Toward the bottom of this page is a practice exam, almost the same as what you will see when you come to the campus to take the on-campus exam.
The ear thermometer (on the right) doesn't contact the ear drum, so it is measuring the amount of infrared light emitting from the ear.
This digital thermometer measures the room temperature and can take readings of the ear or forehead.
The ear and forehead measure the amount of infrared light (heat radiation) coming from the ear drum or the skin.
I've seen infrared based thermometers like in the picture used to measure the temperature of a wide variety of items at a distance. The science behind these devices is the use of an LED light and a photodiode (a light detector) that looks at the level of two forms of hemoglobin. Because of the heart beat, the level of hemoglobin in capillaries in the fingers are expanding and contracting with each heart beat. Besides useful for people who have breathing problems, these are being used by pilots and mountain climbers who are at altitudes where oxygen levels are low and monitoring their oxygen saturation would be wise. When a nurses takes someone's pulse, they pump up the cuff to the point where they can't hear the pulse. The low reading is called the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is as rest. You may be surprised that there is a blood pressure cuff that uses an iPhone for the digital readout and storage. The science behind these modern blood glucose (sugar) meters is to draw in a set amount of blood. I was surprised to see a home test for A1C because I heard doctors describe it as a specialized test. I couldn't find out exactly how these A1C test strips and meter work, but I imagine it's similar to the way the blood sugar test strips and meter work. Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can indicate a kidney disease or some other serious condition.
Ketones in the urine (ketonuria) indicate the body is having trouble using sugar for energy, so it's using fat and proteins instead. Blood in urine (hematuria) gives people some anxiety but isn't always a reason for concern.
Another way the density of urine is determined is by measuring how much it bends light (refracts light). When I worked at the Phoenix Crime lab back in the 70's, the breathalyzer available at that time used a solution of sulfuric acid and a salt called potassium dichromate. I think the coolest (but not the cheapest) personal medical device is the portable ultrasound imaging machine. What sensor in the left thermometer is responsible for detecting the temperature and name one of its ingredients? Answer: Percent (%) that hemoglobin is saturated (S) with oxygen (O2) in a peripheral (p) part of the body (for example, fingers). The below chart is from a urine test strip that measures the concentration of five different substances. If a person has a high reading for ketones, their urine (and breath) is likely to smell like what?
The home pregnancy test will measure the presence of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. Answer: A band at the T region is positive indication of the hormone and therefore indicates the one tested is pregnant. Answer: It means the test is complete and one should then look to see if a band is at the T region. Answer: Cocaine, amphetamine, THC (marijuana), opiates like opium, morphine and heroin, and PCP. THC is tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the psychoactive chemical in the cannabis plant (marijuana). Unlike the pregnancy test, a band of color showing up at the T region on a drug test indicates what? Answer: Methamphetamine is the same as amphetamine but methamphetamine has an extra methyl group on it. When ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is completely oxidized (burned) in a fuel cell, 12 electrons are produced as electrical current for each molecule of ethanol. On the exam, you might be asked to balanced one or two of the compounds in the equation, but not the whole equation. As the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, the potassium dichromate gets converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3. The initial color of the solution is yellow.  What is responsible for the yellow color?
After the alcohol is turned into acetic acid, the solution is dark green.  What is responsible for that color? Let's say you were trapped in a mine and you took 1.2 liters of water and did electrolysis on it to get some oxygen, how many grams of oxygen would you get? Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the weight of water? Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the number of atoms in water?
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This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within 1 business day of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. Yeah, I know you like to use them, but there are so many misconceptions about what they are telling you, that I need to intervene and make sure you get it.
But before I go there, let me urge you to just buy The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living, and read pages 164-165.  Phinney and Volek have the best description of this that has probably ever been written, and you should really just read it from them.
When you start restricting carbs, Phinney and Volek assert that at first your muscles use both beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate for fuel, but after awhile, they begin taking the acetoacetate and converting it to beta-hydroxybutyrate, and returning that to your serum. As a result of the continued conversion of acetoacetate to beta-hydroxybutyrate, the serum and urine volume of acetoacetate (the only ketone detected by ketostix) is significantly reduced. The precise reason for this downregulation is not described by Phinney and Volek, but they speculate it is to prevent wasting the minimal amount of calories contained in urine ketones. Even though we lack the sophisticated understanding of why kidneys downregulate ketone secretion into urine, we know that it happens and we know that the volume of acetoacetate in your serum drops as you become more fully ketoadapted. So you can spend the money and keep an eye on your ketone levels by measuring serum levels, or you could just not spend money on ketostix and expensive testing gizmos.  As long as you eat 20g of net carbs a day (or less), you are pretty much guaranteed to stay in ketosis.
I think I stopped measuring daily at about the 12 month mark, and during the last eight months or so of that, I was being told they were registering light because I was well hydrated.

