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Endocrine Endocrine hormones are released into the bloodstream and move throughout the body in a few seconds.
Second Messengers Transfers the signal from the first messengerthe hormoneto other molecules within the cell, often activating specific intracellular enzymes These activated enzymes initiate a chain of biochemical reactions that vary depending on the hormone, the second messenger, and the target cell Epinephrine stimulates the synthesis of cyclic AMP in both heart muscle and liver cells, but the result is different in the two cell types Cyclic AMP causes heart muscle cells to contract more strongly.
Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when some or all of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed.
Type 1 diabetes is not caused by the amount of sugar in a person’s diet before the disease develops.
Even after it is diagnosed and treatment is begun, type 1 diabetes can affect all body systems.
Eye damage (retinopathy) — Tiny blood vessels of the retina (the back of the eye, the part that senses light) are damaged by high blood sugar. Nerve damage (neuropathy) — High blood sugar can damage nerves, leading to pain or numbness of the affected body part. Heart and artery disease — People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have heart disease, strokes and problems related to poor circulation.
Hypoglycemia — Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can result from treatments to lower blood sugar, either insulin injections or pills (see Treatment section, below). Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by a combination of symptoms, a person’s age and blood tests. On unusual occasions, when someone’s type 1 diabetes is very hard to control with available treatments, pancreas or islet transplantation may be performed even when kidney transplantation is not necessary. Scientists have recently reported exciting but still experimental new ways for encouraging the pancreas to again start producing its own insulin-producing beta cells. People with type 1 diabetes must properly regulate both their dietary intake and their dose of insulin.
In order to properly regulate their insulin intake, people with type 1 diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels several times per day. Newer glucose monitors have test strips that take the blood directly from the spot that was pricked.
Fast-acting insulin may be taken as needed, depending on the amount of carbohydrates ingested. A healthy diet and regular exercise are important for everyone—but particularly for people with diabetes.
In order to keep blood sugar levels at a normal and relatively constant level, a person with type 1 diabetes typically is advised to eat, exercise and take insulin at about the same times every day. Call your health care professional if you experience a sudden increase in thirst and urination. If you or your child has type 1 diabetes, see your doctor regularly to make sure that you are keeping good control of your blood sugar.
People with type 1 diabetes generally adjust quickly to the time and attention that is needed to monitor blood sugar, treat the disease and maintain a normal lifestyle. Diabetes exists in two main strains; diabetes mellitus, the more common condition affecting most sufferers, and diabetes insipidus, an extremely rare disease affecting only a very small percentage of the general population (estimated at three in 100,000).
Diabetes has been known to physicians for thousands of years; one of the first references to it being in the Ebers Papyrus written in Egypt in 1500 BC where the treatment included a mixture of bones and green lead, one not strongly advised today.
Derived from the two ancient Greek words; dia meaning through and betes meaning passing, ‘diabetes’ refers to the rapid passing of water through the body from the time of its ingestion to its eventual elimination in the urine. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterised by abnormally high concentrations of glucose in the blood (hyperglycaemia) and in the urine.
In response to rising levels of glucose in the blood, certain cells in the pancreas - an endocrine organ (an organ that secretes its products directly into the bloodstream) produces a hormone called insulin. Insulin is held in the form of proinsulin, a large, inactive molecule which can be rapidly converted to insulin where there is demand. As displayed in the diagram below, the blood sugar level is controlled most importantly through the action of the hormone insulin, produced by the islet cells in the pancreas. Abnormality in the ? cells of the pancreas can result in the production of little or no insulin; or cells such as muscle or fat cells of some people seem to be resistant to the action of insulin. Type 1 diabetes, or Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is so called because it can only be treated by insulin administration.
IDDM is not directly inherited, although individuals may inherit a tendency in that those with certain histocompatibility antigens (HLA) types show increased susceptibility to this type of disease. Insulins are often classified according to how quickly they remove glucose from the blood; short, long and ultra-long acting and the individual patient in consultation with their doctor will determine this.
Type 2 diabetes, or Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), affects about 90% of the diabetic population.6) In this condition the pancreas can still produce insulin but not in sufficient amounts to control glucose metabolism, or the person’s cells may be resistant to the action of the insulin.
This form of diabetes usually occurs in those over the age of forty, and is harder to detect as some people may show no symptoms. NIDDM is largely associated with obesity and the condition can usually be controlled by an increase in physical activity and a more closely monitored, healthier diet. When the glucose level in the blood exceeds its normal upper limit, the person is said to be suffering from hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia, or the ‘low’ - hypoglycaemia -insulin shock, is caused by a low level of blood glucose. Diabetes insipidus must be differentiated from diabetes mellitus which is an entirely different disease. The diagnosis of diabetes must always be established by measuring blood glucose, although glycosuria (the excretion of glucose into the urine) nearly always indicates diabetes. The future for diabetics has improved with more recent developments in methods of taking insulin, and the possibility of being able to stop diabetes before it starts. It is usually an increase in blood sugar after a meal because many foods contain of glucose.

