The pancreas detects the fall in the blood glucose level and releases another hormone, glucagon. Get the best tech deals, reviews, product advice, competitions, unmissable tech news and more! A diabetic woman has become the first in the world to give birth naturally after using an artificial pancreas while pregnant, experts have said. Catriona Finlayson-Wilkins, 41, of Knapton, Norfolk, gave birth to son Euan on Tuesday at the Norfolk and Norfolk University Hospital. She is also the first woman to give birth after using the device outside the main research site in Cambridge. The new mother-of-two has Type 1 diabetes and wore the piece of kit throughout her pregnancy to produce insulin and prevent symptoms of the disease.
Three other mothers have previously given birth in Cambridge after using the device but by caesarean section.
An artificial pancreas device system (APDS) is a small portable piece of equipment designed to carry out the function of a healthy pancreas. It helps to control blood glucose levels using digital communication technology to automate insulin delivery.
An APDS is worn on the body during pregnancy and has a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a digital controller and an insulin pump. Her first son was taken into intensive care when he was born because his blood sugar levels dropped dangerously low and she did not see him for a day.
Dr Helen Murphy, principal investigator of the study Ms Finlayson-Wilkins took part in, said Euan's arrival was an exciting step in the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy. The results of the ongoing National Institute for Health Research's Closed Loop in Pregnancy study are due to be published later this year. Scientists are debating whether it's possible to harness the power of gravity for interstellar space travel. The four-year-old boy who has become the centre of a controversy between India and Pakistan - and between his father and mother. Why, almost 60 years after he first appeared in the Daily Mirror, is a layabout lout from north-east England still so loved around the world? Blood and the transport system: Blood is the transport system for all animals and is the easiest component of our bodies to gain access to - tiny blood test. The plasma is the main component- it contains all the dissolved substances and the protein fibrinogen which is essential for blood clotting. Determination of drugs Blood tests are sometimes used to test for the presence and amount of drugs within the body.
Disposal of syringes and hypodermic needles Sharps and hypodermic needles are disposed of in special containers to avoid contact. Risk assessment for a blood test: The volume of blood my differ depending on the type of analysis required. Diabetes types and control of blood sugar levels Some people are unable to control their blood glucose level properly because they have insufficient insulin.
Diabetes symptoms and causes: Diabetics are unable to control their blood glucose levels because they are unable to produce enough insulin – Clinical condition is called diabetes mellitis (sweet urine).
Monitoring Physiological changes: There are many ways in which doctors, nurses and other health care specialists monitor the working of the human body. Temperature: We measure body temperature using a clinical thermometer - either mercury or electronic.
Right now, the only T2-focused pump available is the V-Go made by New Jersey-based Valeritas. As different as we all are there is one area that affects us all the same way – Sleep or rather the lack of it. In reaction to any stress our body initially increases our metabolism, but when the stress becomes prolonged or chronic then the opposite occurs and our metabolism slows down.
Cortisol serves many important functions, including the rapid release of glycogen stores for immediate energy. Chronic stress, largely through your hormone system, can disrupt your digestive system resulting in a lower uptake of nutrients and to the stomach producing higher than normal amounts of digestive acids on a prolonged basis.
The good news is that if the stress is removed, the body quickly improves and your RMR is raised. Inadequate sleep interferes with nearly every aspect of your fitness & fat loss program. Tired people burn fewer calories because they lack the energy to exercise or work out intensely. Lack of sleep not only makes you too tired to exercise, but it negatively affects your hormone system by altering the hormone levels in your body. Lack of sleep affects the levels of cortisol, leptin and ghrelin, three hormones linked with muscle catabolism, belly fat storage, appetite and eating behaviours. 8 hours per night, and that the increase in obesity was directly proportional to the decrease in sleep.  This goes a long way towards explaining why very sleep-deprived people are nearly twice as likely to be obese.
