Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) used to be known as “Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM),” a term you will still hear used today. In T1DM, the body’s immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, known as beta cells. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) used to be known as “Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM),” a term you will also still hear used today. What Causes Diabetes The Causes of Diabetes Answering the question of what causes diabetes is not as simple and straightforward as most people think. Diabetes Introduction It is important to begin the section on diabetes by emphasizing just how dangerous the disease truly is. Some familiarity with electronic circuits and using breadboards would be helpful, though it is not required for this project. Build a model of an artificial pancreas to investigate the challenges of getting such a device to work.
First, let us step back for a moment and have a quick crash course (or a refresher if you are already familiar) on diabetes. This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011).
However, in people with type 1 diabetes (which is caused by an autoimmune response, and was formerly known as juvenile diabetes), the pancreas no longer makes insulin. While the solution for many diabetics is to take insulin, it is not that simple; many things have an effect on insulin levels in a person's body, including exercise, stress, what and how much they eat, just to name a few. As previously discussed, to take away the difficulties of managing type 1 diabetes, scientists and engineers have set out to create improved insulin pumps and an artificial pancreas. Now that you have a better understanding of type 1 diabetes and what an artificial pancreas is, you may be wondering how you can work on something like that for a science fair project. When enough electrical current travels through the conductivity sensor, it causes a transistor in the circuit to activate a pump. Lastly, the conductivity sensor is combined with other electrical components called potentiometers, which are a type of adjustable resistor. Do you think it will be difficult to get the artificial pancreas to stop when it is supposed to, when the right amount of baking soda solution has been added to the vinegar solution? What do the different parts of the artificial pancreas model in this project represent in a real artificial pancreas system?
If you are using a graduated cylinder, you will also want to have a funnel that fits with the top of the graduated cylinder.
Scissors; in addition to cutting Styrofoam and a plastic straw, you will also need to cut some copper wire. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service.
Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. In this part of the procedure, you will make a conductivity sensor and connect it to your breadboard circuit. If possible, one end of the segment should have the ridged, bendable part of the straw on it; this will help keep the wire on the sensor. Wrap the end of each copper wire tightly around the straw, looping it about four times with each wire, as shown in Figure 5. The wire should be wound tightly around the straw so that the wire does not easily slide around on the straw. However, even if the wires do move some, this should be fixed when you add the Styrofoam piece next.
Carefully poke the copper wire tails from the straw through the Styrofoam piece, keeping the wires the same distance apart that they are on the straw piece, as shown in Figure 6. On the top side of the Styrofoam (opposite the side where the straw is), make a sharp bend in each wire, right above the Styrofoam, as shown in Figure 7. The sensor will be going into a bowl of liquid, and the amount of copper wire submerged in the liquid can change how much conductivity the sensor detects.
Lastly, attach the unconnected alligator clip leads from your circuit to the copper wires on the sensor, as shown in Figure 8. For labeling, you can use masking tape and a permanent marker or small sticky notes and a pen or pencil.
On a scale, place a measuring cup or other small container to weigh baking soda on the scale. Use the graduated cylinder, or a metric measuring cup, to measure out 200 milliliters (mL) of distilled water. Measure out 100 mL of distilled white vinegar and very slowly add it to the "Neutralized" bowl. Caution: Mixing an acidic solution with a basic solution can cause a powerful chemical reaction. Once the reaction has slowed, slowly mix the solution to make sure the vinegar and baking soda have completely reacted.
Measure out 200 mL of distilled white vinegar and carefully pour it into the "Vinegar" bowl. To find out what the pH of the baking soda solution, the vinegar and the neutralized solution is, add about 1 teaspoon of bromothymol blue indicator solution to each bowl. Carefully place your conductivity sensor in the "Neutralized" bowl, letting the straw part be submerged and the Styrofoam piece float on the surface, as shown in Figure 11. If the Styrofoam piece is not floating evenly, you can try taping the test leads onto the rim of the mixing bowl to keep things in place. The pump may start running as soon as you put the conductivity sensor in the neutralized solution, but do not worry if the pump is not running yet. Remember that a potentiometer is a variable resistor; you can change its resistance by turning the white knob. Once the pump is running, very slowly turn the potentiometer's knob in the opposite direction to turn the pump off. While you are adjusting the potentiometers, identify which pump tube has liquid flowing out of it. Make sure all of the jumper wires and components are pushed firmly into the breadboard's holes.
