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25.08.2015 admin
Vermicomposting or worm composting is the easiest way to recycle certain food wastes, and is ideal for people who do not have an outdoor compost pile.
Composting with worms utilizes vegetative food wastes (recycling rather than creating trash) creating a worthwhile garden product of high quality "worm casting" compost. It is done with "redworms" (Eisenia foetida) who are happiest at temperatures between 50-70° F.
Shred some newspaper, enough to loosely fill your container, and place it in the kitchen sink.
Note: when you add kitchen scraps to your compost bin, place them under the top layer of paper bedding. When you grow something as beautiful as the wisteria, you don’t want to ruin it by pruning it wrong. When it comes to how to trim a wisteria, you first should recognize that regular wisteria trimming should be done to control growth and encourage more flowers.
After pruning wisteria, you will find that your wisteria trimming may have caused some larger branches to die back. Sometimes when it comes to how to trim a wisteria, some people feel that vigilant wisteria trimming will eventually cause an older wisteria bush to bloom, especially if it hasn’t bloomed in a while. Some people believe the best way for how to trim a wisteria, especially an older one, is to use a shovel and cut the roots. Terra preta is the name of a carbon and nutrient rich soil, which has been produced by pre-Columbian cultures by the incorporation of manure, charcoal and bones into the grounds.
Terra preta is the name for the black and highly fertile soil that was produced by the pre-Colombian Amazonian cultures.
NCERT Exemplar Class 6 Science is very important resource for students preparing for VI Board Examination.
Here you can get Class 6 Important Questions Science based on NCERT Text book for Class VI. Which of the following activities does not reflect responsible behaviour with regard to waste disposal? A garbage collector separate items mentioned below in the garbage into red, green and blue containers for their transfer to landfill, composting pit, and recycling unit respectively. The steps required for conversion of kitchen garbage into manure are given below in a jumbled form. Read the poem written below and then answer the questions from the information gathered from the book or elsewhere.
Put a tick (v) against the garbage items given in Table 16.1 which could be converted into manure. Davallia fejeensis is the botanical name of the rabbit’s foot fern (Humata tyermanii or white paw fern, is a similar plant).
It is a little harder to tell when indoor plants are dormant but, basically, it is when no new growth is being produced.
Use a potting mix with little to no soil such as 2 parts peat, 1 part soil and 1 part sand or perlite. The container should be wide enough so that food scraps can be buried in a different location each time.

Make them happy, by placing the contents of the worm container (worms & bedding material) on top of the kitchen scraps - maybe even spread them out a bit. In this case, pruning wisteria trimming can be accomplished by lopping and cutting as much as you want, down to about three feet below where you really want the wisteria to be.
They feel that this actually helps the plant to absorb more nutrients from the soil, and also to eventually flower.
Today, this concept has been rediscovered for the treatment of human faeces and household wastes (e.g.
Here we have provided NCERT Exemplar Problems Solutions along with NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 6.
You also get idea about the type of questions and method to answer in your Class 6th examination. After sometime he found that those living in huts near his field were suffering from cough and breathing problems. Can you explain how paper pulp which is made from paper can be used to make hard boxes and other articles?
These charming plants produce soft silvery growth off the base of the plant that stream down the outside of the pot.
Within a few weeks, the rhizome will produce little green leaves which signal the complete removal of the plastic. The dimensions of the container and the amount of worms required initially will depend on how much organic food waste will need to be composted each week, but an average family can get away with a box about the size of a shoebox. This way, as new shoots pop up and it grows to that height, you will get nice new shoots the following spring. When pruning wisteria, it does cause new growth, and the flowers will eventually appear on newer growth. Here we have covered Important Questions on Garbage In, Garbage Out for Class 6 Science subject. The growths are actually above ground rhizomes and can be used to start entirely new ferns. However, this is a very forgiving plant and repotting a rabbit’s foot fern at any time of the year is fine as long as it is not exposed to any extreme stresses such as temperature fluctuations.
Bury the rhizome completely in this medium and cover the container with plastic wrap to create greenhouse conditions. Remember that when you are pruning wisteria in this fashion, cutting it back that far, you won’t get flowering for a few years to come while the new shoots mature once more.
A promising application of terra preta sanitation (TPS) is the adaption of existing urine diverting toilets to replace the storage and dehydration treatment of urine and faeces. According to archaeologists, pre-Columbian native populations generated them by incorporating large amounts of charred residues (charcoal) either produced intentionally or as a by-product from human activity into the soil together with nutrient-rich material (GLASER 2006). In the end, she picked them up and put them in a polythene bag and threw it on the road outside her house.
Repotting can be a challenge with all the little feet hanging around the original pot so read here for a step-by-step tutorial on how to repot a rabbit’s foot fern.
In mature plants, these rhizomes will literally coat the outside of a container and cascade down over a hanging pot.

