Diabetic retinopathy, one of the leading causes of blindness for diabetic patients between the ages of 20 and 74. Diabetic retinopathies the most common diabetic eye disease, occurs due to change in the retinal blood vessels. Laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases andhas become widely used in recent decades. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new blindness in persons aged 25-74 years in the United States.
Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the earliest stage of diabetic retinopathy. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) mainly occurs when many of the blood vessels in the retina close, preventing enough blood flow. Delicate new blood vessels bleed into the vitreous, the gel in the centre of the eye preventing light rays from reaching the retina.  If the vitreous haemorrhage is small, you may see a few dark floaters. Scar tissue from neovascularisation shrinks, causing the retina to wrinkle and pull from its normal position. People with untreated diabetes are 25 times more at risk for blindness than the general population.
Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy, particularly macular oedema and exudation. The Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) looked at the effect of candesartan, an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist, on these patients and found somewhat equivocal results.
Treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on the stage of the disease and is directed at trying to slow or stop the progression of the disease. Pharmacognostical studies for standardisation of a medicinal spice, the fruit of Illicium Verum hook. Aside from their oft-exploited anti-inflammatory properties, glucocorticoids such as cortisol have number of other effects. Reducing levels of glucocorticoid activity in liver and adipose tissue might offer some protection against these conditions, however systemic approaches (like using a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) would create their own adverse consequences.
While glucocorticoids serve important functions in some tissues, in others their effects may be less welcome. These nuanced local routes of corticosteroid metabolism mean that total circulating cortisol levels may be less important to health, particularly in the pathology of conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, than tissue-specific levels of glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes.
The inhibition of 11?-HSD1 has therefore become an important therapeutic target of interest to several pharmaceutical companies, and a number of patents have been issued covering whole swathes of synthetic compounds.
Unfortunately it is also an 11?-HSD2 inhibitor, and as such can cause pseudoaldosteronism, (an apparent mineralocorticoid excess) resulting in water-retention and hypertension.
Other natural inhibitors of the reductase activity of 11?-HSD1 include some endogenous steroids like 11-ketoandrostenedione (adrenosterone) and 11-ketotestosterone, and some bile acids. Diabetes is a lifelong disease characterized by high levels of the sugar glucose in the blood. Gestational diabetes occurs when a woman without obvious diabetes develops high blood sugar during pregnancy. There is a lot women with gestational diabetes can do to maintain good health through pregnancy and minimize complications. Acarbose (Glucobay) is used (with diet only or diet and other medications) to treat type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes. It is believed that strict sugar control in diabetics decreases the risk of eye, kidney and nerve damage. As we become older our bodies produce more insulin to combat the higher levels of blood sugar (see graph showing increased insulin release with age).
For anti-aging and appetite suppression, take one 50mg Acarbose tablet once, twice or three times daily. Ampalaya juice is beneficial in the treatment of a hangover because of its detoxifying property. Regular consumption of two ounces of fresh ampalaya juice, mix with a cup of honey diluted in water may help respiratory problems like asthma and bronchitis. Ampalaya stimulates digestion and can be very potent in people with dyspepsia and constipation. The clinical research provides control of blood glucose and blood pressure substantially reduces the risk of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy, many patients develop this eye disease and are at risk for serious vision loss, sometimes even despite outstanding metabolic control.
During the procedure, a laser is used to finely cauterize ocular blood vessels to attempt to bring about various Therapeutic benefits[1].