They are most commonly used by diabetics to control blood sugar levels, to ensure that they are not too high or too low, but many people can benefit from obedience to clock on blood sugar levels throughout the day. People with diabetes have low blood sugar levels after a meal, or high, depending on the type. Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to break down glucose in the blood enzyme. Type-2 diabetes cause blood sugar remains high because the body produces too much insulin, and ultimately lasting effects.
Sugar in the blood normally varies throughout the day and usually at the lowest level since the morning before breakfast.
When glucose cannot be taken into the cells, there becomes a build-up of excess sugar in the blood. Neither University of Cincinnati (NetWellness) nor any party involved in creating, producing or delivering this web site shall be liable for any damages arising out of access to or use of this web site, or any errors or omissions in the content thereof. It is less likely to damage the body, and cause symptoms, if the blood sugar levels are well controlled by treatment. If a person takes too much insulin relative to their dietary intake, or if they forget to eat, they can develop dangerous hypoglycemia. Other patients use semiautomatic injector pens that help to measure precise amounts of insulin. Insulin pumps deliver a regulated dose of insulin through a needle implanted under the skin. Your doctor or dietitian will help you determine the best insulin and diet schedule for you or your child. Exercise protects the health of the heart and blood vessels in people with diabetes, as in everyone.
You should also be checked regularly for early signs of complications such as heart disease, eye problems and skin infections. These may include a podiatrist to check your feet and an ophthalmologist to check your eyes for signs of diabetes complications. But it can be reduced greatly if you strictly monitor and control your blood glucose levels. THE ADMINISTRATION IS NO LONGER ABLE TO HANDLE THE COST WITHOUT ASSISTANCE DUE TO THE RISING COST. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus or ordinary diabetes is a chronic disorder usually caused by a deficient secretion of insulin. In the seventeenth century diabetes was known as ‘the pissing evil’ a statement which might still hold true amongst sufferers. The ‘mellitus’ refers to the fact that the urine is ‘sweet‘ or like ‘honey’, and is the disease known as ‘plain’ diabetes. Blood glucose level is controlled by insulin and glucose is reabsorbed by the kidney preventing its loss from the body. In general, endocrine organs are concerned solely with the production of hormones to regulate the body’s metabolism.
Thus both pancreatic hormones, glucagon and insulin, are involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels.
Other hormones, such as growth hormone, adrenalin, adrenal steroids (cortisone), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and glucagons also affect the blood glucose level. It is administered by injection into the subcutaneous layer (layer under the skin) where it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, which transports it around the body so that it can act on the body cells to control the level of glucose. In this case, many of the symptoms are the same as those for IDDM; thirst, frequent urination, slow healing of wounds and increased susceptibility to infection, itching in the genital region, general weakness and fatigue, as well as blurred vision.
It is a strongly hereditary condition and women who had large babies or large families are also more prone to develop this type of diabetes later in life, and pass it on. This is known as the ‘high’ - hyperglycaemia - diabetic coma, often characterised by excessive thirst, increased appetite, with weight loss, ‘fruity’ breath (due to the breakdown of fat, producing ketones) and coma.
The brain responds very quickly to low levels of blood sugar because glucose is its main energy supply. This is a much rarer form of diabetes, characterised again by excessive thirst and the passing of large volumes of dilute urine with a low specific gravity and containing no abnormal constituents. Little is know concerning the treatment of the condition, although the urine volume can usually be reduced by half by a thiazide diuretic. The best way for an individual, blood sugar after a meal, to the test to determine the exact amount is to use a portable blood glucose. This is usually a condition that was born with one, and it is not caused by eating too much sugar.
Both types can be through proper nutrition and exercise, and sometimes insulin injections are administered.
2 hours after meal blood sugar levels on a consistent basis may be lower or higher than normal to test for abnormally high sugar content foods approval or lack of acceptance. Since they cannot control their blood sugar level by themselves they must know what normal blood sugar readings are. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas.
This is because the increased glucose in the blood causes the kidneys to create more urine than usual. Other monitors allow blood to be taken from the forearm, thigh or the fleshy part of the hand.
The unused sugar accumulates in the blood and acts as a poison which in extreme untreated cases sends the patient into coma and may result in death. It is a relatively small molecule composed of atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen: C6H12O6. Situated in the first loop of the small intestine, the pancreas is ideally located to play its role in regulation of blood sugar through hormonal secretions, as well as to pursue its activities in digestion through the secretion of pancreatic juice.

