When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during exercise) more and more glucagon is secreted.
The effect of glucagon is to make the liver release the glucose it has stored in its cells into the bloodstream, with the net effect of increasing blood glucose. The purpose of the Patient Guide to Insulin is to educate patients, parents, and caregivers about insulin treatment of diabetes.
If you are like many people, you may think that osteoporosisa€”a condition marked by low bone mineral density, which leads to lowered bone strength and a heightened risk of fracturesa€”is something you will not have to worry about until later in life.
Sign Up for the FREE EndocrineWeb eNewsletter and receive treatment and research updates, news, and helpful tips on managing your condition. Informed consent must be obtained from participants in this experiment (parental consent must be granted for minors).
Follow all safety precautions when using the blood glucose monitoring kit and when handling blood, as described in the Procedure. You are probably very familiar with the fact that over time, exercise changes your muscles, your lungs, your bones, and even your mindset; but did you know it has an immediate effect on your body's biochemistry? Investigate how blood glucose (sugar) levels change with exercise, and how to stabilize those levels during and after exercise. Fortunately, for most of us, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are unlikely to occur because our bodies carefully regulate our blood glucose levels. This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011). Of course, in order to regulate glucose, our bodies need to have some to work with in the first place. Although blood glucose levels stay in a safe range for most people, they do fluctuate over the course of a day based on when, how much, and what you eat.
Exercise also either increases or decreases blood glucose levels, depending on the person and other factors (the effects of exercise will be further explained in the next paragraph).
This video shows how glucose is normally taken up from the blood by cells, and how problems with this process occur in diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring system and additional test strips and lancets, which are small surgical blades used to obtain a drop of blood. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity.
Before participating, discuss the science project (and any exercise routine required) with his or her doctor. Limit exercise to 1–2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions.
Not exercise within 2 hours of going to sleep (to avoid changes in blood glucose levels while the person is asleep). Before testing how exercise affects a volunteer's blood glucose levels, establish a baseline of blood glucose levels for that person. Become familiar with the blood glucose monitoring system and how to use it to check a person's blood glucose levels. In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's baseline blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer eats either breakfast or lunch, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels. Touch the test strip down onto the drop of blood, allowing the blood to be drawn into the strip. Once you are done taking the measurement, properly dispose of the test strip and have the volunteer wash his or her hands. Two hours after the volunteer started eating the meal, check his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3, above.
Repeat steps 3–4 for the next two days so that you have taken these measurements for three days in a row. If possible, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, before and while you take measurements. How did the person's blood glucose levels change from before eating a meal to after eating a meal?
You will now measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels before, during, and after exercising for 20 minutes. Note: A person with diabetes should limit exercise to 1 to 2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) (unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions).
Choose which exercise activity (or combination of activities) you want your volunteer to do. Figure out when to have the volunteer do the exercise activity (either right before they eat breakfast or lunch, or 2 hours after he or she has started eating the meal).
If the volunteer does not have diabetes, and their blood glucose levels are not abnormal, it should be safe to have them exercise at either time. If the volunteer has diabetes, it is recommended that exercise is done after eating a meal to prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer starts the exercise activity, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels, as you did in step 3 of the previous section.
After the volunteer has finished exercising (for 20 minutes), measure his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. Safety Note: Checking blood glucose levels after exercising is important for a person with diabetes so he or she can prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) hours later. Repeat steps 6–8 for the next two days so that you have taken these exercise-related measurements for three days in a row. If possible, before the measurements are taken each day, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, and consistent to when you took the original blood glucose measurements.


Calculate the average glucose levels for before exercising, during exercising, and after exercising for the three days. Look at your graph and the average glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data. Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when they exercised?
You will now investigate how the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels could be managed and lessened, keeping the blood glucose levels more stable.
Look at your results from the previous section and figure out whether the blood glucose levels were relatively high or low at any point. For an idea of blood glucose level ranges, see step 6 in the "Creating a Baseline" section, above, and the resources in the Bibliography in the Background section. Make a plan for how to lessen the effects of exercise on the volunteer's blood glucose levels by changing only one of the following three factors: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of exercise, and (3) exercise time. Eating food: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly drop during exercise, then eating a carbohydrate snack may help increase his or her blood glucose levels.
Intensity of the exercise and time spent exercising: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly decrease or increase during exercise, then doing a less intense exercise or exercising for less time may help. Safety note: If your volunteer has diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing a more intense, or longer, exercise activity.
If you have more than one volunteer, make a plan for each volunteer based on their individual results. Once you have planned how the activity will be changed, repeat steps 4–9 of the "Investigating the Effects of Exercise" section, but this time use your modified activity.
If you want, you can make a line graph of the averages from the modified activity and the original activity. You should end up with six lines, with three from the averages of each type of activity tested. Look at your graphs and the average blood glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data.
Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when he or she exercised? Does it look like your plan helped make the volunteer's blood glucose levels more stable when he or she exercised? Overall, were you able to help lessen the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels by changing the volunteer's exercise routine or having them eat? Eating food changes our blood glucose levels, and different types of foods may affect it differently.
How does eating a certain, defined amount of glucose affect a person's blood glucose levels immediately and over time? Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. My group had problems with making sure we recorded what we ate, our levels, and what time we took the reading.
The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources.
Who does a diabetic turn to if they have questions or do not understand how to manage their disease? Ever wondered who plans the school lunch, food for patients at a hospital, or the meals for athletes at the Olympics? You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. This blood test, measuring the amount of glucose, is used to screen healthy people for early signs of diabetes during a routine physical exam. It is advised for pregnant women, people over age 50 and for those at high risk for diabetes.
You shouldn’t eat any food or drink anything other than water within eight hours of your test.
Like insulin, glucagon has an effect on many cells of the body, but most notably the liver.
Glucagon also induces the liver (and some other cells such as muscle) to make glucose out of building blocks obtained from other nutrients found in the body (eg, protein).
Learn about these diabetic neuropathies: peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal neuropathies. As we always do here on EndocrineWeb, wea€™re going to break down that concept for you, and thata€™s why wea€™ve put together this Patient Guide to Treating High Cholesterol and Diabetes.
By reviewing this information, youa€™re taking an important step to learn about diabetes and how insulin controls the disease to help you live a healthier life.
You may feel a lump, notice one side of your neck appears to be different, or your doctor may find it during a routine examination. Here, you'll learn about some of the most important aspects of managing your child's condition.
The experimental design (including consent forms) must be approved by your fair's Scientific Review Committee (SRC). If somebody who has diabetes wants to participate in this science project, review the safety notes at the beginning of the Procedure before starting. You can see this in the amount of glucose (a type of sugar your body uses for fuel) circulating in your blood. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas.
This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels.
Levels can decrease because glucose in the blood (and stored glucose) is used up during exercise.