Fortunately, by keeping your carbohydrates low-glycemic, and by exercising you reduce the need for this excessive output of insulin, and you keep your fat-burning in high gear. Even better news is that is improving your sleep immediately reduces the negative effects on your hormone levels & their effect on your body. As for the number of hours of sleep, there’s no one-size-fits-all number of prescribed hours. Still, numerous factors can influence the amount of sleep you need, such as pregnancy, illness and stress levels, for example. Last time I listed 30 something reasons to get in shape if you are over 30 and this time I want to look at the use of exercise as a major component of getting into shape  – or staying there once you’re happy with how you look. The first type of program uses barbells & dumbbells and pretty much needs a gym so you can access enough weight to really challenge yourself.
So let’s assume that you’ve reduced your calories and are eating nutrient dense but calorie sparse foods. Now as we have discussed in previous posts – once our bodies sense a cut in calories it immediately begins to preserve (and if possible) add to fat stores. You can combat this though – by convincing your body that it needs to maintain if not add to your muscle if it is to survive. Your goal has to be to maintain lean muscle and to max strength when you are reducing calories. Go through 10 – 15 reps of each exercise pausing only long enough to swap weights until you’ve completed one circuit.
The goal of this style of training for the second 30 minutes of each workout is to get your metabolism really ramped up so that you create a strong EPOC and continue to burn fat as fuel for hours after the workout is done.
Firstly warm up with some Jumping Jacks followed by walking lunges, then shoulder swings, some push ups and some body weight squats.
Speed is important as it engages more muscle fibres, fires up more mitochondria ( the fat burning furnaces in each cell) and builds more strength. That is the first part of the workout on day 1, next you move to part 2 which is the metabolic circuits. Put your equipment back and go home and eat a meal high in protein, moderate carbs and low fat. Then you come back on day 2 and do the squats & Chin Ups followed by the same metabolic workout.


For best results, and if you are up to it you should workout 6 days a week, alternating Workout 1 with Workout 2.
Follow this program for 6 weeks with a clean metabolism boosting diet and you’ll see great results.
If you use the 14 day cycle aim to do it for at least 8 weeks then switch to the 6-days a week one foe another 4. Well there you have it – follow this program with a clean diet and the fat will certainly disappear. See next time when we’ll look at why bodyweight workouts can deliver excellent results – even without gym equipments. It doesn’t matter who you are the suggested minimum amount of sleep for adults is 8 hours. However current research in Australia & the USA shows that as much as 37% of the adult population aged over 30  is getting 6 hours or less sleep on a regular basis.
Research is showing that long term sleep loss is related to an increase in obesity and diabetes. Lack of sleep affects a number of metabolism influencing areas: your energy level, your resting metabolic rate, your appetite control and your insulin sensitivity. Not only can nsulin resistance  lead to Type 2 diabetes, but it has been proven to increase fat storage. Sleep loss  increases both your appetite and your cravings for high GI carbs along with creating insulin resistance. Cortisol is a stress hormone that directly influences blood sugar levels and is associated with increases in  belly fat.  When cortisol levels rise, fat loss stops. If you stay awake longer you also have more opportunity to eat more, and because your energy levles are lagging you tend to go for the quick sugar fix. Studies have shown that people actually eat more on average when they get less sleep, and they eat less healthily. So you’ve got to get more sleep, not just for your health, but for your fat loss and metabolism. Sign up below & I'll send you my FREE 20 page report on the 9 Secrets and 7 Myths of Fat Loss! Body Shape ShiftersMuscle Growth, Preservation, Insulin & Leucine September 22, 2013 jghetheTwo favourite foods that are killing us!!!
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There are hundreds of different blood tests used to measure the function of an individual organ or systems. Average adult contains about 5 litres of blood and it is vital for life and the loss of even a litre is life threatening and it needs to be replaced quickly. Nowadays automated counting machines are used which can count simultaneously all blood cells in a very short time interval.
There are several variants of the assay – these can be direct or indirect detection and the competitive assay Direct is where antigen is directly detected with primary labelled antibody or indirect with a labelled secondary antibody. Specialist waste disposal companies provide a service to collect and dispose of the waste material in the sharp boxes. After a meal diabetics are, because of lack of insulin, unable to increase the permeability of the cell membranes to glucose. The reason body temperature is measured is that our body is controlled within a relatively narrow temperature range and a range of diseases (notable infections) can alter that balance. We told you about this rectangle-shaped patch pump before, as it’s been on the market for almost two years now for those type 2s who want to replace daily injections with a once-a-day disposable pump that can give set boluses of 20-40 unit increments. Two of the things that have the greatest blunting effect on your metabolism are stress & a lack of sleep.