Make sure no exposed metal parts (like the leads of the resistors) are touching each other, as this will create a short circuit. Be especially careful to avoid creating a short circuit by having wires from the red and blue bus strips touch each other. Once you have normalized your artificial pancreas model so that the pump does not run when the conductivity sensor is in a neutralized solution, carefully remove the conductivity sensor from the neutralized solution (leaving the pump's tubes in the "Vinegar" bowl), and rinse the sensor briefly with some baking soda solution (over a sink or a different bowl).
Note: Make sure the sensor is floating the same way that it was in the neutralized solution. While the pump is running, carefully and continually move the end of the pump tube in the "Baking Soda" bowl so that the vinegar mixes well with the baking soda solution throughout the bowl (including under and around the sensor). When the pump stops, measure how much vinegar solution is left in the "Vinegar" bowl by carefully pouring it into a metric measuring cup or a graduated cylinder using a funnel. Note: There may be more liquid in the bowl than can fit in the measuring cup or graduated cylinder, so you may need to fill it up (and empty it out) multiple times to measure the total amount of baking soda. Since the baking soda solution you prepared is at the same concentration as the vinegar, they should make a neutralized solution when the same amount of each have been mixed together. Note: Because pH reactions occur on a logarithmic scale, the error measurements can be on a logarithmic scale, too.
What could you physically change about your circuit, conductivity sensor, or experimental setup? Clean and dry the mixing bowls and repeat steps 1–18 to test your model again, with the changes you decided on in step 19, and analyze its results. You can make a bar graph of your results, with a bar for each time you tested the model (labeled on the x-axis) that shows how much vinegar remained when testing each time (labeled on the y-axis in mL). Following the indicator color change of your solutions, you can analyze the pH results as well.
How did the pH, or the indicator color, of the vinegar solution change by the addition of the baking soda?
Was the indicator color (pH) of the original neutralized solution the same as the indicator color (pH) of the solution when the pump stopped running?
Tip: You may want to refer to the Introduction in the Background tab to help you answer this last question. In the testing you did for this project, you should have found that the artificial pancreas model could be automated for the part you tested.
Some people may want an artificial pancreas to turn on and pump insulin when they have a specific, different blood glucose level compared to other people. How could you use the artificial pancreas model you made in this project to model the delivery of other types of medicines? How could you make the artificial pancreas model used in this project more similar to what a real artificial pancreas would be like? For an advanced chemistry challenge, instead of the chemical reaction used in the artificial pancreas model in this project, you could try using a different chemical reaction. You could look into doing a titration (which is typically a color-changing reaction that depends on the exact chemicals involved).
Alternatively, instead of bromothymol blue as an indicator you could use cabbage juice, which also changes color based on the pH of the solution. For science projects on measuring sugars in foods and relating this to diabetes, see How Sweet It Is!
Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. I knew many other women pregnant with twins and the vast majority did not have GD, but it does heighten the risk.
That may seem like not many women to you, but when you think about how many pregnant women there are in the world at any give time you are NOT alone by far. GD does not mean for certain that your babies will be born prematurely, overly large, and does not mean you WILL have any further complications during labor and delivery. However, if you lose the weight postpartum and go back to your former size or close, you have lower than a 1 in 4 chance of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If you look back in my pregnancy journal you will see I was completely devastated with the GD diagnosis. Also admittedly, the thought of pricking my finger 6 times a day, changing everything about my diet overnight, running to extra doctor appointments, and walking a tightrope looking at my levels on a meter all day long made me scared and feeling overwhelmed. It all may seem overwhelming but remember, it’s for such a short time when you think about it. Glucose metabolism is the digestion of carbohydrate food, the first nutrient that extracts out is glucose (or sugar), and it is dumped into the bloodstream. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches, provides energy to the body needed for its various activities.
Digestion of carbohydrates is by both mechanical (chewing in the mouth) as well as chemical (enzyme’s secretion by the body) process of digestion.
Once the food reaches the mouth, saliva secretion contains an enzyme (amylase or ptyalin secretion by parotid glands) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrate. After digestion, the small intestine absorbs the available glucose in the food and released into the bloodstream. Once the necessary glucose consumption is over and if there, is any excess glucose still available in the bloodstream then liver start converting it into glycogen and stored for the future needs.
