Recently I realized, that people visiting this blog come from different backgrounds and are in very different stages regarding of how long they’ve had diabetes and how much do they know about it.
So, what for some of us may seem basics, for other recently diagnosed may be essential to know.
I classified them into several categories to be easier to access, as well as sorted alphabetically. If you happen to stumble upon a term or jargon not listed here, please let me know it in the comments section below, and I’ll do my best to find the answer and add it to the list. And if you prefer to take a look at the list of most frequently asked questions about diabetes, you can do it here. For people using an insulin pump, the basal rate is refered to as the small doses of short-acting insulin needed between meals to mantain blood sugar levels close to normal. Blood glucose (BG) or blood sugar (BS): the amount of sugar (glucose) present in the blood of the body.
Blood glucose meter (glucometer): the device used to measure blood sugar level at any given point.
Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG): this is the most used test to check if a person has diabetes or not.
Glycated hemoglobin test (HbA1c): this is a very useful test to measure if you are controlling your diabetes properly. Glycemic index (GI): ranking of carbohydrates or foods on a scale from 0-100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels after eating. Injection site rotation: rotation of places where you inject insulin in order to prevent damage to the skin and tissue. Insulin pump: device that helps with the administration of insulin in order to control blood sugar levels.
Oral diabetes medications: medications designed to control or low blood sugar levels for people with type 2 diabetes. Foods high in carbohydrates include sugar & sweets, soft drinks, fruits, breads, pastas, cereals, beans, potatoes, bran, rice.
Low-carb diet: diet containing very few carbohydrates in order to avoid high blood sugar levels. Honeymoon period: time where the pancreas of type 1 diabetics still secrets its own insulin followed by stabilization of the patient. Insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome): a combination of health problems that can lead to diabetes (type 2) and heart disease. The difference with type 2 diabetes is that with type 1.5 diabetes the body has islet (Beta cell) autoantibodies. Polydipsia: medical word that refers to a strong thirst, needing the person to drink large amounts of fluids. The symptoms are very similar to the ones in juvenile diabetes, adding to those: tissue infections, erectile dysfunction, numbness in extremities. The main treatment is diet and sport, although most people with type 2 diabetes are taking prescription drugs to lower blood glucose levels. Acetone: the simplest example of the ketones, which are usually present in the blood and urine. Alpha cell (?-cells): is an endocrine cell in charge of synthesizing and secreting the hormone glucagon, which elevates the blood glucose levels when experiencing hypoglycemia (low sugar) or when the body thinks it is going to need extra energy to face a flight or fight situation. Beta cell (?-cells): is an endocrine cell of the pancreas located in the islets of Langerhans. Biphasic insulin: insulin formulation consisting of a mixture of intermediate- and fast-acting insulin. Glucagon: hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas that raises the level of glucose in the blood when glucose levels fall too low. Glycogenesis: process of glycogen synthesis, where glucose is added to chains of glycogen for storage, for instance after a meal containing carbohydrates. DisclaimerThe contents on this blog are personal opinions, experiences and research and should not be accepted and implemented without further research or consulting your physician. 4 Relation between PPG control & Achieving A1C Goal Adapted from Monnier L, Lapinski H, Collette C. Every 1% drop in HbA 1c can reduce long-term diabetes complications 43% Lower extremity amputation or fatal peripheral vascular disease 37% Microvascular disease 19% Cataract extraction 14% Myocardial infarction 16% Heart failure 12% Stroke UKPDS: Stratton et al. Hormone BloodTissue Injection site Carrier Protein Carrier Protein Hormone Receptor Mode of Action Use of Serum Carrier Protein (e.g.