This means that it is harder for your body to burn calories and harder for you to lose fat.
But this heightened physical state can only be sustained for short periods before the body exhausts its stores of the main hormones it responds with. Initially these three chemicals act to speed up your heart rate, your respiration, your blood pressure, and your overall metabolism.
However once these have hormones have done their job and we have not used the fuel available then the cortisol kicks in and acts in its role as the belly fat storing hormone.
But persistent cortisol release requires that other vital systems effectively shut down – immunity, digestion, healthy endocrine function, and so on. Growth Hormone naturally blunts & counteracts the effects of cortisol so lowering it raises the effects of cortisol. This, as we now know, increased insulin makes fat control difficult due to its effect on storing blood sugar as fat. It turns out that excessive insulin reduces the ability of your body to burn fat for energy even after the glucose is cleared. If you reduce the amount of stress in your life and get more sleep each night, your normal BMR will return.
The right amount for you is based on your individual sleep requirements, although there’s some evidence indicating that somewhere around seven hours a night is ideal from a general health perspective. As a general guideline, if you feel sluggish and foggy-headed upon waking, you’re likely not getting enough sleep, or the quality of your sleep is not very good. But sleeping pills come with numerous side effects and can cause more harm than good – better by far to try to reduce the stressors in your life. That you are eating clean – lots of protein and low GI carbs, few processed foods, no transfats and you’ve come as close to eliminating High Fructose Corn Syrup from your diet as humanly possible. It also begins to burn muscle for fuel once glycogen stores are depleted – result; a slower metabolism and more body fat. The best exercises to use for this are compound (ie multijoint) ones like Squats, Deadlifts, Overhead Presses and weighted Chin Ups. A weak grip means that you can do fewer reps or use less weight so by splitting them apart your grip only gets ‘hit’ with 1 exercise each session. Put enough weight on each bar so that you can only do 5 -6 fast reps of each exercise with good form. You need different weights as you will be able to handle different ones depending upon the exercise. Not only is this no good for your overall health & energy levels but it is disasterous if you are trying to cut your body fat levels.
The research shows that even partial sleep deprivation can manipulate some of the key hormones that impact fat loss .
Regular readers of this blog know that when you suffer from increased insulin resistance your body must produce extra insulin to rid your blood stream of glucose. Lack of sleep not only affects your insulin sensitivity but it also affects other hormones like  cortisol and ghrilin. Ghrelin basically makes you hungry, leptin tells your brain when you’ve eaten enough. If you know you lack sleep then you need to begin to taking saction to improve the amount of sleep that you are getting.
We wouldn't blame you if you did, so that's why a new gizmo developed my scientists at Cardiff University's School of Engineering has us all intrigued. Testing for drugs may be to monitor compliance, optimum treatment levels or to determine abuse (for recreational or performance-enhancing drugs).


Are used to detect the presence of antibody indicators for certain infective diseases such as AIDs and Hepatitis. Similar services exist for disposal of clinical waste that might be contaminated with blood borne viruses,such as swabs and other soiled waste. There are two types I – insulin dependent and type II- non-insulin dependent (sometimes called early and late onset diabetes). First student activity: Find out how a clinical thermometer works - mercury and electronic. The lub sound is made when blood is forced back against the bi and tri-cuspid valves as the ventricles contract. A daily routine of conscious, challenging exercise not only improves your health and fitness, but it increases your RMR. The more prolonged the stress the higher your cortisol levels & the more belly fat you store.
Among other stress-health associations, the link between elevated cortisol and weight gain has already been clearly established. Stress can often cause our abdomen to become bloated, creating cramping, constipation or even diarrhoea.
This reduces your muscle mass, your strength, decreases your recovery ability, increases your fat tissue stores, and weakens your immune system.