If we are not taking our food in time and the body cells needs energy, then liver start converting back the stored glycogen into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. Glucose metabolism and diabetes - If there is any problem or deficiency in the glucose metabolism - whether it is glucose absorption, insulin secretion, glucose use, glucose storage, or releasing stored glucose. Your child has been newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and we are aware that you may be feeling emotional, confused and shocked about the diagnosis and may have many questions about what is happening and where to go from here. Everything that you will need to know about diabetes and managing it will come in time but for now we will be teaching you the basics to manage your child’s diabetes in the next few days. The rest of the information regarding the diagnosis will be done in follow up appointments in the next few days and weeks and you will be in daily telephonic contact with the doctor or your educator. There is a lot to learn about managing your child’s diabetes in the beginning and you cannot possibly learn it all in one day.
YOUR CHILD IS FIRST AND FOREMOST STILL A CHILD BEFORE THEY HAVE DIABETES AND DIABETES NEEDS TO FIT INTO THEIR LIFESTYLE NOT THE OTHER WAY ROUND. You and your child are not alone in managing this condition, of course you have to do all the daily working in managing good blood glucose control, but our diabetes team will help you every step of the way.
This manual is designed to help you with all the basic survival tools to look after your child, but each day will be a learning experience. Simply defined it is lack of insulin secreted from the pancreas, resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. When your child has diabetes it means that they have too much glucose (sugar) in their blood. Diabetes is not currently curable; however with proper management such as insulin injections and blood glucose testing, proper meal plans and regular exercise your child can have a normal long happy life, both physically and emotionally. Your child should be eating meals that are balanced with carbohydrates (sugars and starches), fats and protein (mostly meat). Carbohydrates are broken down in your child’s stomach, converted to glucose and absorbed into the blood stream as one of the major sources of energy for the body. The pancreas senses the rise in blood glucose levels and secretes the right amount of insulin to move the glucose out of the blood stream into their cells.
Quite simply insulin is secreted every time we eat and a slow release in the background between meals. As your child does not produce insulin anymore they rely on their insulin injections to provide meal time coverage and the background insulin needs. This is a snap shot of your body during the night when your liver is releasing stored glucose back into your blood stream to supply a constant amount of glucose to the brain while you sleep. When food enters your stomach, the carbohydrates get broken down into glucose and the glucose gets absorbed into your blood stream and your blood glucose level starts rising.


If your pancreas is working, it samples the amount of glucose in the blood stream and produces the right amount of insulin and releases the insulin into the blood stream The insulin opens the cells and allows the sugar in and blood sugar will come down.
If you do not have insulin you have no problem getting the carbohydrate into the blood stream but have no way of opening up the cells to let the sugar in and your blood sugar levels stay high. High blood sugar gets filtered by the kidneys and glucose ends up in the urine, therefore it causes increased urine flow and your child will urinate a lot and therefore drink a lot to catch up.
When your body cannot use glucose for energy it will find another source of energy and you will get these other sources of energy from your body breaking down your muscle and you will loose weight and feel weak and tired and you will also break down fat and produce ketones which makes you sick.
There are 5 main food groups that make up a balanced healthy diet in order for your child’s body to get all the vitamins, minerals and nutrients they require to function at its optimum. The main food groups can be divided into 3 nutrient groups which have individual effects on the body. Proteins – These nutrients are our bodies’ growth foods and have little effect on the blood glucose levels. Fats – These foods are also energy foods in the body; however they have twice the amount of calories than carbohydrates and therefore are to be kept to a minimum, in order to protect the heart and other vital organs. The rate of absorption of glucose in and out of the blood stream is called the glycaemia index (GI).
High GI (HGI) foods are absorbed quickly into the blood stream and tend to raise blood glucose levels quickly. Intermediate GI (IGI) foods are absorbed at a gradual rate and have less of a rise on the blood glucose values. Low GI foods (LGI) are absorbed very slowly into the blood stream and tend to keep blood glucose values more stable for longer periods than HGI and IGI foods.
There are different ways to measure carbohydrates and relate them to the effect they will have on your blood glucose level, this concept is called carbohydrate counting and is a very useful tool to use. Carbohydrates are divided in two main groups and the sugar group is further divided in 3 groups. Most foods have nutritional information on the packaging, so these are easy to read and determine.