Barring some exceedingly unlikely scenario, it’s not a major cause of concern for you to see dark purple on your ketostix. I’ve seen many doctors post videos about rhe ketogenic diet and they recommend no longer than doing it for a 3-6 month period yet I see people on this diet for years thriving. I have been keto long enough and I train hard, I can pretty much tell when I am getting carb creep. First off, congratulations on finding a way of eating that is working for you, and helping you attain your desired weight.
It is not my intent to discourage people from using the ketostix (see Do I Need Ketostix?), but rather to help them understand what they are measuring, what they are not measuring, and how those measurements might change over time.
And yes, you are correct…if you ate a significant amount of carbohydrate (and continued to do so, your sticks would stop registering ketones (or register trace amounts). While I notice that after a 1.5 years on low carb, my sticks are mostly very light pink (and I assume this is for the reasons described above), I do know that if I ingest MCT oils (in coconut oil, typically) they will turn dark, regardless.
Zell, thank you for expressing your feelings…they are almost an exact expression of my own feelings as well. Here’s where it gets interesting (and understand, all of what follows is total speculation. So I gave up diet soda and Crystal Light, but continue to drink coffee…I’m acutely aware of others who can drink diet soda all day long and suffer no ill effects from it. I think this is clearly the wrong approach to take: people need to find out what works for them.
Of course, In addition to whether or not it inhibits weight loss, there are obviously a slew of other reasons why we might want to consider removing diet soda from our diet. To tell you the truth, you could drain your coffee with fresh cream and still wouldn’t suffer from obesity ever.
After all, when you are on a low or non-carb scheme, cream is a mighty help for your hormonal system to promote your health, did you know that? I spent the majority of my life thinking that, really, obesity is the result of laziness and I could get thin if I just exercised hard.
I found your blog while searching for an answer to why my keto stix kept showing a negative result.
I am fairly new to keto, but the last 2-3 weeks I have been eating less than 20 net carbs pr day, and drink A LOT of water.
I have also been drinking diet coke and Mio-flavored water – do you think this can affect the keto stix result? At any rate, if I were in your shoes, I wouldn’t get too worked up over what the ketostix read. For What it’s worth, Andreas Eenfeldt has an interesting N=1 experiment showing what happened to his serum ketones after drinking a Diet Pepsi.
My friend and I both recently started eating low carb (atkins type) <20 carbs to lose weight. My motivation for doing it was partly because I think the average person should take advantage of the tools of science. That's a good opportunity to monitor health needs at home and to learn more about the science behind these devices and tests.
As electronics got more miniaturized and sophisticated, devices like these have gotten cheaper and common place.
Even after she got over the pneumonia, she would often complain about not being able to breath. A pressure of 126 mmHg meant the person's heart beat had the pressure to raise the mercury in the tube to a height of 126 millimeters (about 5 inches). The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to gauge how well a person has been managing his or her diabetes. The more the inner tube extends above the surface of the urine, the more dense the urine is. Anti-bodies are proteins created by the immune system to neutralize a foreign bacteria or virus, but also can attach itself to a specific protein. Dark green is after reacting with alcohol, which forms the dark green chromium(III) sulfate. The device is a personal or portable breathalyzer for measuring blood alcohol content in the blood. Even though it's called the personal ultrasound device, it's marketed more to doctors than the average consumer, but eventually it will be affordable to consumers. It means that it either adds oxygen atoms or it behaves like oxygen, which is to strip electrons away from things. The reading is the percent of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are coated with sugar (glucose).
It has a special roller that calf muscles, balls and arch of foots, it is easy to use and has flexible air pressure kneeling pads. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. Your takeaway point is this: If you stay on your keto diet for long enough, the primary ketone circulating in your serum (and consequentially, present in your urine) is not detected by your ketostix.
Ultimately suggest that it is the result of kidney adaptation to sustained carbohydrate restriction (164-5) and leave it at that.
If you go this route, you’ll also have to buy their very expensive and proprietary Precision Xtra Ketone Test Strips to use with it.
Most important is eating clean and seeing how my clothes fit, how I feel and if I’m losing weight. I have been trying to find an answer as to why my Ketosticks continue to show deep purple even after 7 wks of very strict low carb moderate protein. I think it speaks Volumes about you & your fine blog, that you answered my post in such a Considerate & Helpful manner!
Clearly there are people who can drink 4 liters of diet soda a day and not inhibit their weight loss.
Do you still believe a calorie of Stevia and a calorie of fresh fruit or cream have anything in common? Not only the HDL-cholesterol and the synthesis of your sex-hormones it ensures, also the fatty acids are a big help for any prolonged physical effort. Gary Taubes doesn’t seem to care about people counting calories, but I have heard him say (& have read his writings on this) that for people extremely carb sensitive, even green, leafy vegetables can be problematical! After my third day of cutting out everything drinkable but water, I am still getting negative keto stix. The exam will ask questions about what you learn below plus there will be some questions from the online exam. As the temperature goes up, the electrical resistance comes down and that is converted to a temperature reading on the display. For this wrist version, you can see the wave which is the changing levels of hemoglobin from which the pulse can be calculated. Using a blood pressure monitor like the one in the picture could have warned him that his blood pressure was too high despite the medication he was taking. These are often placed on the wrist but not always as accurate as those placed on the upper arm.