Insulin analogues compared Insulin receptor affinity IGF-1R affinity Insulin receptor off rate Metabolic potency Mitogenic potency Human insulin =100 Insulin aspart 92 ± 681 ± 981 ± 8101 ± 258 ± 22 Insulin detemir 18 ± 316 ± 1204 ± 92711 Kurtzhals P, et al. Insulin analogues compared Insulin receptor affinity IGF-1R affinity Insulin receptor off rate Metabolic potency Mitogenic potency Human insulin =100 Insulin aspart 92 ± 681 ± 981 ± 8101 ± 258 ± 22 Insulin lispro 84 ± 6156 ± 16100 ± 1182 ± 366 ± 10 Insulin glargine 86 ± 3641 ± 51152 ± 1360 ± 3783 ± 13 Insulin detemir 18 ± 316 ± 1204 ± 92711 Kurtzhals P, et al.
Summary Treatment with basal analogues enables patients to reach HbA 1c target with low rate of hypoglycaemia HbA 1c improves but some patients need more Levemir® + OD is associated with: –reduced hypoglycemia in comparison to NPH, and –reduced weight gain in comparison to any other basal insulin. The endocrine system provides a control for the body's tissues and organs through glands and the releasing of hormones. In general, the body depends upon its own ability to govern the growth and maintenance of its various systems and processes throughout without conscious intervention. The endocrine system is comprised of many different glands located throughout the body, existing specifically as a gland or as tissue designated as part of a specific organ, each of which produce hormone’(s) that target specific cells or may exist as a functional part of a completely different system. Disruption of any endocrine system processes can have profound effects on many related procesess that depend on its regulation. A computer program was used to observe the effects of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on the metabolic rates of three rats. Each of the three rats were injected with propylthiouracil and placed in the chamber to obtain weight and oxygen consumption, as described above. Table 3 exhibits the effects on blood sugar in rats that have been injected with saline and alloxan. By using a normal rat, a rat without a thyroid gland, and a rat without a pituitary gland, we were able to obtain great insights into the effects and processing locations of three compounds.
In the third experiment, we induced a diabetic state in an experimental rat using an alloxan injection to examine the affects of insulin on blood glucose.
The purpose of this research was to assess differences in perceptions of insulin detemir among patients with type 2 diabetes naïve to insulin vs. Insulin detemir is well-received as treatment for type 2 diabetes, particularly among insulin-naïve patients. Approximately 7-9% of the US population has diabetes (ADA, 2007; NCHS, 2007), with 90-95% of cases being type 2.
Estimates from the National Institutes of Health indicate that 16% of adults diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes use insulin only, 57% use oral medication only, 12% use both and 15% use neither. Hermansen and colleagues conducted a randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial of 476 insulin-naïve patients in which subjects were randomized to receive insulin detemir or NPH insulin for 26 weeks. While clinical studies have documented the efficacy of insulin detemir in achieving glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes, the impressions of patients using the medication outside the constraints of a clinical trial are less well understood, as are any differences in the impressions of patients using insulin for the first time vs. Psychological barriers to insulin use can be significant detriments to treatment initiation and maintenance. Data for this survey study were obtained from patient surveys that included questions related to patients’ experiences with insulin detemir for treatment of diabetes. No individual patient identifiable information is included in the aggregate results presented in this paper. The baseline survey included questions about type of diabetes, use of prescription pills to control diabetes prior to insulin detemir, use of insulin, and satisfaction with prior diabetes medications. The surveys were available to patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, however the focus of this paper is on type 2 diabetes. Overall, patients in both groups rated ease of judging blood sugar levels with insulin detemir as easier than judging blood sugar levels with their prior therapy.
Similarly, patients from both groups felt that with insulin detemir, it was easier to keep good blood sugar control compared with their prior treatment.
Patients who had used insulin prior to insulin detemir were asked about their relative confidence in avoiding symptoms of hypoglycemia and avoiding symptoms at night. In addition, prior insulin users rated their confidence in avoiding low blood sugar at night with insulin detemir compared with their prior insulin. Among prior insulin users, most (51%) reported no change in weight since starting insulin detemir (Figure 4). Clinical trial data support the effectiveness of insulin detemir as treatment for diabetes. While overall, patients reported it was easier to judge and keep good blood sugar control with insulin detemir compared to their prior therapy, insulin naïve patients tended to report higher ratings compared with the prior insulin users. The findings from the patient surveys demonstrate that patients overall have very positive impressions of insulin detemir as treatment for type 2 diabetes.