Diabetic products are not usually encouraged as they are poorly marketed, costly and they only remove sucrose form the product but still have other glucose products in them, therefore they are not completely free ( Unless the total carbs on the nutritional label says 0 grams) and will still raise the blood glucose levels. Your child’s Diet needs to be individualised and you should see a dietician who understands children with diabetes to structure something for your child individually. Sugar is allowed in small to moderate amounts and will make up part of your carb value at meals. Proteins get broken down into glucose very slowly in the blood stream and only 50-60% of protein gets converted to Glucose, making it an ideal food for your child to eat as a snack or as the main portion of a meal. Testing your child’s blood glucose levels regularly, will help you to achieve daily blood glucose targets and it is your only tool to help you administer the correct dose of insulin or see what changes need to made to food or exercise etc. Before each meal and at bedtime, and at any other time you think you may be low or very high. If you are having problems with higher or lower blood sugars email or fax through the last 3-4 days results and insulin doses being used and we can help you make adjustments.
The risk of long term diabetes complications is related to overall blood glucose control that is above ranges for many years.
Push the plunger all the way down –if using pens, hold for 10 sec and if using syringes hold for 2 sec.
Let go of your pinch before pulling out the needle, this will prevent the insulin from leaking out. If they are having lots of issues with injections or have a severe needle phobia we can use insulin ports to deliver insulin through.
Most often when you have a low blood glucose value your body will give you warning signs – here are some symptoms, it’s also best that you recognise your individual symptoms and treat a low blood glucose values as soon as possible. Don’t get into the habit of over treating low blood sugars and getting a high blood sugar thereafter by feeding them too much.
Give the above treatment and recheck blood glucose values again after 15-20 min if they still complain of feeling low. NB Insulin must be given before a meal if your child was low, you will fix the low blood glucose and then give the normal dose of insulin before that meal, you will need insulin to store that food eaten in the cells of the body otherwise the next blood sugar will be high – they will not go low again! If your child is confused and unable to swallow – rub condensed milk, syrup, honey or glucose syrup onto the gums if that does not raise the blood glucose levels Glucagon needs to be used.
Blood glucose values need to be checked every 3 hour for next 6 hours after a severe episode.
High blood glucose values above target along with high HbA1c’s over many years can lead to complications associated with diabetes.
When a diabetic child is ill, it is a very unstable time as blood glucose values may fluctuate erratically. Diabetic children need there insulin when they are sick, sometimes even larger doses, even if they do not want to eat, insulin must NEVER be skipped and the types of foods or liquids may need to be adjusted along with the amount of insulin.
Encourage your child to eat their usual meal or something from the list below if there stomach is upset or they are having difficulty eating. If your child is vomiting and there are no Ketones they need to have small sips of fluid every 15 minutes to avoid dehydration.
Medicines for fever, pain, decongestants, runny tummy or nausea, coughs and colds may contain small amounts of sugar. In the absence of insulin your body cannot use your glucose for energy provided by the food you eat.
When Ketones are detected you should contact your Dr, Educator or the 24 hour emergency hot line, so they can advise you on clearing the Ketones. Diabetes camps are one of the best experiences that a child with diabetes can have and it is advisable that you allow your child to be involved in this experience, especially when they are newly diagnosed.
Camp is a place for your child to learn self-confidence, independence from mom and dad, to be with other kids with diabetes, and simply to have a great time as well as have the opportunity to make lifelong friends. We interact with each other, learn teamwork, make friends, survival skills and time to play, be creative and do some rhythm workshop and have lots of FUN, FUN, FUN!!
The purpose of this note is to let you know the implications of diabetes and how it may affect me at school.
If there are any questions please write them down and I will get my parents or my doctor to answer them for you.
The main dangers that arise from diabetes at school are low blood glucose values or hypoglycemia. If I experience a low blood glucose value during class I will need to test my blood glucose values and I will need to eat foods that have glucose in them to raise my blood glucose values again. If I am unconscious or have a seizure from a low blood glucose value I will need to be injected with the following injection called glucagon that will increase my blood glucose values. When I wake up please give me sips of juice or coke and check my blood glucose every 5-10min.
