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About Me May 03, 16 10:00 AMHello I'm Dr Peter Thatcher, MBBS (the equivalent of MD in the US), gastroenterologist and author of this website dedicated to stomach cancer awareness and education. Stomach Cancer Jan 15, 16 10:10 AMIf you need stomach cancer or gastric carcinoma advice including causes, diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, awareness & survival rates, qualified help is here! So far so good Jan 11, 16 04:04 PMI was diagnosed with stage 4 gastric cancer 13 months ago. It is a form of cancer that is very subtle in it’s early stages with the symptoms often continuing unnoticed. Most ovarian cancers arise from the surface of the ovary, but research has suggested that the fallopian tubes may be responsible for some instances of ovarian cancer. If you find yourself with the symptoms of ovarian cancer more than 10 times a month, then it is time to have yourself examined for ovarian cancer.
Less common symptoms can include back pain, general tiredness, involuntary weight loss and an abdominal mass.
If you have a family member who has experienced ovarian cancer, your chances of experiencing the illness are twice as high. Infertile women also have a higher risk of experiencing ovarian cancer as are women with endometriosis and women who have had estrogen replacement therapy. Research has found that oral contraceptive pills are a protective factor against ovarian cancer.
Women who also had their first pregnancy at a young age also have a lower risk of contracting ovarian cancer, and women who have had their fallopian tubes blocked surgically also have lower risk. Because the ovaries produce the estrogen and progesterone hormones that some cancers require to grow, ovary removal can halt or slow cancers that occur specifically in women (such as breast cancer). In terms of genetic risk factors, carriers of some BRCA mutations have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
Initially your doctor will do a physical examination to determine if there are any masses or fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity. For the diagnosis to be confirmed, surgery must be undertaken to take biopsies and inspect the abdominal cavity. Tubal ligation will drastically reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and some women who have a long family history of ovarian cancer may take this option.
Regular screening and being attentive to the symptoms of ovarian cancer is one of the best ways to prevent the disease taking hold.
Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to treat any tumors that are not easily removed during surgery and to stop any cancer cells spreading. Radiation may be effective in the early stages of the illness, but due to the location of the ovaries it is not safe to use a high dose. Unfortunately because of the difficulty in spotting the symptoms of ovarian cancer early on, prognosis is generally not good for ovarian cancer. Although childhood cancer is rare, it is the second most frequent case of death after accidants before the age 15. Although survival rates for childhood cancer have risen sharply over the past 25 years, a large number of children are not cured. For this reason the search for and development of new drugs specially targeted to childhood cancers are a high priority. Seventy-five per cent of new cancer cases in males and 65% in females will occur among those aged 60 and over. The most commonly diagnosed cancers in males will be prostate cancer (18,560 cases), bowel cancer (8,760), melanoma of the skin (7,440), lung cancer (6,620) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2,620). The most commonly diagnosed cancers in females will be breast cancer (14,560 cases), bowel cancer (7,080), melanoma of the skin (5,070), lung cancer (4,650) and uterine cancer (2,270).
The risk of being diagnosed with cancer before the age of 85 will be 1 in 2 for males and 1 in 3 for females.
Incidence data indicate the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specific period, usually 1 year. Data on the incidence of cancer refers to the number of cases newly diagnosed and not to the number of people newly diagnosed with cancer. This chapter focuses on the estimated cancer incidence for 2012 and cancer trends from 1991 to 2009. Registration of all cancers, excluding basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, is required by law in each state and territory. Since basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are not notifiable, data on these cancers are not included in the ACD and therefore not in this report. It is estimated that 120,710 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in Australia in 2012, excluding basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (Table 2.1). The rates were standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001 and are expressed per 100,000 population. Prostate cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer in 2012 (18,560 cases), followed by bowel cancer (15,840), breast cancer (14,680), melanoma of the skin (12,510) and lung cancer (11,280).
For males, prostate cancer is estimated to be the most commonly diagnosed (18,560 cases), follow by bowel cancer (8,760), melanoma of the skin (7,440), lung cancer (6,620) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2,620). For those aged under 30, the incidence rates are expected to be similar in males and females.
The expected high incidence of cancer in females aged 30-54 could be due to the estimated high incidence of breast cancer in this age group.