This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided. I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided. I’ll try to define the terms as clearly and shortly as possible so that anyone can understand it. Bolus is the dosage of fast-acting insulin given to handle the main meals’ supply of sugar. Unformally, a brittle diabetes is like a roller coster, where you blood glucose levels swing continually from high to low blood sugar and viceversa. Not considered as diabetes but  people within these ranges don’t metabolize glucose normally.
When you visit your doctor for the test, you should have fasted at least 8 hours (better in the morning). The result of the test shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over a period of 2-3 months (which is much more meaningful than a punctual blood test taken with the glucometer) For the test a blood sample is needed. This can be within a body part (for instance injecting insulin in the abdomen with a 1-2 cm. Some glucometers have already an integrated device (lancing device) where you can put lancets and operate them by clicking a button. It usually happens while sleeping but it can also happen if insulin doses are not properly administered. It was called adult-onset because until recently it was only adults above 40 who were diagnosed with this kind of diabetes.
The most common cause of gangrene is reduced blood supply to the affected tissues resulting in cell death. During the honeymoon period, most children require less insulin as usual or may even go into temporary remission. With insulin resistance, your cells cannot react properly to the action of insulin and your pancreas keeps producing insulin which is not entirely being used. Like in type 1, the autoimmune process destroys the beta cells(insulin producers) in the pancreas, eventually requiring insulin treatment. This happens when nephrons (the small units forming the kidneys) thicken and slowly become scarred. Risk of neuropathy rises with age and longer duration of diabetes, specially if it’s uncontrolled, or high blood pressure or obesity are present.


It usually happens when sugar levels are uncontrolled or when you first get to know that you might have diabetes.
It’s the leading cause of blindness in America and the most common diabetic eye disease. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DMT1), Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, since it is usually diagnosed in children and young adults (nowadays it’s being diagnosed to adults as well). Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes (NIDD) or adult-onset diabetes, because it used to be diagnosed to adult people (nowadays children are being diagnosed with this condition as well). When antibodies malfunction, they sometimes attack parts of the body’s own system (called then autoantibodies) like beta cells in the case of type 1 diabetes. They are in charge of producing, storing and releasing insulin into the blood in order to have controlled levels of sugar.
Its effect is opposite to insulin. An injectable form of glucagon is a vital first aid in cases of severe hypoglycemia when the victim is unconscious or for other reasons cannot take glucose orally. In diabetes, due to abnormal amounts of insulin, liver glycogen can be abnormally accumulated or depleted. The high concentration of triglycerides in blood correlates with the consumption of starchy and other high carbohydrate foods. Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasnma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyper glycemia of Type 2 diabetic patients: variations with increasing levels of HBA(1c). This balance is maintained through a variety of organs, glands, and hormones that make up the communication system known as the endocrine system.
Balancing the growth and maintenance of bodily systems is the endocrine system’s primary function, which it achieves by maintaining metabolic homeostasis.
The rats—one normal, one that has been thyroidectomized, and one that has been hypophysized, were each separately placed into a chamber containing a scale and timer. While in a wet laboratory setting, the thyroxine would need to be injected into each rat on a daily basis over the course of 1-2 weeks. Each rat was injected with TSH and individually placed in the chamber to obtain the metabolic rates using oxygen consumption and weight as described in activity one. Propylthiouracil inhibits thyroxine production by blocking iodine attachment to tyrosine and interfering with the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine.
The control rat received an injection of saline, while the experimental rat received an injection of alloxan, which kills all insulin producing cells and makes the rat diabetic. In our three rats tested, the normal rat, without any hormone injections exhibited the highest metabolic rate. As mentioned in the background, the alloxan kills the cells that produce the insulin and cause the rat to become type 1 diabetic.
Table 2 showed a significant increase in the mass of the uterus of the experimental rat that received a week of estrogen injections. Insulin does not seem to affect the blood glucose of a normal rat, but is able to reduce the overall blood glucose in a diabetic rat, as seen in table 3.
