In this study, the effects of a green banana pasta diet on the oxidative damage from type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated. Formulations containing 25 (F25), 50 (F50), and 75% (F75) of green banana pasta were prepared and included in a 12-week diet of Wistar rats with alloxan-induced type 1 DM. The green banana pasta (F75) diet showed great potential for preventing complications associated with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of endocrine and metabolic diseases markedly characterized by hyperglycemia.
Oxidative stress, inflammation, and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been reported to be long-term complications of DM (3,4). Hyperglycemia is a stimulus for the increased production of superoxide anions (O2-•) by endothelial cells in small and large blood vessels and the myocardium.
Among the strategies for the prevention and treatment of DM are the practice of regular physical activities, a controlled diet, and pharmacological approaches, such as the use of hypoglycemic agents, insulin therapy, or a combination of both drugs. During the process of harvesting and trading bananas in Brazil, approximately 10% of the total production is lost due to the population consuming only ripe fruit and also because the banana is a climacteric fruit. Green banana pasta provides an important alternative for restrictive diets as an important functional food, offering a nutritional increase compared to the ripe fruit that is usually consumed by the population. The beneficial effects on colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal ulcers, and dyslipidemias have been attributed to the use of green bananas (17). Studies have shown the importance of the banana for DM control (8,9); however, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of green banana pasta on DM complications.
Based on this information, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dietary approach (different formulations of green banana pasta) on the prevention of oxidative damage from complications of type 1 DM in the liver and kidneys of rats. The production of the green banana pasta was performed in the Dietetics Technical Laboratory of the Jose do Rosario Vellano University (Unifenas).
The formulations were prepared in accordance with different concentrations of green banana pasta added to the commercial feed for rats, as shown in Chart 1.
All microbiological analyses were performed according to the methodologies proposed by Silva and cols. Aliquots of the formulations (25 g) were added to the saline solution (0.85%), forming the dilution 10-1 and then the successive dilutions (from 10-2 to 10-5). The centesimal compositions of the green banana pasta and its formulations were evaluated according to AOAC (21). All animal experiments were conducted in strict accordance with the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Institutes of Health [NIH], Washington DC: The National Academy Press, 2011). In this study, 60 healthy Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rats, male, adult, 180-300 g weight, 6-8 weeks old) from Unifenas breeding colonies were used. Prior to the induction of type 1 DM through the use of alloxan, the rats were kept in a solid feeding for 12 hours. After the induction of diabetes, the rats were fed a standard-style diet or the formulations-based diets (formulations prepared with different amounts of green banana pasta added to the commercial feed for rats, F25, F50, or F75) for 12 weeks, and then the animals were tested for oxidative damage and biochemical parameters.
The animals were anesthetized, and the blood was collected by cardiac puncture to obtain the serum. The blood samples of the rats were collected in siliconized tubes without additives to obtain the serum. After the maintenance of different diets for 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, and the homogenates were prepared from the kidneys and liver as described by Jones and cols. The lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the peroxidation products that reacted to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay, as described by Winterbourn and cols.
The carbonyls in the oxidized proteins were determined by using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) spectrophotometric assay. The total lipid in the liver homogenates was determined by using the Bligh Dyer method (21), and the results were reported as the total lipids (%) that represented the total lipid percentage per mL of liver homogenate. All graphs were constructed using the BioEstat software (Version 5.0), and the results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of at least three experiments.