In 2012, it is estimated that 1 in 3 males and 1 in 4 females will be diagnosed with cancer by the age of 75. For males, the risk of being diagnosed with cancer is estimated to be highest for prostate cancer, at 1 in 8 before the age of 75 and 1 in 6 before the age of 85.
For females, the risk of being diagnosed with cancer is estimated to be highest for breast cancer, with a risk of 1 in 11 before the age of 75 and 1 in 8 before the age of 85. In this section, trends in incidence for all cancers combined and selected cancer sites are presented for 1991-2009. Between 1991 and 2009, the number of new cancer cases diagnosed almost doubled—from 66,393 in 1991 to 114,137 in 2009. The age-standardised incidence rate of all cancers combined increased by 12% from 433 per 100,000 in 1991 to 486 per 100,000 in 2009. The trend in the incidence rate of all cancers combined was markedly different for males and females (Figure 2.2).


For females, the incidence rate of all cancers combined rose steadily during the early 1990s, reaching 397 per 100,000 in 1995.
Figure 2.3 presents a summary of the percentage change in age-standardised incidence rates between 1991 and 2009 for selected cancers. More information about the trends in incidence rates of prostate cancer, breast cancer in females, bowel cancer, melanoma of the skin and lung cancer is provided in the following section. The percentage change from 1991 to 2009 is a summary measure that allows the use of a single number to describe the change over a period of multiple years. Cancers labelled with an asterisk (*) indicate changes that were statistically significant. Sharp increases in the age-standardised incidence rate of prostate cancer began to appear in the early 1990s, with a peak of 184 per 100,000 in 1994.
The peaks in prostate cancers are thought to be due to changes in how prostate cancers are detected, rather than an elevated risk. The age-standardised incidence rate of breast cancer in females was 101 per 100,000 in 1991.
The pronounced increase in the incidence of breast cancer between 1991 and 1995 is most likely due to the introduction of the national breast cancer screening program (known today as BreastScreen Australia), which aims to detect cases of unsuspected breast cancer in women aged 40 and over using screening mammography. The incidence rate of bowel cancer for females varied between 51 and 55 per 100,000 from 1991 to 2009.
The age-standardised incidence rate of melanoma of the skin increased for both males and females from 1991 to 2009. Between 1991 and 2009, the age-standardised incidence rate of lung cancer in males fell by 26%, from 75 to 56 per 100,000, but rose by 37% in females, from 24 to 33 per 100,000.
The different pattern of lung cancer incidence rates in males and females is probably due to their different histories of tobacco smoking. In this section, the incidence rate of cancer in Australia is compared with that for other countries and regions using data from the GLOBOCAN database, which is prepared by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (Ferlay et al.
As discussed in Chapter 1, caution must be taken when comparing data from different countries since observed differences may be due to differences in the composition of the populations, cancer detection and screening, types of treatment provided, and cancer coding and registration practices.
Data were estimated for 2008 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and are based on data from about 3 to 5 years earlier. The confidence intervals are approximations and were calculated by the AIHW (see Appendix H).
As the name implies, it is a form of cancer that affects women’s ovaries and it affects mostly older women.
So for example if you suddenly experience pelvic soreness on 5 days, have difficulty eating on 3 days, experience bloating on 4 days and are older than 50 you should seek diagnosis immediately. The bloating and pelvic pain are usually caused by a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Long term studies have shown that women who used oral contraception for 10 years have a 50%+ reduction in their chance of contracting ovarian cancer. A blood test for ovarian cancer markers will also be conducted, that specifically looks for CA-125. Cancer cells will most likely be found in the abdominal fluid if a patient has ovarian cancer.
More than 50% of women presenting with ovarian cancer are already stage III or stage IV (stage I and II being early development). As cancer in childhood age belongs to orphan diseases, it does not evoke a great deal of interest by the pharmaceutical companies in investing in research and development of new treatment options for it. During this same time, however, death rates declined dramatically and 5-year survival rates increased for most childhood cancers.
Further,the chemotherapy that is successively used for survivors often has serious long-term repercussions. However, since it is rare that a person would be diagnosed with more than one primary cancer during a 1-year period, the annual number of new cancers is practically the same as the annual number of people newly diagnosed with cancer.
It should be noted that the 2010-2012 estimates are only indicative of the future trends and the actual incidence may be different to these estimates.
Information on newly diagnosed cancers is collected by each state and territory cancer registry.