These perceptions, and potential barriers, may differ for insulin naïve patients relative to those of experienced insulin users. A total of 15,322 physicians from the United States participated in this study that spanned January – September 2006. In addition, the medication was prescribed according to each physician’s discretion and normal course of treatment, and therefore was deemed to not require the need for IRB review.
In subsequent surveys, completed approximately 30 and 60 days after treatment initiation, patients rated the ease of judging blood sugar levels and the ease of keeping good blood sugar control with insulin detemir relative to their prior treatment using a scale of 0 to 10 (0=much more difficult;10=very much easier).
Survey responses from all patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the three surveys were summarized and reported as frequency distributions or mean values, as appropriate. Of these, 20% (n=586) completed all surveys; and 69% (n=404) of those patients reported having a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Overall, prior insulin users felt more confident in avoiding symptoms of hypoglycemia with insulin detemir than they did with their prior insulin (Figure 3). An average of 35 and 71 days following treatment with insulin detemir, patients rated their relative confidence with insulin detemir at 7.4 out of 10 (Figure 3). Insulin naïve patients had higher ratings than prior insulin users for ease of judging blood sugar and keeping good blood sugar levels.
The authors also acknowledge Rebecca Shaffer for her editorial assistance in reviewing this manuscript. Cushman WC, Reda D J, Perry H M, et al., for the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents.
The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.Website optimisation (SEO) has became more than an active hobby.
People with psychological problems (stress, depression…), with hypothyroidism or adrenal insufficiency are at more risk of suffering those highs and lows. Foods with a low glycemic index produce gradual rises in blood glucose, being more recommended for people with diabetes. In other words, the Glycemic Load estimates how much the carbohydrate or food will raise your blood glucose level after eating it. Some of these devices even calculate how much fast-acting insulin you need according to what you eat and the exercise you do. Both Lantus and Levemir are called analogues because their molecules are analogous to human insulin, but they are recombined with slight differences that slow their absorption. If you want to know why you wake up in the morning with high blood sugar when you went to bed the night before with normal levels, wake up during the night (about 2-3 am) and check your blood sugar.
It usually occurs in the lower extremities and the most common practice in the west to remove it is amputation. Some symptoms are impaired fasting blood sugar, obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL (good cholesterol), kidney damage, heart problems. An usual combination leading to nephropathy is uncontrolled blood sugar with high blood pressure.
It’s a nerve damage with symptoms such as pain, tingling numbness-loss of feeling-in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Since blood sugar is high, the kidneys do over-work to get rid of the excess of sugar in the body. The person then feels that he has to eat a lot of food, in order to recover the lost calories. The antibodies found related to diabetes are Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 Antibodies (GADA) and Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA). Beta cells also release C-Peptide into the bloodstream which prevent neuropathy and other diabetes symptoms related to vascular deterioration. High levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis and higher risk of heart disease and stroke. Hala Aly Gamal El Din Professor Of internal medicine Faculty of Medicine - Cairo University.
In a actual lab setting, watching the effects of hormones can take a number of days or even weeks and can be an invasive process. Regulation of the endocrine system occurs in the brain, specifically the hypothalamus, which is connected through the median eminence to the endocrine system’s pituitary gland. For example, the thyroid gland hormone production is directly regulated by the hypothalamus’ release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and stimulation of the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to stimulate thyroid hormone (TH) production in the thyroid.
Connected to the chamber were a set of tubes—the left one contained a clamp, while the right tube was connected to the T-connector.
However, using the computerized lab, the effects of one injection per rat were sufficient for obtaining accurate results.
Data were recorded and each rat was cleaned to remove all traces of TSH before being returned to their proper cages. Tube two received two drops, tube three received three drops, tube four received four drops, and tube five received five drops.
