Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is very crucial for those diabetics who are on insulin or on certain oral anti-diabetic drugs which can cause hypoglycemia. It is easier for a diabetes specialist to adjust drugs or to adjust insulin dose if good SMBG record is maintained by the patient. Normally we check fasting and 2 hr post prandial blood sugar levels in lab for routine follow up.
In practice I have seen several patients who had fasting and post prandial blood glucose lab tests in normal range but HbA1c levels below 7 is not achieved because they might have high blood sugars in other post meals which has got unnoticed. To achieve best blood glycemic control it is important to control blood sugar levels within normal limits during entire day and not just fasting or post breakfast levels.
In the above image of SMBG chart I have mentioned 7 point charting system where you can fill your blood glucometer readings which you take on several spots in an entire day.
This seven point SMBG charting approximately covers entire day glucose fluctuations to some extent (ofcourse  not as accurate as CGMS). I have also mentioned a comment column in the above SMBG chart where you can note down change in food or change in insulin dose or any other changes that you have made which probably caused unusual readings like for example if Hypoglycemia occurs at before lunch reading and you have skipped breakfast or had very little snack at breakfast you can mentioned that.
You do not need to check daily all the 7 points, you can check any one or 2 points randomly depending upon your sugar control. Monitoring of blood glucose at home in case of diabetic pregnancy or gestational diabetes is also important where frequent monitoring and SMBG charting of glucometer readings helps a lot to patient.
If you find that some of the post meal or pre meal readings are high or low, please consult your diabetologist with SMBG chart to adjust your medication or insulin dosage.
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If the sugar level for a longer period is constantly elevated, you may feel symptoms such as confusion, lethargy and mood swings. Recent Commentsmarijuana oil benefits on The Importance of Drinking Rather Than Smoking CannabisHealthy Natalie on Natural Botox And Filler For Instant Effect! To achieve best glycemic control it is essential to know how your daily blood glucose levels are fluctuating in entire day.
There is bright chance of sugar excursions in the other post meal readings which gets unnoticed.
Symptoms of high blood sugar levels significantly depend on how high blood sugar levels is – mild, moderate and intense.
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Sabharwal has almost 20 years of experience in the operation and financing of early-stage technology companies. Any unauthorized use of these names, or variations of these names, is a violation of state, federal, and international trademark laws.
Our nervous system uses electrical impulses, the endocrine system uses chemicals called hormones.
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He led both the technical and business development efforts for Optical Insights from early stage inception to the sale of the company in 2005. Together, these glands make dozens of chemical messengers called hormones and release them directly into the blood stream that surrounds the glands. Sabharwal joined Xeris as COO and CFO to build the early operational and financial infrastructure of the company helping to secure $12M in private and non-dilutive funding to date.

Using chemicals, our endocrine system regulates our metabolic rate, growth rate and how our body develops.
Lab tests are used to diagnose and manage health conditions caused by imbalances in hormones and chemicals.Endocrine GlandsGlands are a group of cells that produce and release hormones directly into our blood stream in a process called secretion. The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis by stimulating other endocrine glands to produce and secrete their own hormones.
The pituitary gland has two components: the anterior (front) pituitary (or adenohypophysis) and the posterior (back) pituitary (neurohypophysis).
The isthmus bridges the two lobes of the thyroid and is located below the cricoid cartilage.
The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy (metabolism), calcium levels in the blood, how the body makes proteins, and how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
It produces thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine which can sometimes be called tetraiodothyronine (T4) and calcitonin.
These hormones regulate the heart rate, the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. They produce the parathyroid hormone or PTH, which increases the rate at which broke bone is broken down.
The most common problems of the thyroid gland are overactive thyroid gland, called hyperthyroidism, and an underactive thyroid gland, called hypothyroidism.ThymusThe thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system.
The adrenal cortex (the outer region which secretes corticosteroid hormones that affect metabolism (that is how food is stored and used), chemicals in the blood, and characteristics such as body shape and hairiness. The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the secretion of aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate the osmolarity of blood plasma. The adrenal glands help us deal with dress and as well as maintain homeostasis.Disorders of the adrenal glands include congenital defects such as adrenal hyperplasia, tumors, autoimmune disorders, infection, and impaired blood supply. The adrenal cortexWhen looked at under a microscope, the adrenal cortex is made up of 3 distinct zones.
The inner and middle zones together secrete hormones hydrocortisone, also called cortisol, corticosterone, as well as small amounts of androgen hormones. The rate of release and amount of secretion is controlled by other hormones made in the hypothalamus and pituitary.The adrenal medullathe adrenal major love is closely related to nervous tissue and secretes the hormone epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stimulation by sympathetic nerves. It is both an endocrine gland—producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide—and a digestive organ—secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that help with the absorption of nutrients and digestion in the small intestine.
OvariesThe ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female reproductive system.
Ovaries in women are analogous to testes in males—they are both gonads and endocrine glands.
Our ovaries produce estrogen, progesterone, relaxin and inhibin.TestesThe testicle is the male gonad.
Like the ovaries in women to which they are homologous, testes are components of both the reproductive system and the endocrine system. The primary functions of the testes are to produce inhibin, sperm (spermatogenesis) and androgens, primarily testosterone.HormonesHormones are powerful chemical messengers that our endocrine system uses to control various processes in our body. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood stream near them; the hormones then travel in our bloodstream until it reaches its destination, called a target cell, in distance parts of the body. In the target tissue, hormones lock onto the target’s plasma membrane, called the receptor site.
This chemical changes inside the target cells and adjusts the rate at which a specific action happens, such as a contraction of the muscle. Although hormones come in contact with many cells in the body, they only react with target cells.