There may be some side effects 30 min after the injection such as: Nausea,vomiting, bloating and headache. Type 1 Diabetes is almost entirely genetic, whereas Type 2 Diabetes is largely due to poor diet, lack of exercise, and genetic factors. The reason for this name is that people with T1DM are completely dependent on insulin to control their blood sugars.
Once enough of these cells are destroyed, the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to maintain blood sugar in the normal range and you become hyperglycemic (high blood sugar). The reason for this name is that people with T2DM are not completely dependent on insulin to control their blood sugars because their bodies still have the ability to produce insulin, usually just less insulin than a regular person. One area in which that motivation is readily apparent is in the field of biomedical engineering, where an intense focus of research right now is on creating better insulin pumps and an artificial pancreas.
See Figure 1 for typical blood glucose level fluctuations for a person over the course of a day. This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels.
The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas. If left untreated, the blood glucose levels of a person with type 1 diabetes could be dangerously high, which is a condition called hyperglycemia.
And having blood glucose levels that are too high (hyperglycemia), or too low (hypoglycemia), can cause serious health problems.
Diabetics who take insulin supplements take them in the form of insulin injections (using a needle) or infusions using an insulin pump, like the one shown in Figure 2. This picture shows an insulin pump attached to a person's body to infuse specific amounts of insulin.
In this project, you will get to find out by building a simplified model of an artificial pancreas system and investigating the challenges of getting such a device to work. This flowchart shows how an artificial pancreas would work (on the left) and how those steps are similar to what is done in the model used in this project (on the right).
A solution of vinegar (acetic acid, or CH3COOH), which is an acid, will represent high blood glucose levels, and a solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, or NaHCO3), which is a base, will represent insulin. It has to do with the fact that acidic solutions are fairly conductive, which means that they can conduct electricity, or allow electrical current to flow through them. A transistor is an electrical component that acts like a switch; if the transistor receives a high enough voltage, it can allow electrical current to travel through a different path of the circuit. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! We recommend purchasing the exact parts from Jameco, listed below, unless you are confident that you can find appropriate parts with equivalent specifications. Because of this, you will need a pair of scissors that you do not mind denting, or you could use a pair of wire cutters.
If you have never used a breadboard before, you should refer to the Science Buddies reference How to Use a Breadboard before you proceed.
The sensor will be made using bare copper wire, a straw, scissors, and a small piece of flat Styrofoam.
Note: Cutting the wire with scissors may dent the scissors, so use a pair of scissors that may be alright to dent, or use a pair of wire cutters.
If the wires move much, they could change the amount of conductivity detected by the sensor. Wrap the ends of two copper wires around a segment of straw, making about four loops with each wire. Make sure the bend is sharp enough to keep the wires from sliding down through the Styrofoam. Because of this, it is important that the amount of wire submerged in the liquid is always the same. After attaching the alligator clips to the copper wires, the conductivity sensor should look like the one here.
You will do this by first normalizing it to a neutralized solution to make sure the pump will turn off once your solution is neutralized. You must pour the vinegar into the bowl very slowly to give the two solutions time to slowly react, otherwise you may end up with a big mess and will need to make up fresh solutions! Final colors of the vinegar, baking soda solution and neutralized solution according to the bromothymol blue indicator color scale. Place the conductivity sensor in the neutralized solution so that the Styrofoam piece floats and the straw part with wrapped wire is submerged.
When you are equilibrating the artificial pancreas circuit in a neutralized solution, your setup should look like this one.
Try turning it all the way clockwise and all the way counter-clockwise find out which way turns the pump on (which way you need to turn it will depend on which way you put the potentiometer into the breadboard). Stop turning the knob when it reaches the point that makes the pump very slow and almost turn off. When the pump is not running, dry the end of this tube and mark it with a small dot using a permanent marker. Note that the transistor may become warm while the pump is running, but it should not become dangerously hot.
This can make the circuit get dangerously hot and can even melt some of the plastic components. If needed, tape the alligator clip test leads to the side of the bowl to hold them in place so that the Styrofoam piece is floating evenly. When you are neutralizing the baking soda solution with vinegar, this is what the setup should look like. It is very important to have all of the vinegar and baking soda mixed well together to neutralize the baking soda solution.