Although the experimental rat was only injected with alloxan one time, in a wet laboratory, the rat would receive the drug daily for seven days. Thyroxine was shown to raise the metabolic rate in all rats, suggesting that neither the thyroid nor the pituitary gland use this hormone. Physicians identified patients >18 years appropriate for treatment with insulin detemir.
However, hypoglycemia and weight gain are potential side effects associated with insulin use.
Negative perceptions among patients just starting treatment could delay the use of needed therapy.
Physicians identified patients from their practices who were at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with diabetes, and appropriate candidates for treatment with insulin detemir. In order to complete each follow-up survey, patients were required to enter selected, personal information to verify their record and permit them to complete the surveys. Prior insulin users rated their relative confidence in avoiding symptoms of hypoglycemia and low blood sugar at night with insulin detemir vs. Only data collected for these 404 patients with type 2 diabetes are reported in this paper.
After 35 days, 58% reported high confidence, with a rating of 8 or higher; after 71 days, 60% reporting these ratings.
Those who gained weight reported an average gain of 9.9 pounds, with a range of 3-40 pounds and a median of 10 pounds. Ultimately, patients must decide to follow the treatment regimens prescribed by their physicians, and their attitudes and feelings about how a medication is performing for them are important to consider. While physicians identified eligible patients from their practices, patients themselves chose whether to participate.
An additional study to assess patients’ impressions after longer use of insulin detemir may be of value. It just needs a small drop of blood placed on a disposable test strip to measure your level of sugar at that precisely moment. After 2 hours your blood sugar will be measured again in order to check whether your blood sugar levels are normal, high or low. Levemir is also man-made and contains dissolved detemir, a different form of genetically modified insulin. Large amounts of sorbitol can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, and mild to severe diarrhea and may aggravate irritable bowel syndrome and similar gastrointestinal conditions. The result of this condition is the same as with type 1 diabetes, that is, high blood sugar levels, but the cause might be different.
In the case of insulin-dependent diabetes, beta cells are destroyed by the cells of the immune system. Through the use of PhysioEx computerized lab settings, computer generated lab animals were used to simulate the response of several effects of hormones. A negative feedback loop that regulates the stimulation of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus at the start of the process is dictated by TH production of the thyroid. The T-connector knob was clicked to ensure the chamber and manometer were properly connected. Once the rats had received the injection, they were placed in the chamber to obtain weight and observe metabolic rate as described in activity one. Once injections were given to each rat, blood samples were obtained from the tails and collected into test tubes before being placed in the incubator.


The injection of estrogen, also called hormone replacement therapy, stimulated the uterine tissue growth.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) raised the metabolic rate for the normal and hypophysectomized rats, but it did not change the metabolism of the thyroidectomized rat, indicating that the thyroid gland is involved in processing TSH. Patients voluntarily provided consent and responded to surveys prior to and 30 and 60 days following insulin detemir initiation. In an effort to address the disadvantages of human insulin preparations, insulin analogs have been developed to more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. Non-adherence to medication results in increased morbidity and mortality for patients as well as increased costs to the health care system and general economy, including $100 billion (Dezii, 2000) in direct medical costs, hospitalizations, lower productivity and premature death. These patients may need more encouragement or more explicit expectations set by their providers.
Eligible patients received study materials, and those who wished to participate voluntarily enrolled by calling a toll-free number and providing consent after listening to how the information will be used and pressing the appropriate key on the telephone keypad to confirm agreement to participate or decline. Patients received reminders throughout the process to alert them to take their next survey.
The average time between the baseline and first follow-up survey was 35 days; between baseline and second follow-up was 71 days.
Forty-seven percent of prior insulin users rated their relative confidence at 8 or higher (10=much more confident) after 35 days; 53% 71 days following treatment initiation.
In contrast, at 35 days, only 3% reported a rating of 2 or less (0=much less confident) for their confidence. Patients who lost weight lost an average of 13.3 pounds, with a range of 2-60 pounds lost and a median of 10 pounds lost. Prior insulin users may inherently be making comparisons to their prior insulin rather than rating their experience with insulin detemir independently. Selection bias may occur if physicians choose certain patients to inform about the program, and if patients who ultimately choose to participate differ from those who choose not to participate in the surveys. This effect is caused by the body when it tries to unblock stored glucose in the body to contrarest the too high insulin levels present at that moment.