The results of the centesimal composition and microbiological analysis are shown in Table 1.
The serum analyses for the fasting glucose levels of animals on different diets (commercial feed or formulations of green banana pasta) are shown in Figure 2.
The values of AST, ALT, creatinine, fructosamine, total cholesterol, and fractions (HDL, and triglycerides) in the serum of rats as well as the total lipids in the liver are shown in Table 3. In this study, the effects of a green banana pasta diet on glucose levels during type 1 DM was evaluated in an experimental animal model using Wistar rats with alloxan- induced diabetes. In type 1 DM, oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the most frequent chronic complications (29). In accordance with Tiwari and cols., advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are markers of protein oxidation generated during chronic oxidative stress. The increases in the carbonyl protein levels as well as the AOPPs are associated with structural and conformational changes in proteins, which implies the genesis of certain metabolic diseases and pathological changes, such as diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetes is markedly characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver and kidney functions. An F75 diet was here proved to be able to prevent the increase of fructosamine in animals with DM.
The oxidative damage in the liver was outstanding with a consequent increase of ALT, a more specific marker of liver function.
Regarding the lipid profile parameters, surprisingly, the F50 diet prevented the increase of cholesterol levels in diabetic rats, whereas the F75 diet had no significant hypocholesterolemic effect. Interestingly, metformin showed a good ability in preventing hepatic and renal oxidative damage from type 1 DM, despite it being used for treating type 2 DM. Bananas are a widely consumed food, mainly due to sensory aspects, nutrition, and low cost (13,31). In this study, all evaluated formulations of green banana pasta showed considerable amounts of fiber and protein, reinforcing the previous findings on the importance of green bananas (13). Concerning the microbiological analysis, the stable microbiological quality of the formulations was demonstrated. One of the limitations of this study is the absence of a group of treated diabetic animals with glucose- matched levels to the green banana pasta groups. Having confirmed and reinforced the link between hyperglycemia and diabetes complications, this study demonstrated that a diet based on formulations containing green banana pasta (F50 or F75 diet) can prevent oxidative damage in the liver and kidneys of rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). This research was supported by Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (scholarship). Correspondence to: Claudio Daniel Cerdeira, Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic and obstetric emergency that can jeopardize both mother and fetus.
Induction of labor before 40 week should be limited to those maternal or fetal complications that necessitate delivery before 40 weeks. Feel free to mail me or the webmaster Dr Lars Krag Moeller if you have suggestions or corrections that you believe could improve the manual.
Alert: Don't be deceived by imitation filters!Beware of imitation or knockoff filters.Know the differences and get genuine Stetzerizer Filters! Type I Diabetes Mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition where the pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin.  Insulin is a hormone that lets glucose (sugar) enter cells to be used for energy. Ketone testing kits are available at most pharmacies or drug stores.  They usually require you to urinate in a small cup, dip in a strip, then match the strip to the colors on the bottle. Athletes with mild hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia may return to activity when blood glucose is within a normal range without ketones. The effects of these formulations in preventing oxidative damage in kidneys and liver homogenates of rats were evaluated using the TBARS assay (lipid peroxidation in liver) and the DNPH assay (protein oxidation in liver and kidneys).
DM is considered a serious public health problem and has frequently been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Hyperglycemia and the consequent nonenzymatic glycation of protein, lipids, and nucleic acids generate the AGEs, which are a heterogeneous group of molecules that can cause damage, dysfunction, and organ failure, especially in the eyes, kidneys, liver, nervous system, heart, and blood vessels (3,4). Mitochondrial overproduction of O2- • leads to oxidative stress, causing serious damage to cells, organs, and tissues (2).