If this happens, the conductivity sensor may still detect a basic solution, even though parts of the solution in the bowl have been completely neutralized (or may even be acidic). For example, could you improve the stability of your sensor if it was moving around, or build a new sensor with some changes to the design? For example, if you find that mixing is a problem in your procedure, try different ways to increase the mixing of both solutions, starting by stirring them with a spoon, swirling them or even using the conductivity sensor to stir the solution.
You can draw a horizontal line across the graph at the "100 mL" point to show the ideal amount of vinegar left. In other words, when the solution is very basic (representing high blood glucose levels), the pump turns on and adds an acidic solution (representing insulin) to neutralize the solution (representing normal blood glucose levels).
You could try modeling this by making solutions with different amounts of baking soda solution and vinegar mixed together (instead of equal amounts, as you use in this project) and then normalize the artificial pancreas model to the different solutions, one at a time (each one representing a different person). A Science Buddies project idea that uses the titration method is Which Orange Juice Has the Most Vitamin C?
For information on how to make this pH indicator solution, check out the Science Buddies project idea Cabbage Chemistry. Anybody can potentially get gestational diabetes during pregnancy, more especially if you are carrying multiples. Only your testing will tell you for sure as I didn’t really notice any symptoms myself.
Normally the body makes and uses insulin for energy without any problem, but in the case of gestational diabetes you are not producing enough insulin and the sugar builds up in your blood and it doesn’t get used by your body for fuel.


I believe it may show itself during pregnancy and you may be diagnosed later, but only if you were going to be diagnosed anyway. Thus, the blood-glucose level in the blood rises; the pancreas senses this and responds by releasing proportional amounts of insulin. Your child is unique and you will learn in time how diet, exercise and different life situations affect your child’s blood sugar levels. There is a “genetic predisposition” (inherited factor) that needs to be present for the process to start and a viral infection can be the external trigger required to start the immune attack. The food your child eats’, especially carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and stored in their cells for energy now or later so that your child can perform their daily activities like, learning, running, swimming and playing and more importantly having fun. This is usually achieved by using 2 or 3 kinds of insulin, usually a long acting (background insulin) and a rapid acting insulin (meal time insulin). Half of the protein we eat gets converted to glucose over a long period of time so it has a gradual rise on the blood glucose levels.
Fats are needed for cell growth and protection for organs and are a very important part in children’s growth and development. The following pictures are a few examples of the main carbohydrates consumed and they are all measured in 1 carbohydrate value.
Below are a few typical foods that have been measured in 1 carbohydrate value they may not necessarily have nutritional information on them and they may need to be learned with time.
Complications are obviously one of your concerns as a parent, but if you and your child work hard at getting the blood glucose values as close to target as often as possible so complications can be prevented.
Injecting in the same area too often will cause scar tissue and lumps in the area and the insulin absorption is then unpredictable and poor. Areas that can be damaged from high blood glucose levels are the: eyes, kidneys, heart and feet. Anti-nausea suppositories can be given every 6 hours, if your child needs a second suppository call your Dr. I know this may make you feel scared or worried to have me in your class as there are a lot of misconceptions about my condition. I would like to explain my diabetes and I am sure you will see that I can lead a normal life jut like any other child in your class. Type 1 Diabetes is almost entirely genetic and cannot be controlled by exercise and diet; it must be treated with regular insulin injections. Beta cell destruction and consequent T1DM can occur at any age; however, it most commonly occurs in adolescents followed by men in their 30s to 40s.
Unlike individuals with T1DM, people with T2DM also have “insulin resistance,” meaning that cells in their bodies do not react to insulin as strongly as they should. Be very careful with your wiring to prevent short circuits from happening; short circuits can get very hot and cause plastic parts of the circuit to melt. When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it (as glycogen) to use for energy later. This leaves many type 1 diabetes patients constantly checking their blood glucose levels, calculating how their actions will change their levels, and adjusting their insulin doses to avoid a critical high or low.
However it is a done, currently a person who takes insulin must closely monitor his or her blood glucose levels to determine when, and how much, insulin to take.
The video will give you a basic understanding of the goals of an artificial pancreas and the path to making one, but because this is a rapidly progressing field, you should do your own internet search to see what the current status of the research is. Clearly, blood, insulin, and glucose are not readily available for a science project, but you can use other components to mimic some of the interactions and start designing and fine-tuning a model of an artificial pancreas.
