Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body's organs, muscles and nervous system. Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis).
When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage. When there isn't enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). Too much glucose over an extended time (hyperglycemia) can result in the destruction of nerves, lowered resistance to infection, and heart and kidney disease. While the exact causes of diabetes are still not known, the conditions that characterize diabetes are pretty well agreed upon and symptoms are largely the same. Any physical activity requires more energy and the body cells actively take up more sugar from the blood stream. In order to try and understand the causes of diabetes, first the action of insulin on the body must be understood. Type I Diabetes is caused due to insulin deficiency which occurs due to destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility and heredity are also causes of Type I Diabetes and some individuals are more prone to developing the condition than others [5]. People who are genetically susceptible to developing Type I Diabetes may become diabetic when triggered by environmental factors like diet, viruses, and toxins. While a virus or an infection cannot trigger Type I Diabetes on their own, there has often been a link which suggests that certain factors can trigger the condition in individuals who are already at the risk of developing the disease [4]. There is active research being carried out in order to develop a vaccine which can help individuals fight these pathogens. Infants, who face improper feeding practices, such as the early or late introduction of cereal to the diet, or an early exposure to cow’s milk rather than mother’s milk are at a higher risk of developing Type I Diabetes. Type I Diabetes mellitus can also be controlled or corrected by intake of insulin as a curative measure.
Type II Diabetes is caused due to a number of factors like insulin resistance, where the body’s muscle, fat, and liver cells become ineffective to use up all the insulin. Type II Diabetes is more prevalent than Type I Diabetes as it is found in almost 90% of the total diabetic cases whereas less than 10% of diabetics suffer from Type I Diabetes. Genetic studies reveal that some specific variants of genes can cause individuals to be at a higher risk of developing Type II Diabetes. Genes may also influence how much a person weighs and obesity is also thought to be caused by genes. A sedentary lifestyle, especially among the elderly, is also associated with Type II diabetes. In some special cases, the liver of individuals proves to produce excess amounts of glucose, even when the body does not require sugar. Type II Diabetes can also be caused because of a dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas [3]. Sometimes, the process in which cells regulate their communication and signaling is also affected and there is an improper channel of communication. Type II Diabetes can be reversed by medications that may either reduce the glucose production by liver or by increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Gestational diabetes is exclusively associated with pregnant females especially in their third trimester who had never suffered from diabetes previously [2]. Gestational Diabetes can occur in women due to dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas or a resistance being developed by the body in response to insulin.

Women who have a family history of any kind of diabetes are also at a higher risk of encountering the disease.
Pregnant women who are diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes are also at a higher risk of contracting both prediabetes and Type II Diabetes in the future.
The causes of prediabetes are generally considered to be the same as the causes of Type II Diabetes [1].
Genetic mutations may cause the beta cells of the pancreas to dysfunction and more often than not, such mutations occur spontaneously. In some cases, damage done to the pancreas, including damage caused by any surgery to organs around the pancreas can also trigger the onset of some types of diabetes. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our [my_terms_of_service_and_privacy_policy].
The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas.
After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine. This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose.
This process, known as gluconeogenesis, occurs most often during intense exercise and instances of starvation. It is characterized by an increase in the blood glucose levels which may be either due to insufficient production of insulin, the inability of body cells to use insulin properly or due to production of defective insulin depending upon the type of diabetes. While researches still debate on the exact causes of the disorder, many argue that genetic factors, including the presence of some form of the disease in the history of the family, combined with some special triggers such as some specific environmental factors can lead to individuals developing the condition. It is the substance which is carried to all parts of the body via the blood and is absorbed by the cells of the body. As the level of glucose in the blood stream decreases, the regulation of the hormone insulin helps to keep the levels in check in order to provide the necessary energy to different parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disease caused due to self-destruction of beta cells by the body’s own defense cells. These genes, which are passed down in a family through generations can determine whether a member will develop the condition in the future.
However, the exact mechanism or the nature by which this process is triggered is still not known. Type II Diabetes occurs when the body is no longer able to produce enough insulin as a compensatory mechanism. Type II Diabetes develops commonly in middle-aged and old people and more often in overweight or obese individuals. However, only a few of these gene variants have been identified and the majority of these are still to be discovered. Obesity can also greatly increase a person’s susceptibility to developing Type II Diabetes. Such people, if they are also genetically susceptible to the disease are much more vulnerable to the condition. In such conditions, the sugar rapidly builds up in the blood stream and the effect of insulin is no enough to counter these levels. Any impairment of these cells causes abnormal amounts of insulin to be released into the blood stream and this process results in a higher concentrations of blood sugar. In such cases, the some proteins and other specific substances affect the sensitivity of insulin to the body. It can also be controlled or prevented in susceptible individuals by modifying the lifestyles such as by taking up physical exercises, by diet modification (by replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids) to control obesity.
As with Type II Diabetes and prediabetes, Gestational Diabetes is also more frequently associated with obese people and people who are overweight.