A hormone can have more than one target cell, and can have different effects on different targets.Luteininzing HormoneThis is a pituitary hormone that helps regulate the function of the reproductive organs. In men it triggers the testes to produce male reproductive hormones.ProlactinThis is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk in the breast. Breast-feeding stimulates the pituitary gland to make more prolactin so that milk is made for as long as the baby breastfeeds.OxytocinOxytocin is a pituitary hormone that stimulates muscle contractions in the uterus during childbirth.
Oxytocin also stimulates the breasts to release milk when the baby feeds.GlucagonThe hormone glucagon increases the level of sugar in the blood. It is made by the pancreas, a gland that is part of the endocrine system and the digestive system. Glucogon makes cells release glucose, and helps convert glycogen, the form of glucose stored in the liver, back to glucose. However, as glucose is used up, more is released to take its place.Reproductive HormonesReproductive hormones control the reproductive development of boys and girls.
The development of primary and secondary characteristics and regulate all reproductive related processes such as sperm and egg production. There are 3 main types of reproductive hormones—androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.Female Reproductive HormoneEstrogen is the female hormone made mainly in the ovaries. It not only makes the girl reproductive organs develop, and controls her monthly menstrual cycle.
Progesterone is the female hormone that prepares the girls uterus for pregnancy every month. Some contraceptive pills have estrogen in them to prevent the ovaries from releasing their egg cells.Male Reproductive HormoneThe male reproductive system consists of the penis, scrotum, and the 2 testes.
A male reproductive system creates sperm cells that combined with a female egg to create a new human life. The testes and scrotum hang outside the body where it is cooler because it improves sperm production. Glands called seminal vesicles lie along the vas deferens and add fluids and nutrients to the sperm. The male reproductive system also produces the reproductive hormones needed to make sperm and for a boy to develop at puberty. The male reproductive hormone testosterone also stimulates bone and muscle growthEpinephrineEpinephrine is a hormone that works with out nervous system to prepare our body to cope with danger or stress. If you’re suddenly scared, your heart pounds, your breathing becomes steep and rapid. Epinephrine is a very fast acting hormone that prepares our body for emergency action—also called the fight or flight reflex.
At the same time it slows down digestion and makes the liver release glucose into the bloodstream so more fuel is available for the muscles to contract.InsulinInsulin is a hormone that reduces the level of sugar in our blood.
A diuretic is a substance that stimulates the body to produce urine by taking water out of the blood stream. It increases the amount of water that the kidneys return to the blood and makes arterioles constrict.
As a result, more fluid is squeezed into a smaller space and blood pressure rises.Follicle-stimulating HormoneThis hormone and the Luteininzing Hormone are used in reproduction in both men and women. They also affect the production of reproductive hormones.Growth HormoneThe growth hormone encourages growth in children and teenagers, makes our bones stronger, and helps build muscle.

What is it called when you have low blood sugar
Blood sugar conversion to hba1c blood


  1. 30.12.2013 at 16:36:16

    Some level of protection against have to take the three-hour glucose tolerance parents, doctors and.

    Author: sonic
  2. 30.12.2013 at 14:34:53

    Cat's gums and call your.

    Author: Elen