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Diabetes (otherwise known as diabetes mellitus, DM) is described as a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use the energy found in food.
More specifically, diabetes is a condition that affects the body's ability to use glucose (a type of sugar) as fuel. Sometimes the body does not make enough insulin or the cells do not respond properly to insulin.
Type 1 diabetes used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes as it often begins in childhood. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) and adult onset diabetes, but it is increasingly common in children, largely due to children being more likely to be obese or overweight. You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories. 1.7 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older in 2012. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented through healthy food choices, physical activity, and weight management.
The easiest way to find out the differences, as well as similarities between the two, is through comparing the type 1 with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic patients measure glucose blood levels using a glucometer, small drop of blood from finger and a test strip.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system erroneously attacks the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, destroying these cells and reducing the body's ability to produce sufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce sufficient insulin and the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. Insulin use not only prevents hyperglycemic emergencies, but is a safeguard that helps to prevent long-term complications of diabetes by correcting fasting and postprandial (after meal) hyperglycemia.
Both of the major types of diabetes typically include different stages of disease, beginning with a state where supplemental insulin is not required to a state that does require exogenous insulin for blood glucose control and survival.
Beta cells in pancreas are attacked by the body's own immune system, therefore reducing insulin production, leading to elevated blood glucose.
Persistently high intakes of dietary sugars leads to excess demands on insulin production, which leads to insulin resistance over time. Type 2 diabetes is more common in people with low levels of vitamin D, which is synthesized from sunlight. Obesity tends to run in families, and families tend to have similar eating and exercise habits. Insulin is like a key that opens up the locks on your body's cells so that glucose (blood sugar) can get inside and be used for energy. Researchers from Imperial College London in the UK have found that babies born by cesarean section are more likely to be overweight or obese in adulthood than those born by vaginal delivery. Scientists have discovered a genetic deficiency in males that could prompt the development of the most common type of liver cancer and type 2 diabetes. On the next page we look at the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as tests and diagnosis and the treatments for each diabetes type.
Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose, IDF, October 2007, Accessed 28 February 2014.
Type 1 diabetes: diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in children, young people and adults, nice, July 2004, Accessed 28 February 2014. Clinical Trials Gov, The Insulin Independence Trial (IIT) Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Oral Cyclosporine and Oral Omeprazole for Insulin Independence Among Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients, accessed 24 July 2015. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLANichols, Hannah.
For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page. Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Learn all about diabetes, a lifelong metabolism disorder that causes high blood sugar levels.
Learn all about type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the differences between the two conditions in our article about the diabetes mellitus metabolism disorder. Knowing what normal A1C levels for diabetics is a very important way to determine if you should be worry about your blood sugar test result. For those of you who are familiar with diabetes and the other factors related to diabetes, A1C level is the measurement of how good your body process blood sugar, or glucose, in your system, using its own insulin.


As explained above, normal A1C levels for a diabetics differ from country to country, and also differ from people to people. Recent Commentspatrice thompson on Free Diabetic Supplies – How to Get Them?munnaamalai on Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes ChartJessica I.
The chart below can help you find out what your average blood sugar is using your latest A1c test result. The University of Kansas Medical CenterThe University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression, and genetic information in the university's programs and activities. An important reason to know your average blood glucose is that it is closely related to your risk of developing long-term complications of diabetes. How does this chart apply to you?The A1c measures the average blood glucose over the past 2-3 months. You have very low or very high blood glucose levels during the night, but you do not wake up to test. In fact, things like missing a mealtime injection or eating more carbs than you planned can cause spikes, which may only occur at certain times of day. Want to get more specific?In addition to looking at your overall 7-day or 14-day averages, you can focus on the average blood glucose at a particular time of the day.
Important note: The content of this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The BD Diabetes Learning Center describes the causes of diabetes, its symptoms, and diabetes complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. Important Note: The content of this website is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Unless otherwise noted, BD, BD logo and all other trademarks are property of Becton Dickinson and Company. Glucose is a form of carbohydrate that comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables. Insulin is a hormone (a type of chemical messenger) made by specialized cells in the pancreas. Prediabetes describes the condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system wrongly identifies and subsequently attacks the pancreatic cells that produce insulin, leading to little or no insulin production. In this condition, the body usually still produces some insulin, but this is not enough to meet demand and the body's cells do not properly respond to the insulin. People who have experienced gestational diabetes do, however, have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. It can also be managed through lifestyle and diet, although insulin or oral medication may be necessary for some people.
These two diabetes types have several key differences, for instance the differences in cause, symptoms, characteristics, management, incidence, who it affects and what effects the disease has on the body.
Receptor cells that have become less sensitive (resistant) to insulin are unable to remove glucose from the blood, leading to higher blood glucose and greater demands on insulin production. In most cases of type 1 diabetes, the patient would need to inherit risk factors from both parents. Autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubella cytomegalovirus. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in winter than summer and is more common in places with cold climates. Type 1 diabetes is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages.
Diets high in simple sugars and low in fibre and vital nutrients are more likely to lead to diabetes.
If you want to know the number for normal A1C levels for diabetics, you have come to the right place.
This glycated hemoglobin will exist for around 120 days, that is why usually A1C test is good for 3 months.
Keeping your A1c less than 7 percent significantly reduces your risk for the complication related to diabetes, including retinopathy (eye damage), neuropathy (nerve damage), and kidney damage.
If you measured your blood glucose at random, many times each day for 2-3 months, the average blood glucose level in your meter and your A1c test would show virtually the same level. Since the A1c measures 2-3 months, while the 14-day average measures only 2 weeks, if your blood glucose has been much better in the past 2 weeks, the A1c level will not have caught up yet. These high post-meal values are reflected in the A1c number but are not reflected in your meter's 14-day average.


