Fasting blood glucose is a measure of the quantity of glucose present in an individual’s blood stream after abstaining from eating for at least eight hours.1 This test is used to screen for diabetes. The chart below provides fasting blood sugar numbers and descriptions as provided by the American Diabetes Association.
For a comprehensive overview of Diabetes, see our Diabetes section under medical health issues. HDL Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol The two basic types of cholesterol with which we are concerned with are LDL and HDL cholesterol. The varieties of carbohydrates that are ingested are converted in to mono saccharides with the help of enzymes.
Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes is a lifestyle related disease and a major risk factor for Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs).
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala and to identify the diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups.
Whereas rest of India is still grappling with communicable diseases and malnourishment, the state of Kerala stands out, with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) emerging as a major public health challenge. To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala. To study the fasting plasma glucose levels as an indicator of diabetes control in the community. Data Collection Tools: Structured questionnaire and Blood Sugar examination using Glucometer (DiabeCHECK- Jitron).
Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethical Committee, Trivandrum Medical College. Diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups were examined and was highest (76%) between 60 and 69 years.
81 (18%) persons had blood sugar values above 125 mg%.  Of these 42 were already diagnosed and was on treatment. A national study9 to determine the prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in India done in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) showed that the weighted prevalence of Diabetes was 10.4% in Tamil Nadu, 8.
Studies from Kerala  also emphasized the need for life style modifications and community based programmes for early detection and preventive measures.1, 12  Diabetes Case Detection Rate in the present study was 50% in persons less than 50 years of age and more than 75% above the age of 50 years.
Prediabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, micro vascular, and macro vascular disease. While most people know that high blood sugar levels are a precursor for diabetes, several studies have also suggested a link between high blood sugar levels and the risk of developing some forms of cancer. The largest of these studies was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in January 2005. In the Korean study, pancreatic cancer was found to have the strongest association with blood sugar levels. Other cancers that showed a correlation with blood sugar levels in men were esophageal, liver, colorectal, and bile duct cancers.


In women, cancers of the pancreas, liver, lung, and cervix were correlated with blood sugar levels. The reasons why high blood sugar levels increase the risk of developing certain cancers are largely unknown. Another possibility is that, because cancer cells require more glucose than normal cells, a high blood sugar environment in the body may increase cancerous cell growth and division.
There are numerous ways for an individual to reduce their blood sugar levels, some of these include: consuming a high fiber diet, consuming fresh, unprocessed foods, limiting sugary foods and beverages, consuming foods with a low glycemic index or glycemic load, and exercising regularly for at least 30 minutes a day, three times a week. A very limited number of published studies indicate high prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in the state of Kerala.
Ltd).  Calibration was done daily to ensure reliability and new pairs of DC cells were used every day.
All Prediabetic were educated regarding lifestyle modifications for Diabetes prevention and motivated to follow up in local Primary Health Centres. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial. Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Evaluation of non communicable disease control pilot programme of National Rural Health Mission in Thiruvananthapuram district.
High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders in rural Central Kerala. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a community-based study in North India: the Chandigarh Urban Diabetes Study (CUDS). Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program.
Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India. The researchers used data from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) which involved more than 1.2 million Koreans between the ages of 30 and 95. The graph below shows the risk of selected cancers for the Korean men in the study, grouped by fasting glucose levels. The risk of selected cancers in Korean women, grouped by fasting glucose levels are presented in the graph below.
That study linked elevated fasting blood sugar levels with an increased incidence of cancers of the pancreas, skin, womb, and urinary tract. One possible mechanism is that higher blood sugar levels may indicate increased stress on organs such as the pancreas (which produces insulin in response to high sugar levels) and the liver (which can store glucose in the form of glycogen). Studies have also shown that cancer cells deprived of sufficient glucose levels self destruct through a process called apoptosis. Where the carbohydrate metabolism begins.The sugar content in blood is controlled by three hormones.


This study was done in the Neyyattinkara taluk of south Kerala by including coastal, mid land and high land regions to make it representative of the geographical profile of the state. In younger women aged under 49 years there was also a link between breast cancer and high blood sugar levels. If the sugar content is high in blood insulin is secreted by pancreas which stimulates the glucose being transferred in to the liver and muscular cells preferentially.In the liver the glucose gets converted to glycogen.
In total, women in the highest quartile of fasting blood sugar levels were 26 percent more likely to develop some form of cancer compared to those in the lowest quartile of blood sugar levels. The sugar found in bread, rice, pasta etc are longer combinations of sugars called poly saccharides and they also need to be broken in to smaller and further breakable mono saccharides. When the entire carbohydrate that is available in the body is properly utilized with the help of the required enzymes and other hormones the carbohydrate mechanism is said to be perfect and complete. These two help in stimulating the conversion of glycogen to glucose when the sugar level in blood is low. If due to the non availability of a certain enzyme a carbohydrate does not get utilized and gets accumulated in the body, it is called carbohydrate metabolism disorder and is the cause of diseases.Some of the disorders are1. Glycogen storage disorderGlycogen is a molecule formed by the interlinking of glucose molecules and is stored in liver and muscles. The glucose entering in to the cell if needed to be converted in to energy immediately a process called glycolysis takes place resulting in the formation of pyruvic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The pyruvic acid if more ATP is needed gets converted to acetyl CoA first and then to citric acid which will get oxidized and gives ATP.
The absence of enzymes required to make glycogen and break glycogen in to glucose causes this disorder. When the energy is not required immediately the pyruvic acid is converted back to glucose by a process called gluconeogenesis.
In animals this mechanism is not there and they depend on those carbohydrates from plants to get energy.
This glucose in turn gets converted to glycogen and is stored in the liver and muscle cells. The lack of enzyme that can metabolize the galactose in to glycogen results in this disease.
In the infants who show this disease, the abnormal growth is the symptom apart from the above.Apart from these the hereditary fructose metabolism defect, pyruvic acid metabolism defect, and lack of polysaccharide breaking enzyme are the carbohydrate metabolism disorders.



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Comments

  1. 10.05.2014 at 21:51:59


    Hypoglycemia is usually mild in people with type 2 diabetes, and readily fixed set of problems.

    Author: 889
  2. 10.05.2014 at 22:39:12


    South Asians Wellness Program Type was dangerous and family doctors have been brainwashed.

    Author: Super_Krutoy