This again, suggests that heredity and genes play a major role in determining diabetes in an individual. While Gestational Diabetes is a non-chronic condition and the blood sugar levels in the mother’s body return to normal shortly after child birth, care will always need to be taken throughout the life of the individual in order to prevent the onset of the chronic disease.
In this condition, the cells of the body become resistant to the action of insulin on the body, and this leads to a buildup of the sugar levels in the blood stream. For instance gene mutations, Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM) or injuries and defects in pancreas can lead to any form of chronic and non-chronic diabetes being diagnosed in an individual. Some known genetic diseases such as Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome and also Down syndrome are also associated with cases of diabetes and active research is being carried out in order to determine a definitive genetic link between all of these disorders. Glucose is obtained by the body through the process of digestion and is carried out by the liver.
Insulin is responsible for regulating the way in which the cells of the body absorb glucose from the blood stream. Latent auto-immune diabetes (LADA) is also found in adults and is often mistaken as Type II diabetes.
While some theories suggest that these factors aid in the destruction of the beta cells, some other theories seem to suggest that these factors play a longer and ongoing role in the condition. In such cases, metformin is often prescribed to control the high concentrations of sugar in the blood. Just like Type II Diabetes, even Gestational Diabetes occurs due to inadequate insulin secretion as well as decreased responsiveness to insulin. Gene variants, as also a combination of gene variants can prove to cause Gestational Diabetes in some women.
Endocrine diseases which affect the release of hormones might cause improper amounts of insulin being released into the blood stream. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.This website is for informational purposes only. Elizabeth has traveled throughout the Americas, studying political systems and indigenous cultures and teaching English to students of all ages. When the food is being digested, excess amounts of glucose are also stored by the liver in the form of glycogen.
In cases of diabetes, the sensitivity of the body to insulin is greatly hindered and the cells of the body are unable to effectively absorb sugar from the blood stream. Heredity gas a major role to play in Type 1 diabetes as it is passed on from one generation to other through genes.
Various studies have been done all over the world to prove that Type II Diabetes is caused due to obesity and physical inactivity in the youth today.
Research is actively being conducted in this area in order to determine how exactly this process is associated with the development of Type II Diabetes in an individual.
In most of the cases of gestational diabetes, it is corrected after the delivery but in some cases it may continue to occur.
When the body requires more glucose, the liver breaks up the glycogen into glucose and then releases it into the blood stream. HLA or Human Leukocyte Antigens also play an important role in determining the chances of occurrence of diabetes in an individual since these cells help in recognizing the body’s own cells as foreign cells leading to their auto-destruction. Gestational Diabetes is harmful to both mother and fetus and may result in few complications if not controlled. When the glucose levels are abnormally high, it leads to the diagnosis of some type of diabetes or prediabetes.

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  3. 08.07.2014 at 19:30:40

    Association between diabetes and liver blood glucose.

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