These losses could be reduced by processing the pulp of unripe bananas because an alternative is their transformation into green banana pasta (13-16).
The primary nutrient of green banana pasta is resistant starch, but potassium, fibers, minerals, vitamins B1 and B6, ?-carotene, and vitamin C are present in significant concentrations (13). Among the possible metabolites related to DM control, the flavonoids are the most cited, and their antioxidant effects can be implicated on the modulation of oxidative damage in several inflammatory diseases (8,9).
The effects of these formulations on a possible improvement of biochemical parameters were also investigated by evaluating the fasting glycemia, fructosamine, renal function (creatinine), liver function (AST and ALT), and lipid profile (total cholesterol and fractions) in diabetic rats.
Twelve banana units (commercial, “Prata” variety) were selected with an average size from 9 to 15 cm and visually classified as “green bananas”. The moisture was determined through the gravimetric method with heat employment based on the weight loss of the material at 105 °C until a stable weight be reached.
This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee on the use of animals (CEUA) of the Unifenas (committee opinion No. The animals were housed under standard laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C) maintained in collective cages containing three individuals each and fed with a specific diet and water ad libitum for them to undergo a period of acclimatization (10 days) before being used in the procedures.
At first, 60 healthy Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rats, male, adult, 180-300 g initial weight, 6-8 weeks old) were divided into six groups, with 10 animals per group. After centrifugation at 1500 g for 10 minutes at room temperature, the serum was separated. The levels of fasting glucose and total cholesterol (TC) or fractions (Triglycerides [TG] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL]) were determined in the serum through the endpoint colorimetric method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons of means were performed using the BioEstat software (Version 5.0). As observed in Figure 2, an F75 diet shows a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect on type 1 DM, whereas F50 or F25 had no effect on the serum glucose levels. As observed, protein oxidation was significantly increased in the liver and kidneys of rats with Type 1 DM that had a standard diet compared to the non-diabetic rats. Protein carbonyls (PCO), considered markers of protein oxidation, as well as the MDA level, a well-known biomarker of lipid oxidative damage, are accordingly considered markers of oxidative stress (25,27). In addition, AOPPs are pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative compounds that accumulate in patients with DM and can cause endothelial dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular disease (2). To reinforce the evidence of the effects of a green banana pasta diet in preventing the oxidative damage, in this study, the effects of the formulations on the renal function (creatinine) and liver function (ALT and AST) were presented.
Fructosamine is considered a good indicator of metabolic control in DM, usually reflecting the variations of blood glucose in recent weeks.
All formulations of green banana pasta significantly prevented an increase in the triglyceride levels in diabetic rats, but none of them significantly altered the HDL levels.
On the other hand, as expected, metformin did not show hypoglycemic effects in animals with type 1 DM. Furthermore, the presence of large quantities of fiber is related to important biological effects, such as the positive effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the vascular system as well as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects (17).
However, a possible preventive effect of the green banana pasta diets (F75 and F50 diets) directly on the oxidative damage in liver and kidneys is suggested by the high content of antioxidants present in bananas. In addition, the F75 diet prevented the increase of ALT, triglycerides (effects also observed for an F50 diet), fructosamine, and glycemia.
Begin one liter of 0.9 percent NaCl over one hour and draw arterial blood gases, complete blood count with differential, urinalysis, serum glucose, BUN, electrolytes, chemistry profile and creatinine levels STAT. Begin one liter of 0.9 percent NaCl over one hour and draw arterial blood gases, complete blood count with differential, urinalysis, serum glucose, BUN, electrolytes, chemistry profile, and creatinine levels STAT. Dirty electricity can be generated by energy efficient lighting, dimmer switches, entertainment units, and computers within the home or workplace and it can be transported into buildings by power lines from neighbouring property. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: management of the athlete with type I diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the effects of the formulations on the fasting glycemia, fructosamine levels, renal function (creatinine), liver function (enzymes aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), and lipid profile (total cholesterol and fractions) in the serum of rats were evaluated in addition to the evaluation of the centesimal composition and microbiological analysis of the produced green banana pasta. Moreover, all formulations prevented an increase in the amount of triglycerides in the serum of the rats.
