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Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology). The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life.
As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should stop smoking.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life.
Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under 20s in the USA rose 23%, according to SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels.
Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy body weight. Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the wrong foods all contribute to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. For more information on how type 1 and type 2 diabetes compare, see our article: the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet.
Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.
Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred.
A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia).


In 1675, Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. In ancient China people observed that ants would be attracted to some people's urine, because it was sweet. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients. Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections, as well as a special diet and exercise. Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required.
If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications. Ketoacidosis - a combination of ketosis and acidosis; accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood. Neuropathy - diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems. HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) - blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine.
Disclaimer: This informational section on Medical News Today is regularly reviewed and updated, and provided for general information purposes only. Please note that although you may feel free to cite and quote this article, it may not be re-produced in full without the permission of Medical News Today. Learn all about diabetes, a lifelong metabolism disorder that causes high blood sugar levels. Learn all about type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the differences between the two conditions in our article about the diabetes mellitus metabolism disorder. Normal blood sugar levels chart for adults, This simple chart shows target blood sugar levels for before and after meals, after fasting, before exercise, and at bedtime, as well as an a1c target.. When your “normal” blood sugar isn’t normal (part 1), In the next two articles we’re going to discuss the concept of “normal” blood sugar. Blood glucose levels : testing and normal range, A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood. Blood sugar levels and diabetes – bootswebmd – health, Blood glucose levels, often called blood sugar levels, are an important part of checking that diabetes is well managed. Hyperglycemia - when blood glucose is too high - can also have a bad effect on the patient. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes.
However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse - and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.


People with a lot of visceral fat, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk. Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%, researchers from Imperial College London reported in the journal Diabetologia. Experts are not completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active.
Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications.
After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, as soon as glucose enters the cells blood-glucose levels drop.
This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. Mel in Latin means "honey"; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. They added that within three to five years the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them. The materials contained within this guide do not constitute medical or pharmaceutical advice, which should be sought from qualified medical and pharmaceutical advisers.
People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. The scientists believe that the impact of sugary soft drinks on diabetes risk may be a direct one, rather than simply an influence on body weight. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.
Yessica Ramos, MD., said "The recurrence rate was mainly influenced by a longstanding history of Type 2 diabetes before the surgery.
Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements.



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