It’s clear that uncontrolled diabetes can increase the risk of hypertension (high blood pressure). The treatment of diabetes itself is more focused to control the level of blood glucose, particularly to make sure that it doesn’t increase too high (higher than normal). While it can be helpful to provide adequate insulin for blood sugar control, but sometime it also can lead to hypoglycemia particularly if taken improperly. It is the force or pressure that occurs between blood that flow through the blood vessels and the wall of blood vessel itself. Uncontrolled hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessel itself which then can cause some serious health conditions, such as stroke, heart failure problem, etc. How is it that people who are doing what they are “supposed” to be doing –- eating healthy, exercising, maintaining a normal body composition -– still have blood sugar issues? The second source of fuel for the mitochondria -– glucose –- has an equally important role in the function of cells.
With the epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome plaguing the industrial world in recent years, blood sugar and insulin have gotten their fair share of media attention. In fact, blood sugar balance is a major tenet of virtually every diet book from The Zone to The Atkins Diet. These are health-conscious, educated individuals who do not spend their time eating Twinkies, bingeing at McDonalds and competing in the World’s Laziest Couch Potato competition. Rather, we see people who eat well, exercise regularly, have normal body composition and take supplements, but still don’t feel well.
Insulin resistance, which is characterized by two things: chronically elevated blood sugar levels, and subsequent elevated insulin levels to help deal with the blood sugar. And while each of these have their separate issues metabolically, both will cause issues with the function of mitochondria because there is not a steady stream of blood sugar available for ATP (energy) production. When someone is insulin resistant, glucose cannot effectively enter into the cell –- chronically elevated insulin levels create dysfunctional insulin receptor sites on the cell. Because blood sugar is not adequately entering the cells, it stays in general circulation rather than being stored. Characteristic symptoms of insulin resistance include: fatigue after meals, craving for sweets that doesn’t go away when sweets are eaten, increased thirst, and frequent urination.
Individuals with this pattern and periods of low blood sugar will have surges of insulin, rather than chronically elevated levels. Normally, the body should respond to low blood sugar by producing cortisol to increase blood sugar levels. Symptoms are usually relieved after eating because meals provide a source of glucose that their body could not create itself. Because their bodies rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar, people with some degree of hypoglycemia can have insulin surges between meals, rather than following meals, or chronically, as in insulin resistance. But here is one of the biggest points: looking healthy, having a muscular body, and exercising regularly does not mean that you have normal blood sugar management. Though there are a number of mechanisms involved in this cycle, here is a basic explanation. In other words, you could have a perfect diet and exercise program, but if you have elevated cortisol levels, you may also be increasing your blood sugar from the inside. Two hours after a meal, it will ideally be between 85 and 100 depending on the size and quality of the meal.
You could eat a meal, and then track your blood sugar at 30 minute intervals for 2 hours following a meal.
A good protein-based meal with adequate levels of healthy fat and fibre should not raise your blood sugar levels too high. For most of you, the first step toward eating properly for blood sugar management is starting with the Precision Nutrition System.   Indeed, over 85% of our clients see the types of results they’re looking for by following this program. However, for the other 15% that use the program and still need to go a bit deeper, working with a coach through Precision Nutrition Coaching is the next step. Blood sugar dysregulation and elevated insulin levels have negative impacts on numerous physiological systems in the body.
But on a fundamental level if adequate glucose cannot enter a cell, the mitochondria will not be able to produce optimal amounts of ATP to run the cells, organs and systems of the body, and we will not be optimally healthy, much less have the body we desire. The mitochondria use two primary sources of fuel to produce the energy required to run your body effectively: oxygen and glucose. These are basic fundamentals to health and fitness that must be addressed before deciding which supplement works better or whose workout program is the best for fat loss.
In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you.
Your body’s preferred source of energy is carbs (sugar is the simplest form of carbs) so when carbs are available the body uses those first for energy, and the extra are stored as fat.
Now that I have given a short rundown on blood glucose, I want to mention that having consistently high blood sugar (usually as a result of eating too much sugar or simple carbs like white flour) can lead to type 2 diabetes. Believe me, I am one of the biggest sugar lovers, and I know it can sound daunting to even think about reducing or eliminating sugar from your life. There are a lot of other significant effects sugar has on your body and it’s functions beyond blood sugar.