All of these hormones affect the level of glucose in the blood, but in non-diabetic individuals this level will be controlled by insulin. This hormone was discovered and isolated in 1921 by two Canadian scientists, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, but it wasn’t until 1955 that the question concerning its structure was solved by Frederick Sanger, the English biochemist.
However, with NIDDM there is usually a gradual onset of symptoms, contrasting with the rather sudden changes that often occur with IDDM.
The gene involved is the one responsible for producing glucagon’s receptor, the molecule to which it binds. A high blood sugar level takes hours or even days to develop, and may take hours to get back to normal. Once affected, typical symptoms include weakness and hunger, trembling, sweating, visual blurring, behavioural changes, mental confusion and possibly coma. Unlike diabetes mellitus, it is due to either a lack of the antidiuretic hormone normally produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland in the skull, or to a defect in the renal (kidney) tubules which prevents them responding to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin.
However these limits are the averages and the threshold varies considerably between individuals and increases with age.
The numerous daily injections necessary for some patients may be replaced by a constant delivery pump, the insulin entering by needle under the skin.
Some foods, such as refined carbohydrates, which for sudden and slowly rise in blood sugar. Which is a small device that uses thin strips with a blood sample to determine blood sugar level. Some pumps include a sensor that constantly measures the level of blood sugar, and adjusts the dose of insulin accordingly. HOWEVER, WITH LITERALLY NO DONATIONS FOR THE PAST 2+ YEARS IT HAS DEPLETED THE BUDGET IN SHORT ORDER WITH THE INCREASE IN ACTIVITY ON THE SITE IN THE PAST 6 MONTHS. In 1889 two German scientists discovered that the removal of the pancreas, a large gland in the abdomen which plays a major part in the condition, gave rise to diabetes.
After a big meal or one high in carbohydrates, a large amount of glucose enters the bloodstream and is carried around the body. IDDM tends to occur in young people, with a peak age of onset of between twelve and fourteen years. It is now known to be a small protein molecule consisting of 51 amino acids, connected in an exact way. In those with the condition, it binds only about a third as strongly to glucogon as it does in healthy people, in turn leading to a decrease in insulin production and therefore high glucose levels and the symptoms of diabetes.
Treatment involves fluid replacement and insulin injection, and the coma rarely results in death.
This attack can develop in a matter of minutes, and is easily stopped by taking sugar, although if prolonged severe brain damage or death may occur. When due to a vasopressin insufficiency, a primary or secondary tumour in the area of the pituitary stalk is responsible for one third of cases. Research identifying the stretch of DNA responsible for IDDM may lead to widespread provision of solutions in addressing a cure for the disease.7) With expert medical attention and determination, sufferers can now lead normal lives. OUR CPU USAGE HAS BECOME TOO HIGH TO REMAIN ON A REASONABLE COSTING PLAN THAT WE COULD MAINTAIN.
The body, and in particular the brain, is extremely sensitive to the concentration of glucose in the blood and function is impaired when the level of blood sugar rises above or drops below certain limits.
Scattered throughout the pancreas are small clumps of hormone-producing cells called the islets of Langerhans, being only about two per cent by mass of the pancreas. It is due to damage to and eventual loss of the ? cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, with resulting loss of insulin production. It is a two-chain structure of amino-acids bonded together by two chemical ‘bridges’ containing atoms of sulphur. The remainder of cases result from those with no apparent cause, and those from a variety of lesions including trauma, basal meningitis and granulomatous lesions in the pituitary stalk area. Diabetes is where the body’s organ called the pancreas manufactures too little of a chemical called insulin. A diabetic diet should consist of non sugary foods and foods that are high in dietary fiber.
After a heavy meal glucose pours into the bloodstream from the small intestine, but this level does not continue to rise indefinitely.
These islets are composed of two main cell types; the alpha cells (?-cells) and the beta cells (?-cells). Diabetes mellitus occurs when one cannot control the level of blood sugar through the action of insulin.
The insulin is extracted from mainly cattle and pigs (bovine and porcine insulins respectively). Insulin is a chemical that the body uses to change the sugar (glucose) in the blood stream into fuel that are cells are able to use.
The ? cells produce glucagon, the hormone responsible for increasing the level of blood sugar, whereas the ? cells produce insulin, the hormone responsible for lowering the blood sugar level.
The incidence of Addison’s disease, thyroid disease and pernicious anaemia are increased in IDDM. When the insulin levels are not where they are needed to be the sugar levels begin to rise.
Both of these should be discussed with your doctor as he can give some of the best information. When they reach a certain level they begin to damage the body severely the damage that is often done consists of heart, eye, nerve, and kidney damage.

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  1. 31.12.2015 at 15:16:28

    Some exericse, lose weight, watch the alcohol, we all know what with type 1 diabetes should.

    Author: MAD_RACER
  2. 31.12.2015 at 15:44:40

    Level in the morning and its hypoglycemia and insulin resistance, it is no surprise that they are are pretty.

    Author: Alisina