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The worksheets listed were developed by Craig Lincoln, and reflect the current requirements.
BSA Troop 780 or its Members does not assume responsibility for any adverse consequences or reactions resulting from the use of any products or procedures suggested herein. Each person is urged to consult a physician, when circumstances permit, before using any medications or employing any of the recommendations provided herein.
Once you determine it is safe for you to help a victim, you should immediately determine if the victim has any life threatening conditions.
Only after a call is placed for emergency medical services does a volunteer attempt to further help an unconscious victim. If the victim is on his stomach, first place the victim's arm closest to you above his head. With the victim now on his back, OPEN THE VICTIM'S AIRWAY by placing the heel of your hand on the victim's forehead and the tips of your fingers under the bony part of the jaw. While this tutorial identifies life threatening conditions requiring rescue breathing or CPR, these skills require intensive classroom skill, development and practice and cannot be effectively presented or taught in this tutorial.
These initial steps of checking the AIRWAY, BREATHING and CIRCULATION (pulse), together with a check for major BLEEDING, constitute THE PRIMARY SURVEY, which looks for life-threatening conditions! In every instance where first aid is to be provided, it is important to always ask a conscious victim for permission to help them. NOTE: Emergency treatment of airway obstructions is taught as part of CPR training and only through classroom practice can the necessary skills be mastered. If an individual is choking - but can speak or cough forcibly - there is an exchange of air (although it might be diminished) and you should encourage the victim to continue coughing while you just stand by!
Make a fist with one hand and place the thumb side of the fist against the victim's abdomen just above the navel and well below the lower tip of the breast bone. Grasp your fist with your other hand, with elbows out, and press your fist into the victim's abdomen with quick, upward thrusts.
Emergency treatment of airway obstructions in an unconscious victim is taught in CPR classes. When a victim's heart stops beating, they require CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) which provides vital oxygen through rescue breathing and which maintains circulation through chest compressions. Proper training is required to perform CPR, however any heart attack can lead to cardiac arrest and it is therefore vital for first aiders to be able to recognize the early warning signs of a heart attack so the victim can receive prompt professional attention! A heart attack victim whose heart is still beating has a much better chance of survival than a victim whose heart has stopped! With all victims of heart attacks - and with all victims receiving first aid for any condition - it is important for the rescuer to constantly reassure the victim and keep them as calm and relaxed as possible.
All of us can reduce the risk of heart attack by controlling high blood pressure, limiting cholesterol in the diet, watching weight, exercising, giving up smoking and minimizing stress. ARTERIAL bleeding is characterized by spurts with each beat of the heart, is bright red in color (although blood darkens when it meets the air) and is usually severe and hard to control. VENUS bleeding is characterized by a steady flow and the blood is dark, almost maroon in shade. CAPILLARY bleeding is usually slow, oozing in nature and this type of bleeding usually has a higher risk of infection than other types of bleeding. If bleeding continues, and you do not suspect a fracture, ELEVATE the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply direct pressure. If the bleeding still cannot be controlled, the next step is to apply PRESSURE AT A PRESSURE POINT. A slow pulse rate, or bluish fingertips or toes, signal a bandage may be impeding circulation. Shock is failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs of the body, namely the heart, lungs and brain. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK INCLUDE: confused behavior, very fast or very slow pulse rate, very fast or very slow breathing, trembling and weakness in the arms or legs, cool and moist skin, pale or bluish skin, lips and fingernails and enlarged pupils.
A good rule to follow is to anticipate that shock will follow an injury and to take measures to prevent it before it happens. If the victim is not suspected of having head or neck injuries, or leg fractures, elevate the legs. For these minor burns, the victim should cool with plain water and use non-prescription antibiotic creams.
Second degree burns may take from one to three weeks to heal but are considered minor if they cover no more than 15% of the total body area in adults and 10% body area in children.
Call for immediate medical help as soon as the burn occurs and do not apply any type of butter or greasy substance to the burn.
The third-degree burn may appear charred or have patches which appear white, brown or black. Possible complications from burns include infection, tetanus, scarring, pneumonia and shock.
If present when a victim suffers an electrical burn, turn off the source of power as soon as possible.
In the case of chemical burns, put the affected area under a faucet and let cool water at medium pressure rinse the wound for at least 15 minutes. Never try to remove jewelry or clothing from a burn victim before reaching a hospital if those items seem stuck to the skin.
