteins as well as fat will result in you eating fewer calories in just few days or weeks.
One of the most effective yet simplest ways of losing weight is cutting out your carbohydrate intake, or at least drastically reducing it. There are recent studies that show people who eat a low carb diet have a better chance of losing weight quicker than people who are following a low-fat diet.
However, it is more beneficial that you treat a low carbs diet as a low carb lifestyle, and not simply as a diet.
Every time we eat carbohydrates, they are broken down into simple sugar, also known as glucose. Since high blood sugar levels are toxic, our bodies respond by producing insulin which transports glucose to the cells and converts it into energy or stores it. Diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to secrete the right amount of insulin which is needed in lowering your blood sugar.
Insulin is injected when you are diagnosed with Type1 Diabetes because in this case the body does not produce the hormone in the pancreas. People with diabetes may have a new way to indicate their blood sugar level is too high or too low, by turning to our trusty canine friends, after researchers have found that dogs can help with hypoglycemia monitoring. The study, published in PLOS ONE, is the first of its kind to analyze whether trained dogs can accurately and consistently serve as an "early-warning system" to monitor blood sugar levels for their owners and notify them when the levels are too high or low.
Researchers then collected data from the owners to analyze whether the dogs were accurately able to respond to their owners' hypoglycemic levels, and also whether the owners experienced better blood sugar control and wider benefits.
Additionally, the owners' data showed that the dogs notified them with "significant accuracy" during times of both low and high blood sugar.
The study authors note that although dogs respond to their owners' high or low blood sugar levels, they cannot be entirely sure how they do this.
They say their study confirms that trained detection dogs perform above the chance level, which is the level that would be expected if random choices were made. Researchers recently revealed that they are creating a method for dogs to sniff out ovarian cancer. Tips on How to Stop Your Dog from BitingBeware - Not All Advertised Dog Rescues Really Are! In his research he found that if we take 35% oxygen from a healthy cell, the cell will transform in a carcinogenic one in only two days.
Chemotherapy makes the body acidic to the extent that it reaches for its alkaline reserves to neutralize the acidity while sacrificing minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium) found in the hair, nails, teeth and bones. It is impossible for an individual that feds the body with nutrients, water and an individual that is physically active to develop cancer.
Every so-called natural death is nothing else than a point of over-excess of acidity in the body – George W. What is important are not the names of the different diseases but the fact they emerge because of too much body acidity, writes Dr. Golden glow: Scientists digitally enhanced images to show the effects of high cartenoid coloration- the golden glow achieved from eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (pictured top right)- compared with low cartenoid coloration (pictured top left).
The stimulus for GHRH release is low blood levels of GH as well as hypoglycemia, low blood levels of fatty acids, and high blood levels of amino acids.


Hypersecretion of GH in childhood results in gigantism; in adulthood hypersecretion of GH causes acromegaly (increase in size of flat bones after epiphyseal plates of long bones have sealed). Thryroid releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH release; Thyroid hormone (Thyroxine) exerts negative feedback control of both TRH and TSH. Excretion of ketoacids (with their negative charge) by the kidney is accompanied by loss of cations, particularly K+ and Na+.
Secretion of resistin is proportional to fat stores; secretion of adiponectin is inversely proportional to fat stores.
But with the help of research and new technology, these beliefs have changed the perception of most towards low carb diets. Diets such as the South Beach, Zone, Low GI, or Atkins now prove that you can lose weight as well as improve some of the major risk factors in your health condition. Ketogenic diets have a positive effect on triglycerides, LDL and HDL, fasting blood sugar levels, and abdominal obesity.
Hunger is one of the worst enemies when on a diet and it most often is the reason why people quit in the first place. With a low carb ketogenic diet, the insulin level drops, causing the kidneys to shed excess sodium in the system, which in turn will result in faster weight loss in just one or two weeks.
Remember, weight loss that lasts is usually based on changes you can live with for a long time, not a temporary diet.
From that process, glucose enters the bloodstream and causes the elevation of the blood sugar level.
Rather the number is rising at such a great pace, that doctors and researchers are trying to find out ways to combat this issue and help humans to live a healthier life.
You want to live a healthy life and for that end you have to follow every advice you are given. He writes articles about Diabetes, How To control it, How to live a healthier life style plus on other health and fitness topics. The scientist who found this evidence was  Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 – 1970) and won a Nobel Prize for his research (1931). Warburg has discovered that cancer is a result of an anti-physiological way of nutrition (mostly with acid food), and physical activity that cause the body to create acid environment with oxygen deficit. All normal cells have absolute need of oxygen, but only carcinogenic cells can live without it.
Warburg has proven that all carcinogenic forms fulfill two fundamental conditions: blood acidity and hypoxia (oxygen deficit). This is the worst kind of food because once it is processed the body doesn’t get proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, only refined carbohydrates. If you have cancer, the best tip is to increase your body’s alkalinity with the help of nutrition, exercising, avoiding stress and additional chlorophyll intake. If a balance disorder happens and the organism becomes acidic, the body stores toxins more than it can secrete and many different diseases emerge – Dr. This was rated more attractive than images enhanced to show high melanin coloration from the sun (pictured bottom right) compared to low melanin coloration (pictured bottom left)This is because skin can become coloured either through a process called 'cartenoid colorisation', eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, or through a process called 'melanin colorisation', where the skin becomes tanned by the sun.A Wanting to explore the importance of skin colour in facial attractiveness, the British scientists asked 60 volunteers to rate how attractive they found faces digitally enhanced to show pigmentation caused by a€?carotenoid colorationa€™ from eating fruit and vegetables, or a€?melanin colorationa€™ caused by tanning in the sun.
Diabetes is caused when the body does not produce insulin naturally or in sufficient amounts to maintain blood sugar levels. But due to various reasons, the system does not produce this specific hormone and it also happens that the body is unable to use the insulin produced by the pancreas.
If usual medications, diabetic diets and physical activities do not work well to control diabetes, Insulin is given. The best way to start off is by walking or jogging or going to a gym to get assistance from a fitness instructor and a balanced diabetic diet.
He discovered that carcinogenic cells are anaerobic (don’t use oxygen) and as such can’t survive in the presence of high oxygen concentration.
In order to achieve that you need to eliminate sweets and candies, soft drinks and fast food from the menu. The amount of the hormone and the type of insulin is determined by your physician in accordance to the composition of your system and blood sugar levels.
Our latest research finds that even small improvements in diet produces visible benefits to skin colour. Age, weight, sugar counts, general health are the aspects that the doctor considers before starting the insulin plan. You become prone to diseases like heart attacks, hypertension, bone problems, vision deficiency etc.



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