It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Note: You will test blood glucose levels at least 24 times, and since a lancet and test strip are needed for each test, you will need at least 24 lancets and 24 test strips that work with the monitoring system.
A baseline is a typical amount that can be used to compare to experimental amounts to see if they are much larger, or smaller, than normal.
Be sure to read through all of the instructions that came with the system before you start using it. After a drop of blood has been touched to the test strip, you can read the test strip results on the blood glucose meter. Big changes in the type of food the volunteer eats could significantly affect his or her blood glucose levels (as shown in Figure 1, in the Background tab), but you are taking measurements over three days to try and account for these fluctuations.
So if your volunteer has diabetes, find out his or her schedule for the three days you will be doing exercise testing. The volunteer will exercise for 20 minutes, so make sure that the exercise planned is not too vigorous for your volunteer. Include space to record the date, time, and whether the measurements are before or after eating a meal. Be sure to do it around the same time (right before or after the same meal you decided on in step 3) for each day. Hint: You may want to refer to the information in the Introduction to help you explain the results. Based on your results from the previous section, you will pick one of the following factors to explore over three days: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of the exercise, or (3) time spent exercising. Research what factors affect blood glucose levels and then investigate how exactly they affect it using a blood glucose monitoring system. Do some background research into this topic to investigate how blood glucose levels change (over time) when a person eats different foods.
How do the results from urinalysis strips compare to the results from a glucose monitoring system? If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help.
Athletic trainers help athletes, and other physically active people, avoid such injuries, while also working to improve their strength and conditioning. He or she will discuss steps you can take to lower your glucose levels and whether or not medication is necessary.
Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones.
Above 180 is termed "hyperglycemia" (which translates to mean "too much glucose in the blood"). If the tumor is large, it may cause neck or facial pain, shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing, cough unrelated to a cold, hoarseness or voice change.
When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it to use for energy. To prevent blood glucose levels from dropping too much (and causing hypoglycemia), it is sometimes recommended that people with type 1 diabetes have a snack before and while exercising. The volunteer will be exercising for 20 minutes, so make sure to pick an activity that is not too vigorous for your volunteer.
To create a baseline of blood glucose levels, you will measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels over three days, twice a day: right before the volunteer eats a meal (which is called the preprandial plasma glucose) and 2 hours after they started eating the meal (called the postprandial plasma glucose). If there are too many ketones in the blood, it could mean that a person does not have enough insulin to lower his or her blood glucose levels.) The ketone results may affect whether the person can later safely do the exercise activity required for participating in this science project, and whether you may need to find a new volunteer(s) because of this.
Base this on the average baseline glucose levels you determined in step 7 (and any ketone data from step 4) of the previous section, as well as any known medical history the person has. If the investigation is being done on a person with diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing testing. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Should a sports injury occur, athletic trainers help to evaluate the injury, determine the treatment needed, and design a fitness regime to rehabilitate the athlete so he or she is ready to go out and compete again. Blood glucose may also be tested in emergencies to determine whether a low or high glucose level is responsible for unconsciousness.
The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy. However, exercise can also cause blood glucose levels to increase if too much stored glucose gets released when a person exercises and it is not used up while exercising.
Some dietitians and nutritionists also work to educate people about good food choices so they can cook and eat their own healthy meals.
Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people. If there is not enough insulin around, the glucose in the blood will not get stored again, and will remain in the blood (which can cause hyperglycemia). For people with diabetes, this can be addressed by taking an insulin shot after exercising. Once you have a clear idea of the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, you will try to diminish the changes by eating food, or by changing the intensity of the exercise or the exercise time. Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person has insulin resistance, which means the person's body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed by increasing exercise, changing diet, and possibly by taking medications such as insulin.



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Comments

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    Author: PENAH
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