The glucose in the blood reacts with an enzyme called glucose oxidase that pulls 2 hydrogen atoms off of the glucose molecule. The science behind it must be like the blood glucose strips and meters, but with an additional enzyme to identify the level of cholesterol. The computer chip in the devices translate the degrees the light bends into density (specific gravity) of the urine. As the alcohol got converted, the potassium dichromate got converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
Since people don't breath out hydrogen, then this test uses ethyl alcohol as the fuel to generate electricity. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
When plasma acetoacetate concentrations begin to decrease, more of it is produced from beta-hydroxybutyrate” (source). However, after realizing how unsafe these were, you can't really find these in the stores anymore.
One type of thermocouple is used by your gas water heater or gas oven to sense if the pilot light is on. In the hospital I noticed they used a device called the Pulse Oximeter to measure her pulse and oxygen levels. That might have saved him the devastating effects from the stroke that he still suffers with.
The test strip has a reagent (a chemical that reacts with some other chemical) that is specific for acetoacetic acid (a common ketone found in urine). This is the same kind of instrument used to measure the charge of a battery (by measuring sulfuric acid density). Saliva is placed on the bottom indentations, and it travels up the strip to where the letters are. To make that conversion, an oxygen atom is added to the alcohol and a hydrogen atom is removed. I have concerns of not going off this way of eating, so if cream in my coffee helps me not feel deprived, I’ve got to factor that in, too. However, when computers got smaller and less expensive, it was possible to own a computer and take advantage of everything it could do. So the Breathalyzer had a light pass through the solution and the change in the color correlated with the amount of alcohol in the breath. I just wonder when the ketosis sticks will lighten up, particularly if one has a significant amount of weight to lose. After losing 10 lbs in the first 11 days the weight loss stopped after 2 weeks I did a lot of research and everything pointed toward too little calories.
It cost $200, but was very useful in discovering that her oxygen levels were truly very low. So we bought one of these automatic blood pressure monitors and checked his blood pressure about 3 times a day. One problem density can indicate is an imbalance in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium ions. The electron flows down a wire and is measured with an electrical meter which shows up as a reading on the display. To find the amount of alcohol in the blood, the machine multiplied by 2100 because the blood always has 2100 times more alcohol in it compared to the alcohol in the breath. I started calculating my caloric intake and found that I was only eating between 500-800 calories a day. One thing I’ve noticed is that there are people can get Very Intense about diet issues! The metals that are selected to be sandwiched together to make these thermocouples can be chromium, nickel, copper, tungsten, and platinum. This prompted the doctor to prescribe a portable oxygen concentrator that gave her pure oxygen when she needed it. Again specific antibodies for each drug is present in the strip along with a dye attached to the antibody. The more alcohol present the more electron current will flow, which makes the reading go up. I have always been a big eater with strong food cravings but that all went away almost immediately after starting LCHF. As they are exposed to heat, they generate an electrical voltage, which can be converted to a reading on the display window. Blood cells live for 2 or 3 months, which is why this test gives you an idea of the blood sugar level over the last 2 or 3 months. Apparently the drug attaches to the antibody and dye and creates a group that is not carried along by the urine to the T area. This device is called a fuel cell because it is using alcohol as a fuel to generate electricity.
Thankfully, my sugar cravings have gone Down, but I know that they could Easily be awakened, so your point about ketosis sticks keeping me on track also applies!
Only if the drug is NOT present does the urine carry the antibody and dye combination to the T area. In the future, your cellphones will likely run off of drinking alcohol (ethyl alcohol) or methyl alcohol because alcohols can produce a lot more electricity for a longer period. My solution to that was to drink 2-3 cups of coffee with 1tbsp butter and 1 tbsp coconut oil for extra calories.
Again, if the antibody-dye combination forms a line at the T area, then that drug was not present. In other words, your cellphone will stay charged for a month without adding more alcohol to it. I think I will bump up my consumption of it, as a Ketogenic diet is higher in fat than protein. I just wish I could have ice cream or find some low carb equivalent (but probably not the stuff I see in store freezers).
Most high fat foods that are acceptable on this diet do also seem to be moderate to high protein).
I just need to know at what point they stop turning a color because of all you write of – and not because of any excessive carb eating on my part. Yet Gary Taubes, who was nice enough to respond to an email of mine, told me that the heavy cream might be problematical for me, which confused me, as Heavy Cream is mostly fat, no? Some helps, but at some point I need to back away from all the opinions, views & info on this diet.

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