Since the body is loosing a lot of fluid with the urine, the person feels really thirsty in an attempt to replace all the lost fluid. Several techniques, such as immunization and surgical procedures were used during this simulation in order to better understand the process of hormone testing and studies.
The pituitary gland, a source of hormone production, has a primary role in homeostasis of a variety of bodily processes and affects on others glands within the endocrine system, including the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland is a relatively large endocrine gland that is located in the neck adjacent to the trachea of many warm blooded animals.
When the left tube’s clamp was shut, an airtight system was formed in order to ensure the quantities of gasses were known.
After data was collected, the rats were cleansed of thyroxine and returned to their respective cages. Tube one received four drops, tube two received three drops, and so on, until each tube had a total of five drops.
As mentioned in the background, each gland has a control and production of either the hormone THS or thyroxine. It is important to note that the uterus was removed from the rat to allow for no other source of estrogen than the amount given during the lab. Finally, propylthiouracil depressed the metabolic rate in the normal rat, but had no effect in either experimental rat.
Patients reported their perceptions of insulin detemir using an automated telephone system. Monitoring and medication titration every few months are suggested, with increases in intensity or add-on therapies being applied as needed to achieve goal A1c for all patients. Experienced insulin users have an inherent comparison of their current treatment with their prior therapy. Data were collected on patients’ satisfaction with their prior medication and with insulin detemir.
T-tests or Chi-Square analyses were conducted as appropriate to determine statistical significance in outcomes between the groups.
Conversely, after 35 days with insulin detemir, 6% of prior insulin users were less confident (rating at 2 or less; 0=much less confident) about avoiding symptoms of hypoglycemia with insulin detemir than they were with their prior insulin. In addition, for prior insulin users, insulin detemir is at least the second insulin they have tried.
No data were available to determine the extent to which selection bias may have impacted the patient sample, as no information is available about those patients who chose not to participate. In these cases, synthetic insulins are prescripted in order to control the glucose metabolism. The thyroid is composed of thyroid epithelial cells encompassing follicular cells that make up follicle tissues that produce and surround colloidal material mostly made up of the protein thyroglobulin.
After twenty-four hours, the injections were repeated, and continued until seven injections were given to each rat over the course of one week. Five drops of deionized water and five drops of barium hydroxide were added to all four test tubes.
When injected with the thyroxine, the normal rats metabolic rate increased along with the Thyroidectomized rat (the rat without the thyroid) and the Hypophysectomized rat (the rat without the pancreas). The rat that was given the alloxan before insulin had a level much higher than after the insulin injection.
Average ratings on scales of 0 to 10 (10=positive response) were compared between insulin-naïve and prior insulin users. NPH insulin (Haak et al, 2005), patients using insulin detemir experienced significantly less weight gain and lower within-subject variability in fasting self-monitored blood glucose. Negative or positive perceptions of prior therapy may lead these patients to assume negative or positive perceptions of a new therapy. In this survey study from a convenience population, data reflect patients’ own perceptions and impressions, not professional clinical evaluations. Again, patients used a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied) to rate their satisfaction with medication. They may tend to have lower ratings because they have tried other insulins that were unsuccessful to some extent and may be more prone to give conservative responses regarding the impact of the new insulin.
Results therefore may not be generalizable to or indicative of the experiences of all patients using insulin detemir to treat diabetes. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones are synthesized from the breakdown of thyroglobulin upon stimulation by TSH produced from the pituitary gland.
Using a syringe to insert air into the tube, the amount of air needed to return the fluid to normal balance was obtained, which is the amount of oxygen used by the rat for one minute. The pellets were removed and each of the tubes received five drops of enzyme-color reagent.
When injected with TSH, the normal rats metabolic rate decreased slightly, Thyroidectomized rat decreased and the Hypophysectomized rat decreased slightly. While these patients have accepted the use of insulin, they may still harbor some resistance to continued use or use of another insulin if their experience has been less than optimal.
