Various studies on health of a common many have revealed the fact that diabetes has become a common problem today.
As we know that the consequences of diabetes can be fatal and can lead to the death of the patient, therefore it is very important to know the basic facts about diabetes. How to control diabetes, what are the symptoms of diabetes, what should we eat during diabetes, what are the simple remedies for diabetes etc are some question, answer to which we should know to take appropriate steps as and when required. If you are able to keep these three basics in control, your diabetes will automatically get controlled. Philadelphia, PA – October 4, 2012—Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which individuals exhibit high levels of sugar in the blood, either due to insufficient production of insulin—the hormone that allows glucose to be absorbed by body cells—or the body’s lack of response to insulin. In a paper published today in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors Mingzhan Huang, Jiaxu Li, Xinyu Song, and Hongjian Guo propose novel mathematical models for injection of insulin in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Management of diabetes by insulin pumps usually follows an open-loop approach in which blood glucose can be periodically monitored by an individual using a glucose meter, and then adjusted by either eating a carbohydrate in cases of low blood glucose or administering a dose of insulin in cases of high blood sugar. Research is now focused on a closed-loop approach, where a medical device will provide automatic glucose-responsive insulin administration. This type of system will greatly improve the lifestyles of diabetes patients, obviating the need for manual injections, and making diet control slightly less stringent. In this paper, differential equation models are used to simulate injections of insulin in both open and closed-loop systems.
The open loop model incorporates uniform injection of insulin at periodic intervals, where the frequency and dose of injection are chosen based on set parameters.
The closed-loop model proposes injection of insulin when blood glucose level passes a certain threshold value using automatic feedback from a glucose monitoring system. The paper thus demonstrates that insulin delivery can be modeled based on both periodic (open loop) and state-dependent (closed loop) impulses.


Future work involves achieving greater sensitivity by factoring specific aspects of body physiology into the artificial pancreas software, and using patient statistics to fine-tune parameters used in its algorithm. Mingzhan Huang, Hongjian Guo and Professor Xinyu Song are researchers at the College of Mathematics and Information Science, Xinyang Normal University in Henan, China. This work is partly supported by NIH Grant R01-DE019243, P30ES01443, and DOE Grant DE-EM0000197.
The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an international society of over 14,000 individual members, including applied and computational mathematicians and computer scientists, as well as other scientists and engineers. For a diabetic patient it is very important to monitor intake of carbohydrate per day because carbohydrates affect the blood sugar level to the largest extent. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to loss or dysfunction of ?-cells of the pancreas, the organ that produces insulin. The models simulate injections of insulin in the manner of insulin pumps, which deliver periodic impulses in diabetes patients. While this is important to ensure that diabetes patients have sufficient insulin, it carries the risk of hypoglycemia, which is caused by excess insulin leading to excessive glucose absorption, resulting in low blood sugar. Closed-loop systems achieve this by real-time feedback between glucose levels and insulin delivery, approximating the endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas, hence, also called the artificial pancreas. The key factor here is the control algorithm, which manages insulin delivery based on glucose levels while accounting for measurement errors and kinetic delays. Algorithms are carefully designed to determine the time and dose of injections based on physiology and metabolism of insulin secretion, designed to prevent episodes of hyper and hypoglycemia. Members from 85 countries are researchers, educators, students, and practitioners in industry, government, laboratories, and academia. However monitoring consumption of protein and fat is also very important in case of diabetes.


In addition, this approach requires diabetics to follow stringent regimens with regard to diet and insulin injections. However, development of an artificial pancreas is impeded due to lack of reliable predictive models and methods for accurate glucose monitoring, in addition to inefficient control algorithms. The models are then qualitatively and numerically assessed by injections of insulin analogues in the environment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
This is helpful in cases where patients may retain some ability to secrete small amounts of insulin; excessive insulin delivery would be prevented here as signaled by low glucose levels. The Society, which also includes nearly 500 academic and corporate institutional members, serves and advances the disciplines of applied mathematics and computational science by publishing a variety of books and prestigious peer-reviewed research journals, by conducting conferences, and by hosting activity groups in various areas of mathematics. The three basic things which you should check on a regular basis are the cholesterol level of the body, blood pressure of the body and sugar level of the body. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor before drinking alcohol because alcohol provided many calories to the body. The most common control for diabetes is by subcutaneous injection of insulin analogues through insulin pumps. SIAM provides many opportunities for students including regional sections and student chapters.



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Comments

  1. 28.05.2016 at 10:13:17


    The pancreas of people with type before leaving for the blood.

    Author: Inga
  2. 28.05.2016 at 17:12:26


    It is essential to closely monitor color, that indicates that help you.

    Author: King
  3. 28.05.2016 at 16:38:32


    Enough of it (type 1 diabetes) or because your cells are less responsive alone, or combined with individuals who participate.

    Author: kaltoq