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION WOULD have you believe that diabetes is not reversible and only controlling your blood sugar with drugs or insulin will protect you from organ damage and death.


The diabetes epidemic is accelerating along with the obesity epidemic, and what you are not hearing about is another way to treat it.
Type 2 diabetes, or what was once called adult onset diabetes, is increasing worldwide and now affects nearly 100 million people — and over 20 million Americans. We are seeing increasing rates of Type 2 diabetes, especially in children, which has increased over 1,000 percent in the last decade and was unknown before this generation.
In a report in The New England Journal of Medicine, Walter Willett, MD, PhD, and his colleagues from the Harvard School of Public Health demonstrated that 91 percent of all Type 2 diabetes cases could be prevented through improvements lifestyle and diet. Here, I want to review in detail this new way of thinking about diabetes and outline the tests I recommend to identify problems with blood sugar. When your diet is full of empty calories, an abundance of quickly absorbed sugars and carbohydrates (bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, etc.), the body slowly becomes resistant to the effects of insulin and needs more to do the same job of keeping your blood sugar even. Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome associated with it is often accompanied by increasing central obesity, fatigue after meals, sugar cravings, high triglycerides, low HDL, high blood pressure, problems with blood clotting, as well as increased inflammation. These clues can often be picked up decades before anyone ever gets diabetes — and may help you prevent diabetes entirely.
If you have a family history of obesity (especially around the belly), diabetes, early heart disease, or even dementia you are even more prone to this problem. Most people know about the common complications of diabetes such as heart attacks, strokes, amputations, blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage.
Diabetes and pre-diabetes ARE reversible by aggressively changing lifestyle, nutritional support, and occasionally medications. In fact many people with pre-diabetes never get diabetes, but they are at severe risk just the same. We were highly adapted to a nutrient-dense, low-sugar, high-fiber diet rich in omega-3 fats. Now, in just one generation, they are nearly all obese and 80 percent have diabetes by the time they are 30 years old!
New science shows that it’s possible, through an aggressive approach of lifestyle, nutritional support, and occasionally medications.
It is important to diagnose Type 2 diabetes early, but it is often not diagnosed until very late. In fact, all doctors should aggressively diagnose pre-diabetes decades before diabetes occurs, and before any damage is done to your body. Unfortunately, there is a continuum of risk from slightly abnormal insulin and blood sugar to full blown diabetes.
In a recent study, anyone with a fasting blood sugar of over 87 was at increased risk of diabetes.
Most doctors are not concerned until the blood sugar is over 110 — or worse, over 126, which is diabetes.
Insulin Glucose Challenge Test – This should be done with a 2-hour glucose challenge, 75 grams measuring fasting, 1- and 2-hour blood sugar AND insulin. Hemoglobin A1C Test – This is an important measure of glycated hemoglobin, which can be an early indicator of sugar problems.
NMR Lipid Profile – This test is slightly different from the one above as it identifies the size of your cholesterol particles. High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Test – This is a measure of inflammation, one of the classic conditions that is both the cause and result of insulin resistance and diabetes. Fibrinogen Test – This measures your risk of clotting, which can cause heart attacks and strokes. Please leave your thoughts by adding a comment below – but remember, we can’t offer personal medical advice online, so be sure to limit your comments to those about taking back our health!
Mark Hyman MD is the Medical Director at Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Functional Medicine, the Founder of The UltraWellness Center, and a ten-time #1 New York Times Bestselling author.
In essence, the major goal of the treatment is to maintain the blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible.
In general, type-1 is a condition of when the pancreas is much less productive in producing hormone insulin than type-2. Therefore if compared with type-2, episodes of hypoglycemia is relatively more common in type-1! The high pressure inside your blood vessels means that your heart needs to work harder to pump the blood around the body. But hypertension in diabetics are much more common associated with hyperglycemia – as noted before! It should not be used as a substitute for any medical professional opinion, advice or prescribed medication nor should it serve as diagnosis or treatment of health problems. Are anemia and low oxygen delivery to blame?) I focused on oxygen, one of the two fuel sources for what is arguably one of the most important components of your cell, the mitochondria. And with good reason: imbalanced blood sugar levels are at the crux of many health issues, including being overweight. As a result, the body must produce higher levels of insulin to remove glucose from the blood stream, which causes even greater metabolic dysfunction. People with hypoglycemia can experience symptoms such as lightheadedness, irritability, shakiness and fatigue between meals, which is often relieved after eating.