Floating objects in the eye which can be visualized may be flushed from the eye with water. First Aid care for these injuries consists of bandaging BOTH eyes and seeking professional care promptly!
For chemical burns of the eye, wash the eye with copious (A LOT) amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes. Once the bleeding has been stopped, talking, walking and blowing the nose may disturb blood clots and allow the bleeding to resume. If it is suspected that the victim has suffered head, neck or back injuries DO NOT attempt to control the blood flow as they may cause increased pressure on injured tissue. First aid care for animal bites includes washing the wound well with soap and water, if there is no heavy bleeding.
Insect bites and stings can be life-threatening to people with severe allergy to the insect's venom! Signs and symptoms of allergic reaction include pain, swelling of the throat, redness or discoloration at the site of the bite, itching, hives, decreased consciousness and difficult or noisy breathing.
First aid calls for being alert for signs of allergic reaction or shock and seeking medical attention as quickly as possible for these victims! If a stinger remains in the victim, you may try to remove it carefully with a tweezers or by scraping with the edge of a credit card. Remember, in all cases of insect bites, watch for signs of allergic reaction and if they appear, seek professional medical attention without delay! Splint affected area to prevent further movement, but do so only if possible without causing further pain to victim. All victims with fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains require professional medical attention. Over a million cases of poisoning occur in the United States each year, most involving young children. Since various poisons cause different symptoms, and because treatments vary depending upon the substance ingested, the first step in the event of poisoning is to call the local POISON CONTROL CENTER!
Identify the nature of the poison and receive specific care instructions from the professional staff at the center! All poisoning victims need to be monitored carefully for signs of shock or impaired consciousness.

Every household should keep ACTIVATED CHARCOAL and SYRUP OF IPECAC on hand for possible use in poisoning emergencies, however they should NOT be administered unless instructed by the Poison Control Center staff. Insulin reaction can be caused by taking too much medication, by failing to eat, by heavy exercise and by emotional factors.
SIGNS and SYMPTOMS: Fast breathing, fast pulse, dizziness, weakness, change in the level of consciousness, vision difficulties, sweating, headache, numb hands or feet, and hunger. This condition occurs when there is TOO MUCH SUGAR and too little INSULIN in the blood and body cells do not get enough nourishment. Diabetic coma can be caused by eating too much sugar, by not taking prescribed medications, by stress and by infection.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Diabetic coma develops more slowly than Insulin shock, sometimes over a period of days. Looking for the signs and symptoms listed above will help to distinguish the two diabetic emergencies. Someone who has not eaten, but did take their medication, may be having an Insulin reaction. This may be caused by a clot formed in an artery in the brain or carried to the brain in the bloodstream, a ruptured artery in the brain or by compression of an artery in the brain, as found with brain tumors. First aid consists primarily of recognizing signs and symptoms and seeking professional attention. If you suspect a person is having a stroke, have them stop whatever they are doing and rest. Severe seizures may involve uncontrollable muscle spasms, rigidity, loss of consciousness, loss of bladder and bowel control, and in some cases, breathing that stops temporarily. Do not attempt to restrain a person suffering a seizure and do not put anything in their mouth! Place the victim into a bathtub of cool water, wrap in wet sheets, place in an air conditioned room.
COOL, PALE AND MOIST skin, heavy sweating, dilated pupils (wide), headache, nausea, dizziness and vomiting.
IMPORTANT: WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS NOT A LIFE- THREATENING EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT UNTREATED! Signs and symptoms of this dangerous condition which can become life-threatening are: shivering, dizziness, numbness, confusion, weakness, impaired judgment, impaired vision and drowsiness. Hypothermia victims pass through 5 general visible stages or 3 medical recognized stages, with each stage more serious and leading to death! In air, most heat is lost through the head; hypothermia can thus be most effectively prevented by covering the head. Exceptions include situations where a person's employment designates the rendering of first aid as a part of described job duties.
A duty to provide first aid also exists where an individual has presumed responsibility for another person's safety, as in the case of a parent-child or driver-passenger relationship. While in most cases there is no legal responsibility to provide first aid care to another person, there is a very clear responsibility to continue care once you start. Permission to render first aid to an unconscious victim is implied and a first aider should not hesitate to treat an unconscious victim.