The survey study involved patients completing three automated telephone surveys, before use of insulin detemir, at 30 days and at 60 days post-medication initiation. On the 60-day survey, patients who had used insulin prior to insulin detemir were asked to report whether they lost weight, gained weight or had no change in weight since starting insulin detemir.
Results from this patient survey study also suggest that experienced insulin patients are more confident using insulin detemir to control blood sugar levels and avoid symptoms of hypoglycemia than they were with their prior insulin. The hormones T3 and T4 have significant roles in controlling metabolic rate as well as brain function and development.
After the minute had elapsed, the T-connector knob was clicked to make sure the manometer and syringe were connected, and the clamp was opened so the rat could breathe outside air. Finally, with the injection of propylthiouracil, the normal rats metabolic rate decreased drastically, the Throidectomized rat decreased slightly and the Hypophysectomized rat decreased.
For any medication, such as insulin detemir, patient information can be very valuable for physicians.
Clinical personnel on the study team designed the surveys to include questions to measure important patient perceptions regarding use of insulin detemir, including ease of judging and maintaining good blood sugar control, confidence in avoiding symptoms of hypoglycemia and low blood sugar at night and medication satisfaction.
This finding complements clinical studies that have shown a lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia with insulin detemir compared to other basal insulin preparations. Rather, physicians directed the prescribing for each patient as part of their normal course of clinical practice. Receptors for thyroid hormones can be found in most cells of the body, especially in cells that function in carbohydrate and lipid absorption, which are stimulated to metabolize these forms of energy. To determine the amount of oxygen used by the rat, the U-shaped tube was made equal on both sides. Enzyme-color reagent was added to the four tubes and incubated for one last time before being analyzed in the spectrophotometer to observe the amount of glucose.
Overall, without the thyroid or the pancreas, the normal response to the injection of hormones will be different. Such information could help physicians to assess patients’ perceptions and tailor their management of patients in terms of compliance, accordingly.
The survey was designed as a real world assessment of patients’ self-reported perceptions of insulin detemir. TH is neccessary for the normal output of growth hormone, a crucial hormone for growth and development produced by the pituitary gland.
A glucose standard curve was created in order to have a comparison for absorbancies of unknown blood glucose concentrations in activity 7. A standard glucose graph was created using the data obtained, and data was recorded for concentration of glucose, insulin, saline, and alloxan. As said in the background, each gland has a control over production of hormones, so when it is missing the gland, it cannot respond correctly so the body responds and weight was gained or lost. Data from patients using the medication in the course of everyday living can help physicians more rapidly gain experience and knowledge about the treatment. To absorb the carbon dioxide of the rat being tested so that oxygen could be properly measured, soda lime was placed in the chamber. The amount of oxygen used by the rat at the given time, along with the weight of the animal was used to determine metabolic rates. Patients’ determinations of their ability to judge control were self-reported perceptions, not based on clinically defined parameters.
Lastly, while the authors acknowledge no formal validation of the survey instruments, the questions were developed by clinical personnel with knowledge of diabetes treatments and have strong face validity. Patient-reported outcomes questionnaires are frequently used to gather data about medical treatments and therapies from patients’ perspectives. Despite the limitations, the authors contend that the survey met the objectives of collecting valuable patient-reported impressions about insulin detemir from patients with type 2 diabetes and comparing the responses of those new to insulin vs.



Blood sugar control vitamins 50
Random blood sugar 275
Diabetes test glucose in urine 3


Comments

  1. 06.03.2016 at 17:28:33


    Adopting lifestyle changes that include eating.

    Author: ILQAR_909
  2. 06.03.2016 at 13:47:17


    Hypoglycemia is defined as low blood sugar.

    Author: 10_ON_010
  3. 06.03.2016 at 11:36:28


    Than 90 years of innovation and various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and your blood sugar level drops.

    Author: SeVa