The genesis of DM can occur due to defects in insulin secretion by the pancreas, defects in insulin’s target cells (insulin resistance), or a combination of both events (1,2). Furthermore, hyperglycemia can result in the priming of neutrophils, generating excessive amounts of O2- • through the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex during the oxidative burst with the consequent formation of other reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species (5).
In addition, a microbiological quality control and composition analysis of the produced green banana pasta was performed. For the ethereal extract, we used the method of “Soxhlet” (gravimetric) based on the weight loss of the material submitted to extraction with ether or the amount of solubilized material through the solvent.
The serum was used for the determination of the fasting glycemia, fructosamine, renal function, liver function, and lipid profile.
The serum creatinine levels (renal function) were determined by the Jaffe method modified using a kit purchased commercially, and the measurement procedure was calibrated with the reference material SRM 914 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), making the results trackable to the definitive method (Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry).
The weights and feed intake for the different experimental groups over the 12-week diets are shown in Table 2.
Notably, the diabetic rats kept on the F50 or F75 diet for 12 weeks showed significantly lower levels of oxidative damage during DM, which is a significant preventative effect of these formulations on lipid peroxidation (in the liver) and protein oxidation (in the liver and kidneys). An F75 diet was able to prevent the increase of fructosamine in diabetic rats compared to the control group. In this study, the significant effect of a green banana pasta diet (F75 and F50) on the prevention of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation in the liver and protein oxidation in the liver and kidneys) during type 1 DM was shown, although F50 did not show an anti-hyperglycemic effect, indicating a possible pleiotropic effect of these diets. The association between the levels of TBARS and AOPPs during DM indicates that proteins are likewise targeted by ROS as the lipids (2). Demonstrating the broad spectrum of damage from oxidative stress during DM, according to Goh and Cooper, the irreversible formation of AGEs can be the result of excessive formation of ROS during hyperglycemia, which is related to the development and progression of DM complications (4).
The evidence of the effects of a green banana pasta diet (F75) in preventing DM complications was strengthened by analyses of the lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL), fructosamine, ALT, and fat liver content. The improvement of this biochemical parameter is remarkable and congruent to the effect of the F75 diet of preventing hyperglycemia, as also demonstrated in this study. This formulation showed a preventive effect against the oxidative damage and consequently against the increase of ALT in this organ. Because HDL is considered “good” cholesterol, it appears to be a desirable outcome of these diets. Moreover, it did not prevent the increase of fructosamine and lipid markers, which are derived from hyperglycemia, proving its lack of effect on hyperglycemia and consequent type 1 DM-associated complications. In addition, the evidence linking genus Musa to the hypoglycemic effects is based on different studies (8,32,33). The increase in the CFU of these microorganisms occurred according to the increase of green banana pasta added to the commercial feed, indicating that their growth may be dependent on humidity. Therefore, the green banana pasta diet presented promising effects on the prevention of diabetes complications in addition to being considered a nutritious food. The role of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the development of vascular diabetic complications.
Clinical review: the role of advanced glycation end products in progression and complications of diabetes. Priming of neutrophil oxidative burst in diabetes requires preassembly of the NADPH oxidase. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca) on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action. Influence of Green banana pulp on the rheological behaviour and chemical characteristcs of emulsions (mayonnaises). Green banana (Musa spp): getting the biomass and physiological actions of resistant starch.
Experimental alloxan diabetes-induced: a model for clinical and laboratory studies in rats. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.

Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Comparative study on antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of separate and composite extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana and root of Musa paradisiaca in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of Musa sapientum root extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Genistein acutely stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway.
The role of calcium in intracellular pathways of rutin in rat pancreatic islets: potential insulin secretagogue effect. The resultant improvements in power quality in homes and schools are associated with fewer and less severe headaches, more energy, lower blood sugar levels for diabetics, and improved balance and more energy for those with multiple sclerosis. Accessing or using this website is restricted; user hereby agrees to the Terms and Conditions or must immediately cease use and end this session. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and the irreversible formation of AGEs caused by ROS are exacerbated due to the decrease in an antioxidant defense with a marked reduction of glutathione (GSH) (2,4). Among the varieties of bananas, one of the most common in Brazil is the “Prata” variety, occupying approximately 60% of the cultivated area in Brazil (12,13). In addition, due to its low glycemic index, green banana pasta has better digestion and absorption effects. Then, they were placed in a pressure cooker and covered with drinking water for 8 minutes after the start of pressure.
The crude protein was determined by the method of “Kjeldahl” by determining the food nitrogen.
In the control group of rats without DM, the animals received a single dose of saline solution. After that, animals were kept on a standard-style diet or on the formulations-based diets (formulations prepared with different amounts of green banana pasta added to the commercial feed for rats, so-called F25, F50, and F75 diets) for 12 weeks (from day 9 to 93) and then the animals were tested for oxidative damage (in liver and kidneys), serum glucose levels, biochemical parameters, and other tests (after day 93). The weight and feed intake of the different experimental groups of diabetic rats were evaluated during the 12-week diets.
The homogenate was centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min at 4 °C, which was the supernatant subsequently used.
To evaluate the liver function, the levels of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum were determined by the UV-kinetic method. The animals kept on the standard diet (commercial feed) but treated with metformin had lower levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation compared to the group of untreated animals. The animals on an F50-based diet had a significant protective effect against the increase of AST. Currently, although the effect of bananas in preventing hyperglycemia has already been reported (8,9), its effects on oxidative damage from type 1 DM remains unknown (28). Taking into account the importance of controlling DM complications, preventing oxidative damage is fundamental since the oxidation of proteins affects many physiological functions. Hence, the decrease in the fructosamine levels may be a consequence of the prior anti-hyperglycemic effect of this 12-week diet.
The AST levels increased in diabetic rats compared to the rats without DM, but the formulation-based diets had no effect on the prevention of this increase.
The effects of the formulations on cholesterol and triglycerides can be due to the anti- hyperglycemic effect of the green banana pasta diet (F75 diet), which reinforces its importance in preventing DM complications. Thus, these findings extend the knowledge on the properties of metformin in reducing oxidative stress, an effect already well-known for the reduction of AOPPs and AGES among other markers of oxidative stress; however, when they are generated during type 2 diabetes (30).
The green fruits are rich in flavonoids, also presenting a high content of resistant starch (similar to dietary fiber). Among the metabolites possibly related to this property, the pectin and flavonoids rutin, daidzein, and genistein (known stimulators of insulin secretion) have been frequently reported (34-36). Thus, the amount of glucose released into the blood occurs gradually, maintaining controlled blood glucose levels without requiring the excessive release of insulin (14,19). After that, the bananas were mashed (peel and pulp), and a homogeneous mix was obtained, termed “green banana pasta” in this study. The fiber fraction was determined using the gravimetric method after hydrolysis in an acidic medium. The serum fructosamine was evaluated by the fixed-time kinetic method using semi-automated equipment (Bio 2000) (24). During the renal function evaluation, it was observed that the creatinine levels were equal in all experimental groups, although significant protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in this organ were observed. The high content of resistant starch hinders the absorption of fats and glucose, so bananas are suggested for patients with DM (19).
These compounds also have significant antioxidant effects, which could at least partly explain the effect of F50 on the modulation of oxidative damage notwithstanding its inability to have significant anti-hyperglycemic effects on type 1 DM. The results from these very few cases studies are so dramatic that they warrant further investigation.
The green banana pasta was stored at a temperature of 10 ?C until the time of the analyses. The fixed mineral residue (ash) was determined by previous carbonization of the samples followed by incineration in a muffle furnace at 550 °C (21). The concentration of TBARS was estimated from the standard curve of malonic dialdehyde (MDA; 1,1,3,3 tetraetoxipropano). Finally, the pellet was dissolved with 1000 ?L of 6 M Guanidine, and the absorbance was measured spectrophotometrically at 370 nm (27). Interestingly, the F50 diet was able to significantly prevent the increase of cholesterol compared to the control group, whereas the F75 diet had no hypocholesterolemic effect. The total lipids in the liver increased in the diabetic rats compared to the non-diabetic rats, whereas for the rats on a green banana pasta diet (F25, F50, and F75 diets) as well as for the rats maintained with the standard diet but treated with metformin, this increase did not occur. In the United States, 16 million people are diagnosed as diabetic and more are suspected of having this disease.
Case studies show that blood sugar levels are associated with dirty power on internal wiring as well as radio frequency radiation from nearby cell phone antennas and that these blood sugar levels can change quickly as one moves from a “dirty” to a “clean” electrical environment.Figure 7. However, since it contributed disproportionately to the correlation coefficient it was removed. A 57-year old female diabetic exposed to radio frequency radiation (RFR) in her home from nearby cell phone antennas.
Her symptoms became worse during humid weather but she recovered rapidly with the filters installed.Figure 10. Significant improvements in muscle strength, joint stiffness, pain, and walking were noticed within the first two weeks. MS patient experienced less fatigue while filters were installed especially during dry weather.
She woke up fewer times during the night and had some difficulty waking up in the morning.Figure 13. MS patient was more moody and experienced more nervousness while filters were installed.Figure 14. While filters were installed, MS patient experienced improvements in overall health, sleep quality, energy level and MS symptoms.
Response was greatest among younger students in elementary school, suggesting that they might be more electrically sensitive than middle and high school students.Figure 15. They had more energy, better health, greater accomplishments and sense of well-being and were more focused while filters were installed.Figure 17. Students were more actively involved in their lessons and were more focused while the filters were installed.

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  1. 27.03.2014 at 14:43:42

    Stays flat in the low 80 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/L) unawareness is more likely.

    Author: Vefasiz_Oldun
  2. 27.03.2014 at 11:16:42

    Blood sugar as potential energy via uptake into muscles, or store.

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  3. 27.03.2014 at 21:38:25

    Adequate blood sample with a tiny skin getting.

    Author: Narin_Yagish