Consent of a parent or guardian is required to treat a child, however emergency first aid necessary to maintain life may be provided without such consent.
It is important to remember that a victim has the right to refuse first aid care and in these instances you must respect the victim's decision.
Some well-meaning people hesitate to provide first aid because they are concerned about being sued. Legislators in almost every state in the country have passed GOOD SAMARITAN LAWS which are intended to protect good people who offer first aid help to others. There should be little, if any, concern about legal consequences inherent in providing first aid.
You need only have the victim's consent and then offer the level of care for which you are qualified. Everyone should have a well-stocked first aid kit handy at camp, on hikes, at troop and patrol meetings, Scouty activities, home, in the car and in the workplace. The contents of your kit will vary depending upon the number of people it is designed to protect as well as special circumstances where it will be used. For example, a first aid kit in a factory where there may be danger of flying debris getting into the eye should certainly have a sterile eyewash solution in its kit.
When assembling your first aid kit, whether for use in the home, car or at work, you should consider possible injuries you are likely to encounter and then select kit contents to treat those conditions. It's also important to check your kit periodically to restock items that have been used and to replace items that are out-of-date. It's also advisable at home and at work to have both a stationary kit, stored in a cabinet or drawer, as well as a compact portable kit that can be taken quickly to the site of an emergency. Troop 780 presents this information solely as a guideline to understand what should be accomplished by qualified personnel ONLY.
First, it is important to carefully assess the scene of an emergency BEFORE any further steps are taken.
Kneel and ask, " ARE YOU OK?" If there is no response, you must immediately summon an ambulance! Then turn him over by placing one hand on the victim's hip and the other hand at the victim's shoulder.
Now place your ear over the victim's mouth and LOOK, LISTEN & FEEL for breathing for 3 to 5 seconds. After giving a victim two breaths, the pulse is checked at the Carotid Artery to ascertain if the victim has a heartbeat.
If the victim is NOT breathing AND does NOT have a HEARTBEAT, CPR is required without delay! If a victim is unconscious, it is presumed they have provided consent for you to assist them. On the other hand, if a victim is choking, but CANNOT speak or cough, an airway obstruction exists which must be treated immediately!
A heart attack happens when one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart become blocked.
The victim may describe it as pressure, a feeling of tightness in the chest, aching, crushing, fullness or tightness, constricting or heavy pain.
For wounds of the arms or hands, pressure points are located on the inside of the wrist ( radial artery-where a pulse is checked) or on the inside of the upper arm (brachial artery). If the injury appears to be a simple bruise, apply cold packs to slow bleeding, relieve pain and reduce swelling. The first hour after an injury is most important because it is during this period that symptoms of shock appear. Both the dermis and epidermis are destroyed and other organs, tissues and bones may also be involved. An inverted paper cup covered with a bandage is appropriate for serious eye injuries while the victim is transported to the hospital.
Signs and symptoms of infection are pain and tenderness at the wound site, redness, heat, swelling, pus at the wound site, red streaks in the skin around the wound and possible swollen glands closest to the wound.
For this reason, first aid treatment of any of these conditions is handled as though the injury was a fracture.
Signs and symptoms include drowsiness, confusion,deep and fast breathing, thirst, dehydration, fever, a change in the level of consciousness and a peculiar sweet or fruity-smelling breath.
If the person is suffering from diabetic coma, the sugar is not required but will not cause them further harm.

Many times, a person about to have a seizure will physically move themselves from danger (as from the edge of a train platform) before the seizure begins. The body temperature rises so high that brain damage --and death-- may result unless the body is cooled quickly. It is caused by fluid loss which in turn causes blood flow to decrease in vital organs, resulting in a form of shock. If going indoors isn't possible, protect the person from the wind, cover his or her head, and insulate his or her body from the cold ground. The cold water considerably lowers metabolism, allowing the brain to withstand a much longer period of hypoxia. Examples include lifeguards, law enforcement officers, park rangers and safety officers in industry.
You cannot start first aid and then stop unless the victim no longer needs your attention, other first aiders take over the responsibility from you or you are physically unable to continue care. If a family member is a known diabetic, your kit at home should have a glucose or sugar solution. This is the responsibility of the Assistant Senior Patrol Leader working with the Quartermaster. Recent studies have conclusively shown that victims who are not breathing and do not have a heartbeat have a substantially greater chance for survival if they receive prompt advanced medical care in a hospital or by trained paramedics. Turn the body in a smooth, even straight line so as to not cause further injury in the event of existing spinal cord injury. LOOK at the chest to see if it is rising, LISTEN for sounds of breathing and FEEL for air coming from the victim.