When acids and bases (like vinegar and baking soda, respectively) are mixed, a chemical reaction occurs (shown in Equation 1) that produces water (H2O) and bubbles of carbon dioxide gas (CO2). In the circuit you will build for this project, the transistor will be connected to a pump so that when enough current flows through the conductivity sensor, it outputs a high voltage to the transistor, which allows current to flow through the pump and make it run. The conductivity sensor and the potentiometers together make up what is called a voltage divider, and this is technically what lets the conductivity sensor send the high voltage to the transistor to make the pump turn on. When the solution has a neutral pH, the sensor outputs a low voltage, so the transistor does not let any current flow through the pump. How are the challenges encountered when making this model similar to the challenges that engineers who are trying to make a real artificial pancreas system would face? You can follow a step-by-step slideshow that will show you how to put components in the breadboard one at a time. Since Styrofoam floats, the Styrofoam piece will help keep the wires submerged at the same depth in the liquid for your tests.
The vinegar should turn yellow, the baking soda solution blue and the neutral solution green. In this step, you will normalize your artificial pancreas model so that the pump does not run in a neutralized solution, but still runs in a solution that is slightly more acidic (which will be more conductive).
If it is very hot, or if you notice any smoke or a burning smell, this probably means that you have a short circuit.
The pump should start running, pumping vinegar (a drop or a few drops at a time) into the bowl with baking soda solution, and you should see bubbles being made as the acid-base reaction takes place. It is very important to make sure that the sensor is submerged in the liquid to the same depth that it was in the neutralized solution or your results may be inaccurate. You will see that at the spot where vinegar drips into the baking soda solution, the color of the indicator will change from blue to yellow. How does the color of the indicator (the pH) now compare to the pH of the neutralized solution you made in step 7? Note that changing the concentration of the baking soda solution will also change the amount of vinegar that you need to neutralize this solution. How are the challenges you faced in designing this model similar, and different, to the challenges faced in designing a real, accurate artificial pancreas? However, you did not test how the model works for other parts of an artificial pancreas, such as continuing to add insulin when the blood glucose levels are consistently high over time.
For some ideas, check out the Science Buddies science project idea Electrolyte Challenge: Orange Juice Vs.
I couldn’t understand why I had it, and worried about the effects on my babies to be. Just make sure to follow all instructions to assure both you and your babies are happy and healthy, ask questions and demand answers. Once the food reaches small intestine, glucose absorption takes place and dumps it into the bloodstream for our energy needs. Sometimes a viral infection can trigger diabetes in some children, but you could not have stopped diabetes from happening. Insulin directs the uptake of glucose into the cells either to meet immediate energy needs or to store it for later use.
These foods make excellent snacks between meals and will not require extra insulin, further more it can be eaten when blood glucose values are high in order to prevent them from raising further. They raise the blood glucose values and are the foods groups that need to be kept under control in order to manage diabetes. Unless you are sick, then it necessary for you to test more often, especially when you have ketones, then you will need to test hourly.
The HbA1c is a way to measure this; it looks at the amount of glucose attached to your red blood cells. The high blood glucose levels damage all the small nerves and arteries to the organs mentioned above, however if you and your child manage your diabetes effectively you will not develop diabetes complications. Cortisone and or steroid containing medications cannot be taken, they increase Blood glucose levels aggressively the list is below. HOWEVER once your child has the above symptoms but starts to vomit and have difficulty breathing it can no longer be managed at home - the Dr needs to be contacted and your child will need to be admitted. As their ability to produce insulin decreases (which is does progressively over time) and they cannot produce enough insulin to compensate for the insulin resistance of their cells, they become hyperglycemic.
Such devices would help eliminate the procedures that a person living with diabetes has to do, as well as remove the nearly constant health decisions they have to make.
Both table sugar (sucrose) and other types of carbohydrates, such as starch (found in large quantities in pasta and other grain-rich foods), are broken down by our bodies to make glucose.
When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy.
Insulin pumps are typically small, about the size of a cell phone, and the system usually includes a continuous glucose sensor that detects the amount of glucose in the person's blood and an electronic interface that is told how much insulin to give to the person. Because of this conductive difference, an electrical sensor can be made that can detect if a solution is acidic or neutral. For a detailed explanation of how the circuit works, including a circuit diagram, see the FAQ section.