This involves directing a high-focused beam of light energy to create a coagulative response in the target tissue. Approximately 700,000 persons in the United States have proliferative diabetic retinopathy, with an annual incidence of 65,000.
With this condition, damaged blood vessels in the retina begin to leak extra fluid and small amounts of blood into the eye. However, if their vision is affected, it is the result of macular oedema and macular ischemia. In an attempt to supply blood to the area where the original vessels closed, the retina responds by growing new blood vessels.
A very large haemorrhage might block out all vision, allowing you to perceive only light and dark. In this condition, the new blood vessels may block the normal flow of fluid out of the eye. The longer a person has had diabetes, the higher the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. However, in some cases, particularly with pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy, intensive glycaemic control (e.g. Consider adding fenofibrate to a statin for non-proliferative retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. In patients with type 1 diabetes, there was a modestly reduced incidence of retinopathy by 18% but there was no effect on the progression of existing retinopathy.
They inhibit the uptake of glucose into muscle, shift homeostasis into a catabolic state, and promote the deposition of fat. In these tissues their levels are typically tightly regulated by enzyme expression; for example, 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme 2 (11?-HSD2) changes (active) cortisol into (inactive) cortisone in mineralocorticoid-sensitive tissues (like the kidney and colon). An overabundance of 11?-HSD1 can cause excess tissue-specific generation of cortisol in fat and liver, causing the afore-mentioned negative effects associated with high levels of glucocorticoids; increased hepatic glucose production, adipocyte differentiation, insulin resistance, and so on.
Though none of the synthetic compounds has yet reached the market, a number of naturally-occurring 11?-HSD1 inhibitors have been identified, however they are typically not selective enough to be of commercial interest. The risk of masculinisation (virilizing side effects) makes the androgens unsuitable to the medical community as therapeutic agents, particularly for women and children. 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Licorice inhibits corticosteroid 11 beta-dehydrogenase of rat kidney and liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endogenous selective inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms 1 and 2 of adrenal origin.
11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in adipocytes: expression is differentiation-dependent and hormonally regulated.
11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors as promising therapeutic drugs for diabetes: status and development. Evolution of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 3.
High blood sugar is caused by the body’s inability to make insulin or respond to insulin normallyGlucose comes from food and is the main energy source for the body.Insulin is the hormone produced by the pancreas that is responsible for telling organs such as the liver, muscle, and fat to remove glucose from the blood. This typically happens late in pregnancy, around 28 weeks or later.Gestational diabetes places the mother and baby at risk pregnancy complications such as macrosomia (largebaby), pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure) and birth injury. Percent increase in the odds of each complication was adjusted for potential confounders including, but not limited to, maternal age, BMI, height, smoking status, and family history of diabetes. Healthy meal planning, physical activity, and blood sugar monitoring are important parts of managing gestational diabetes.
This panel of tests can be performed during the first and second trimester to screen for gestational diabetes risk before diagnosis is typically made. Acarbose (Glucobay) works by slowing the action of certain chemicals that break down food to release glucose (sugar) into your blood. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are used to help lower blood sugar levels that are not controlled by diet and exercise.
Excess insulin is one of Sear’s four pillars of pro-aging, (for more information on this see Dr. Using Acarbose to reduce the amount of sugar the body produces will in turn reduce the levels of insulin produced.
The tablets should be chewed and swallowed prior to a meal or with the first mouthful of food.


For best results diabetic should take the juice of about four or five fruits every morning on an empty stomach. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when high blood glucose damages the micro blood vessels in the retina which leads to leakage of small amounts of blood, serum, blood fats and blood proteins proliferates to vision loss and formation of scar tissue. In non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), laser photocoagulation is indicated in the treatment of clinically significant macular oedema. A recent estimate of the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States showed a high prevalence of 28.5% among those with diabetes aged 40 years and older. Pressure builds up in the eye, a particularly severe condition that causes damage to the optic nerve. Fortunately, with regular, proper eye care and treatment when necessary, the incidence of severe vision loss has been greatly reduced. HbA1c at 6.0%) can initially bring on a decompensation and worsening of symptoms and signs and is also associated with increased mortality.
Specific therapies blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may have additional benefits, particularly for mild retinopathy, but should be discontinued during pregnancy.
In this way the mineralocorticoid receptor is protected from activation by cortisol and corticosterone, and free to be activated by the selective agonist aldosterone. Liquorice, for example, or rather the active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid, is a naturally-occurring 11?-HSD1 inhibitor present in the food supply. When there is not enough insulin, or these organs can’t respond to insulin, less glucose gets into cells to be stored for energy. In fact, 80 – 90% of women with gestational diabetes can be managed with lifestyle therapy alone. Identification of gestational diabetes risk allows women to make lifestyle changes earlier to improve health and wellness throughout pregnancy.
Acarbose can be used alone to treat type II diabetes or can be combined with sulfonylureas such as glyburide (Diabeta) or metformin (Glucophage) or with insulin. Its regular use prevents many complications such as hypertension, eye complications, neuritis and defective metabolism of carbohydrates.
Sip it slowly on an empty stomach daily, in 4-6 months you will see improvement in your condition. Here the retinal laser therapy also called aslaser photocoagulation has greatly reduced the number of patients who lose vision to Diabetic retinopathy. People whoare having this often don't notice changes in their vision in the early stages of disease. However, these new blood vessels are abnormal and do not supply the retina with proper blood flow. When blood sugar levels are too high for extended periods of time, it can damage capillaries that supply blood to the retina. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was more promising, showing that fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering fibrate, reduced the need for laser treatment of sight-threatening DR (either for macular oedema or proliferative retinopathy) by 31% over five years. Strict control of blood sugar and blood pressure levels can greatly reduce or prevent diabetic retinopathy. Women with blood sugar levels that cannot be controlled with lifestyle changes will require insulin injections. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. Laser photocoagulation refers to the precise and concentrated application of high energy light, typically of a single wavelength called monochromatic light.
But as the disease progresses, usually causes vision loss that in many cases cannot be reversed. The new vessels are also often accompanied by scar tissue that may cause the retina to wrinkle or detach.PDR may cause more severe vision loss than NPDR because it can affect both central and peripheral vision. In more advanced cases, treatment is recommended to stop the damage of diabetic retinopathy, prevent vision loss, and potentially restore vision.



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