This artery is located on the side of the neck and is found by first positioning the fingers on the victim's Adam's Apple, then sliding the fingers down into the soft groove on the side of the neck. When this occurs, cells in the heart begin to die when they cannot get blood for vital nourishment. Many of these victims could be saved if bystanders recognize the symptoms of a heart attack and get the victim to a hospital quickly! The pain may be located in the center of the chest although it is not uncommon for the pain to radiate to one or both shoulders or arms or to the neck, jaw or back. Bleeding may be from an ARTERY, a major blood vessel which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart throughout the body. A dressing may be a gauze square applied directly to a wound, while a bandage, such as roll gauze, is used to hold a dressing in place.
If you suspect more severe internal bleeding, carefully monitor the patient and be prepared to administer CPR if required (and you are trained to do so).
Also, when they are spread over large parts of the body or when they are combined with other injuries. This is the least serious type of burn and involves only the upper layer of skin, the epidermis. However, if a first-degree burn is over a large area of the body, seek emergency medical attention. There are the same symptoms of pain and swelling but the skin color is usually a bright red and blisters are produced. Consult medical personnel about whether or not to administer fluids to victim before arriving at a hospital. Many cases of nosebleed can be controlled simply by having the victim sit down, pinch the nostrils shut and lean forward (to prevent blood from running into the throat). Head, neck and back injuries are serious and require special care for movement and transport of victims with these conditions.
When the body does not produce enough Insulin, body cells do not get the needed nourishment and diabetes results. Rather, they may be caused by many different types of conditions such as insulin shock, high fevers, viral infections of the brain, head injuries or drug reactions. It is generally thought this condition is caused by loss of water and salt through sweating. If breathing stops or seems dangerously slow or shallow, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Fluid-retaining materials like cotton can be a hypothermia risk; if the wearer gets sweaty on a cold day, then cools down, they will have sweat-soaked clothing in the cold air.
Many seaside safety information sources fail to quote survival times in water, as well as the consequent importance of diving suits. If a large part of the heart is deprived of blood, the heart stops beating and the victim suffers CARDIAC ARREST! Indeed, many victims of heart attacks think they are experiencing HEARTBURN or other minor discomfort when in fact their life is in jeopardy! It may be from a VEIN, which carries blood back to the heart to be oxygenated or bleeding may be from a CAPILLARY, the smallest of our body's blood vessels.
You should also reassure the victim, control external bleeding, care for shock (covered in next section), loosen tight-fitting clothing and place victim on side so fluids can drain from the mouth. Also, if an infant or elderly person suffers any type of burn, even minor, obtain medical assistance promptly. They produce deep scars that many times require cosmetic or reconstructive surgery and skin grafts. In exceptional circumstances, such as when a victim is at risk of further injury unless moved, the victim's head and neck should be stabilized and the body moved with minimal flexing of the head, neck or spinal cord. Movements are slow and labored, accompanied by a stumbling pace and mild confusion, although the victim may appear alert.
This is possibly because the original research into hypothermia mortality in water was carried out in wartime Germany on unwilling subjects. If a rescuer were to touch the victim before the power could be shut off, the rescuer would become a victim as well!
After the bandage is in place, it is important to check the pulse to make sure circulation is not interrupted.
Pain may or may not be present since usually nerve endings which transmit pain have been destroyed in this type burn.
Observe carefully while awaiting professional help and, if trained to do so, monitor the airway, breathing and circulation and be prepared to administer rescue breathing or CPR, if required and you are trained! Surface blood vessels contract further as the body focuses its remaining resources on keeping the vital organs warm. Pulse and respiration rates decrease significantly but fast heart rates (ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation) can occur. Heat applied to the arms and legs forces cold blood back toward the heart, lungs and brain, causing the core body temperature to drop. When faced with the need to control major bleeding, it is not important that the dressings you will use are sterile! Goose bumps form, raising body hair on end in an attempt to create an insulating layer of air around the body (a vestigial response, but useful in other species). Because of decreased cellular activity in stage 3 hypothermia, the body will actually take longer to undergo brain death.

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