This is not easy in the modern world, with its fast pace, work commutes, paucity of easily available good foods and the general demands on your time, but it can be done. At the very least a solid exercise program not only helps burn fat but has been proven to lower the levels of the ‘stress’ hormones in your body. You’ve also added spices like cinnamon & capsicum to your diet, drink green tea and use protein shakes as a means to keep your body feeling full and also staying in positive nitrogen balance.
For example you can hold a larger weight for the walking lunges than you can curl on the step ups. In particular when key hormones are affected it predisposeyou to fat storage and obesity by causing insulin resistance. The reason your body produces extra insulin is because the insulin receptors in your cells have become les sensitive to the effects of insulin requiring more to do the same job. This means that insufficinet sleep sees you battling an increase in appetite when your blood sugars are not in control.
Not getting enough sleep raises ghrelin levles so you get more hungry and lowers Leptin so you don’t stop eating when you should.
Serum contains all the dissolved substances but without the interfering effects of fibrinogen - sample of choice for most biochemical determinations.
An excess of white blood cells may indicate an underlying infection or if very high may be indicative of cancer (leukaemia).
Procedures for the treatment of materials that may be contaminated with microbiological hazards e.g. Techniques may alter in some way to take the blood but the hazards, risks and precautions will be similar. Insulin and glucagon: Insulin and glucagon are both secreted by the pancreas and regulate out blood glucose (sugar) levels. The cells, unable to get glucose start to respire proteins and fats instead, which results in loss of weight.
Often they are concerned with a major organs function because any problem will have a major affect on the well being of the individual i.e. The dup comes from the back flow of blood as it hits the semi-lunar valves of the pulmonary artery and aorta as the ventricles relax Can be heard using a stethoscope.
Even worse studies suggest that stress may make a person more susceptible to the bacteria that cause peptic ulcers. There is even some research which suggests that lack of sleep reduces your body’s ability to store as much glycogen as when it is fully rested. Insulin resistance is even more common if you have diabetes in your family, or if your diet has been high in sugars and other processed carbs, and saturated fats. Cortisol is a catabolic hormone – it breaks down muscle for fuel and by this action it also elevates blood glucose levles which results in insulin spikes and so the Merry Go Round turns leading to a slower metabolism and increased fat storage.
Many measure particular chemical constituents in our bodies while some measure the number of cells in our blood. The rest of the blood contains the cells - majority are red blood cells which carry oxygen and much small number of white cells (buffy coat layer). Disposal of microbiological hazards Pathology laboratories produce large volumes of clinical waste. The risk assessment on the next slide might be used for a blood test but it is only one example of how the assessment might appear. The endocrine glands of the pancreas consists of the islets of langerhans and these secrete hormones directly into our blood stream.
This means that even more blood sugar has to be cleared from your blood stream and with less glycogen storage available, it gets shunted into fat cells. In extreme cases the situation becomes so bad that your body cannot produce suficient insulkin to clear glucose and you end up needing to start taking insulin medications. Specific groups of drugs can now be detected with test kits (Police, Schools or Clinics) using techniques based upon antibody-enzymic techniques.
Specific diseases possess specific antigens and these are recognised by specific antibodies to form these antigen-antibody complexes.
This will include microbiological cultures, antibody testing kits, including ELISA plates, contaminated plastic tubes and even radioactive waste. Presence of glucose in the urine – kidneys being unable to reabsorb the high levels of glucose filtered by the tubules.
It will pick up unusually sounds or murmurs in the heart which may indicate a valve is leaking or that the chambers are not working together. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
Our device is non-invasive - it does not require the extraction of blood apart from the initial calibration."Worried about all those microwaves floating into your system while its testing your blood?
Do some research and find how alcohol, a named recreational and a named performance-enhancing drug are determined. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. High hazard waste, like microbiological cultures are autoclaved before disposing as clinical waste and then incinerated. Group 2011 Corporate Responsibility Report 4 Who We Serve Canadian Personal and Commercial Banking Canada Trust provides banking services to more than Featuring Canada Trust online banking.
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