However, in this case, periodically hypoglycemic people usually have low adrenal function and rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar between meals, which causes the shakiness and and lightheadedness between meals.


In fact, researchers have started using new terms like “non-obese insulin resistance” and “atypical metabolic syndrome” because normal-looking people are having blood sugar management issues. A good blood chemistry screen will contain enough markers to adequately identify patterns of blood sugar mismanagement. They usually cost around $50 and give you the ability to look at your blood sugar throughout the day.
If it does, either the macronutrient ratio was off, the meal was too large, or in some cases, you might have a sensitivity to the food that causes a stress response and elevates blood sugar. Clinically, these are “high priority” situations because if either one of these processes are not working correctly, nothing will.
Eating anything, actually, raises your blood sugar, but as sugar is much easier for your body to convert into glucose (the form that is used as fuel for all of your cells), it has a much more immediate and spiking effect. Again, because sugar is a “simple carb” it can be easily broken down to glucose therefore causing a quicker spike in your blood sugar after consumption, meaning the insulin is working hard to get rid of it (usually storing it as fat). Type 2 diabetes seems so common these days that I think people don’t take it seriously enough.
And I am not necessarily suggesting you do that right this second, but I think being aware of how foods like sugar can effect not only your weight but also your overall well-being is really important. Don’t despair; I will be addressing the sugar issue again next week and certainly much more in the future.
But medication and insulin can actually increase your risk of getting a heart attack or dying.
Insulin resistance, when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, is primarily what causes diabetes. The high insulin leads to an appetite that is out of control, and increasing weight gain around the belly. Some may even know that it increases your risk of dementia and cancers and can cause impotence. Therefore, I recommend early testing with anyone who has a family history of Type 2 diabetes, central abdominal weight gain or abnormal cholesterol.
Your blood sugar should be less than 80 fasting and never rise above 110 or 120 after one to two hours.
It measures sugars and proteins combining into glycated proteins called AGEs (advanced glycation end products), like the crust on bread, or the crispy top on creme brule.
An HDL or good cholesterol level under 60 and triglycerides over 100 should make you suspicious of insulin resistance. With insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes, you develop small LDL and HDL cholesterol particles. I have seen this hundreds of times in my patients and there is no reason you can’t achieve the same thing if you apply these principles. Even some people with type-1 have pancreas that is not able to make any insulin for blood glucose control. Without oxygen, it is impossible for your cells to work at their full capacity or for you to be healthy. Excess sugar or carbohydrates, excessively large meals or glycemically imbalanced meals can excessively elevate blood sugar levels, causing this cycle to begin.
For example, if you eat celery and almond butter, or a salad with grilled chicken, your blood sugar should not go above 120 at any point after the meal.
When your blood sugar is raised, your pancreas excretes insulin (which is a hormone in case you were wondering). The backup fuel in the body is fat so when you do not consume an excess of carbohydrates, your body uses stored fat or the fat you consume for fuel. Your insulin should be less than 5 fasting and should never rise above 30 after one to two hours. These create inflammation and oxidative stress throughout the body, and promote heart disease and dementia and accelerating aging. They are much more dangerous than larger particles and lead to increased risk of atherosclerosis or heart disease.
In fact, anyone with a high C-reactive protein has a 1,700 percent increased risk of getting diabetes. This is entirely due to sugar and carbohydrates in our diet that cause fatty liver, liver damage, and even cirrhosis.
In short, eating a lot of sugar can lead your body to store more fat and hinder it from burning fat.
If your body isn’t able to regulate it anymore (which is what happens with type 2 diabetes) it can lead to some really serious health problems, so your best option is eating healthy to avoid the whole mess altogether. I recommend this test for everyone over 50, and for anyone with any risk of insulin resistance, even children.
The insulin acts as sort of a housekeeper by taking the glucose and delivering it to the cells that need it to function and storing the rest as fat.




Normal range for glucose screening test
Random blood sugar test normal values
Normal fasting glucose levels mg dl ketosis
Hypoglycemia and exercise intensity


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