Again, these abnormal values will not be included in the meter's 14-day average, but they are reflected in the A1c. Knowing this allows you to concentrate on solving specific problem situations in your diabetes care routine. This is called time-specific averaging.Looking at time-specific averages is another way to discover trouble spots in your diabetes care. Do not disregard your doctor's advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this article. This site contains detailed information about blood glucose monitoring, insulin injection and safe sharps disposal.
Glucose is also synthesized in the liver and is carried in the blood to the rest of the body to fuel cellular processes. Insulin regulates blood glucose by stimulating the removal of glucose from the blood and its uptake into muscle, liver and fat cells where it can be stored for energy. When blood glucose levels get too high (hyperglycemia) this can cause damage to the tiny blood vessels in the eyes, kidneys, heart and nervous system, which is why diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, loss of vision and neurological conditions.
The latter effect is called insulin resistance, where persistently elevated blood glucose has caused cells to be overexposed to insulin, making them less responsive or unresponsive to the hormonal messenger.
This condition is often a result of persistently high glucose levels as well as obesity and overweight, lifestyle and dietary factors, medications and other issues. If there is a lack of insulin, or your body does not react well to insulin in such a way that its effectiveness in lowering the blood sugar is compromised, then your blood sugar level will remain high.
So we have to take all these information with a grain of salt simply because these numbers are only indication. However, whatever your A1C level is, you must know how it works in order for you to understand what you need to do to handle it properly. After that your body will start to regenerate the red blood cells and the new blood cells will have a different A1C measurement since it will have a different level of glycated hemoglobin in it. Each red blood cell lives for 3 months, so testing a sample of how much sugar is on your red blood cells gives you an idea of how your blood sugar levels have been over the past 3 months. Most blood glucose meters tell you your average blood glucose.Your meter probably has more "smarts" than you give it credit for. In most people, the 14-day average blood glucose reflects the A1c, but is not an exact match. With this feature, you see the average of the last three glucose readings in a 2-hour period that you specify.
He specializes in treating diabetes, osteoporosis, thyroid diseases, and lipid disorders at North County Endocrine. Interactive quizzes, educational literature downloads and animated demonstrations help to teach diabetes care skills. It has to be reviewed together with your lifestyle and habits and consulted with your doctor and dietician. So for instance if you have a 6.0 A1C test result, this test result will be good for about 3 months. He is in full-time clinical practice and a clinical investigator active in conducting phase II to IV clinical trials.
The reason is because some people who also have problems with their cholesterol and blood pressure, will be at risk for other problems when their A1C test shows a high number.
That is why it is quite common for doctors to suggest A1C test to be done at least twice a year, and more frequently if deemed necessary.
It can show you how changes in your diabetes care, especially your meals, have affected your blood glucose.The more often you test your blood glucose, the closer the A1c level and 14-day average will be. Later, when the dinner average is in target, she can work on lowering the high bedtime average.This approach is called "pattern management".
This allows you to see your blood glucose average over the last 1 or 2 weeks just by pushing a button on your meter. With pattern management, you look at how your meals and insulin doses usually affect your blood glucose.
As a clinical Assistant Professor at the University of California at San Diego, he is active in the education of endocrinology fellows. You work on your specific trouble spots to improve them, one at a time.In summary, knowing how to get the most out of your blood glucose meter is essential because today's meters have newer, more helpful features "on board".



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