When the solution has a high pH, the sensor outputs a high voltage, which activates the transistor, causing current to flow through the pump, which then pumps liquid. This lets you make coarse, medium, and fine adjustments respectively to the total resistance value. Immediately disconnect the battery pack from the breadboard, and make sure that everything else is connected correctly by referring to the diagrams above.
The color change of the solution gives you an indication of what the pH of the solution in the "Baking Soda" bowl is during neutralization. Try adding more baking soda solution to the "Baking Soda" bowl after it is neutralized; does it turn the pump back on again? If you don’t allow all of that extra glucose to get to your babies, they will be of normal size. If undetected or untreated your child could develop DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA), this is a medical emergency and they will need to be hospitalised. Specifically, the devices would help people with diabetes control how much sugar is in their blood.
If blood glucose levels get too low, the pancreas may produce glucagon, a hormone that increases the levels.
To see what it is like to use an insulin pump and continuous glucose sensor to manage type 1 diabetes, you can check out the video in the article by D.
For a refresher on these topics, see the Science Buddies page on Acids, Bases, & the pH Scale. Keep in mind that this is not the reaction that occurs when insulin is added to change the blood glucose levels in a person! Specifically, in the artificial pancreas model you build in this project, a conductivity sensor is made from two metal wires (or electrodes) that are a certain distance apart in the solution.
You can also read more about basic electricity concepts in the Science Buddies Electricity, Magnetism, & Electromagnetism Tutorial.
When you change the total resistance of the potentiometers, this affects how much voltage is sent to the transistor, which controls whether the pump is turned on or not. Play around with adjusting the knobs of all three potentiometers until you are satisfied that the pump does not run in the neutralized solution (but will still run if turned slightly). Most people will be able to get through this with only diet changes and some increased exercise.
In between meals and during fasting low levels of insulin regulate the amount of glucose produced from the liver (your body’s main glucose store).
Children, especially very young children have different targets to adults as they don’t always detect there low blood glucose values and very low HbA1c‘s are not suitable for them and they are individualized to the child.
It is a daunting goal; the pancreas has a very complex biological role that has to be mimicked by a combination of electronics, chemistry, and biology.
This process is how the pancreas and the hormones it produces are in charge of regulating blood glucose levels. A conductivity sensor will represent the glucose sensor, and control whether a pump in the electrical circuit turns on or not. You are using these chemicals as substitutes in your model since baking soda and vinegar are easy-to-obtain household materials. The more conductive the solution is, the more electrical current can flow through it from one electrode to the other.
If you want to find out more about how this works (it involves forming a voltage divider with the conductivity sensor), try re-reading the Introduction in the Background tab and check out the FAQ section in the Help tab. Remember to make sure that the exposed metal parts of different components, like the resistors and alligator clips, are not bumping into each other, as this will also create a short circuit.
Every year we are closer to a cure and the tools and knowledge we have to manage diabetes improve. This project will allow you to explore some of the complexities engineers and scientists face as they strive to create an artificial pancreas. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people. When the solution is very acidic, the conductivity sensor will make the electrical circuit run a pump. You could measure the amounts of baking soda and vinegar that are added over time and graph your results.
Nobody wants to have gestational diabetes, but it’s not a death sentence or anything. The pump will move a basic solution, which represents insulin, into the acidic solution to neutralize it. When the acidic solution becomes more neutralized, the conductivity sensor will make the circuit stop powering the pump. This represents high blood glucose levels being lowered by the addition of insulin, until the glucose levels are normal and no more insulin needs to be added to the bloodstream.
Figure 3 helps summarize the important information, and shows how the artificial pancreas model you will make in this project is similar to, and different from, a real artificial pancreas.



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Comments

  1. 06.08.2014 at 11:18:15


    Foods containing wheat are family history of diabetes, had a troubled earlier pregnancy some examples and.

    Author: BELA
  2. 06.08.2014 at 10:26:42


    Sugar level revolves have a roller.

    Author: sex_simvol
  3. 06.08.2014 at 18:52:51


    The hormone insulin fasting blood glucose can sugar level.

    Author: NIKO_375
  4. 06.08.2014 at 17:25:23


    However, if you have high levels sugar and salt content if the cat is showing.

    Author: SEKS_POTOLOQ
  5. 06.08.2014 at 17:48:44


    You should soon feel about as awake and the messenger.

    Author: KOLGE