Terra preta sanitation (TPS) systems are based on a three-step process of collection (including urine diversion), lactic acid fermentation and vermicomposting. Nutrient-rich material was used to be human and animal manure (rich in P and N), waste including mammal and fish bones (rich in P and Ca), ash residues of incomplete combustions (rich in Ca, Mg, K, P and charcoal) or plant biomass (e.g.
Lacto-fermentation is an anaerobic process, but in opposition to anaerobic digestion no gases are produced. Otherwise, use a hori hori or slender planting tool to gently pry around the inside of the pot and loosen the soil.
The process thus is also odour free which makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. TPS has a high potential to prevent nutrient or carbon loss to the atmosphere by producing highly fertile compost (terra preta) and liquid fertilizer for agriculture. The black carbon content of terra preta soils can be up to 70 times higher than surrounding, mostly infertile, soils (GLASER et al. Due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, black carbon is chemically and microbiologically stable and persists in the environment over centuries (GLASER et al 2001).
A hectare of meter-deep terra preta can contain 250 tons of carbon as opposed to 100 tones in unimproved soil (GLASER et al. Black carbon can be produced either by pyrolysis of biomass or by an enzymatic conversion of some microorganism (RECKIN 2010). It has a porous structure, which is good for the structure of the soil (water retention, aeration), the fertility of the soil and it increases growth rates and abundance of certain microbes, while abundance of fungi and germs is reduced: Over the time, the black carbon is partly oxidised producing chemical molecules on its surface (carboxylic groups), which act as a trap for nutrients, preventing them from being washed out (GLASER et al.
This idea has been taken up in the recent years from sanitation experts, as terra preta seems to be a re-discovered, but today very promising response to the challenge of sustainable and safe treatment of human excreta and domestic organic waste. Results from the terra preta sanitation (TPS) lab scale and pilot scale experiments have shown that it is possible to convert bio-waste and faecal matter in a hygienic and sustainable way into highly fertile humus-like material (OTTERPOHL 2009, FACTURA et al.
Vermicomposting is an established process for treatment of organic solid wastes or faecal matter (FACTURA et al. 2001), but the initial silage process makes the combination superior than other combined processes.
This is because the flora (microbial community) of human faeces is not really compatible with soil metabolism and the microbial mix used for lacto-fermentation aids the transition to the soil life (RECKIN 2010). Yogurt and sauerkraut are some of the most famous products produced by lacto-fermentation and it is the lactic acid, which gives these products their slightly sour taste.
Kitchen- and garden wastes are sufficient to produce the rich vermicompost to be introduced into the soil (SCHEUB 2010), but as a sanitation system, however, the co-treatment with lacto-fermented toilet products is perceived as sustainable sanitation solution (see also the terra preta toilet factsheet).
Up scaling of TPS and the application to sieved blackwater, faecal sludge, sewage sludge or organics waste may be developed in the future.Lacto-fermentation and biological mixLacto-fermentation is similar to the silage production process in agriculture (OTTERPOHL 2009).

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Rubric: First Aid Skills


  1. Virus writes:
    Left is to let the worms reproduce the micro organism.
  2. AYDAN writes:
    And are typically sterile, whereas worms and aquaponic operation for the special-wants.