However, past research has shown that basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are by far the most frequently diagnosed cancers in Australia (AIHW & CA 2008). These cancers are expected to account for more than 60% of all cancers estimated to be diagnosed in 2012. This is followed by bowel cancer (7,080), melanoma of the skin (5,070), lung cancer (4,650) and uterine cancer (2,270) (Table 2.2).
In 2012, it is estimated that 75% of new cancer cases will be diagnosed in males and 65% in females aged 60 and over.
For those aged 30-54, the estimated age-standardised incidence rate is higher for females than males, while a higher incidence rate is expected for males after the age 55. Incidence of prostate cancer, bowel cancer, melanoma of the skin and lung cancer will contribute to the estimated high incidence rate in males aged over 55. By the age of 85, the risk is estimated to increase to 1 in 2 for males and 1 in 3 for females (see Appendix H for an explanation of how these risks were calculated).
The risk is also expected to be high for bowel cancer, at 1 in 19 before the age of 75 and 1 in 10 before the age of 85. In comparison, the risk of a woman being diagnosed with bowel cancer is estimated to be 1 in 27 before the age of 75, and 1 in 14 before the age of 85. Estimated incidence data for 2010-2012 are shown in figures and online tables, and were derived from 2000-2009 national cancer incidence data (see Appendix G).
This increasing trend is primarily due to the rise in the number of prostate cancer, breast cancer in females, bowel cancer and lung cancer. This suggests that the increase in the absolute number of cancer cases over the years can only be partly explained by the ageing and increasing size of the population. However, it is not always reasonable to expect that a single measure can accurately describe the trend over the entire period. The rate then declined rapidly to 130 per 100,000 in 1997, before stabilising for several years.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing first became available in 1987 and was listed in the Medicare Benefits Schedule in 1989.


The target age range for screening is women aged 50-69 (see Chapter 9 for more information).
The increase was more marked for males — from 44 per 100,000 in 1991 to 62 per 100,000 in 2009 (an increase of 42%). These trends in males and females are expected to continue between 2010 and 2012 (Figure 2.7). As overall tobacco consumption began to decline in males in the second half of the 20th century, the incidence rate of lung cancer for males also declined, with a time lag of about 20 years. In Australia, all states and territories have legislation that makes cancer a notifiable disease (see Appendix I) and the completeness of cancer data is relatively high in comparison to a number of countries or regions (Curado et al. Those symptoms are frequently found in conjunction with other illnesses so it is often difficult to diagnose early on. The pressure on the stomach from this fluid buildup is usually what causes changes to apetite also. So if you have a mother or grandmother who experienced ovarian cancer, you should consult a doctor early on if you experience symptoms, and get screened regularly when you are over 50. Modern medicine allows women to understand their genetic risk factors more comprehensively so discuss this with your doctor. The symptoms aren’t very useful in early stages of ovarian cancer because they can point to many other illnesses. By stage III and stage IV the cancer has already spread from the ovaries into other parts of the body. The case must also be a 'new' primary cancer and not a reoccurrence of a previous primary cancer in the same site (IARC 2004).
They are not forecasts and do not attempt to allow for future changes in cancer detection methods, changes in cancer risk factors or for non-demographic factors (such as major government policy changes and economic differences) that may affect future cancer incidence rates. Each cancer registry provides data to the AIHW annually, encompassing all cancer cases notified to the registry between 1982 and the most recent completed year of data. The estimates for males and females may not add to the estimates for persons due to rounding. This was followed by a decline until the late 1990s when it began to increase again, reaching a rate of 603 per 100,000 in 2008. The rate for females has been strongly influenced by the trend in the incidence rate of breast cancer. Therefore, the peak in the early 1990s reflects the large pool of undiagnosed cases that were identified using the PSA test (and subsequent biopsy and confirmation by a specialist). After this, the rates were fairly stable, ranging from 110 to 118 to 100,000, with the 2009 rate at 114 per 100,000. This may be related to differences in behaviour that increases the risk of bowel cancer and the differing effect of obesity in males and females (Center et al.
For females, the incidence rate increased by 18%, from 34 per 100,000 to 40 per 100,000 over the same period. Cigarette smoking in women peaked later than in men, which may explain why the lung cancer incidence rate for females is still rising (AIHW & CA 2011).
The most recent GLOBOCAN estimates are for 2008, and are based on cancer incidence rates from about 3 to 5 years earlier.
The estimated age-standardised incidence rate for Australia was 314 per 100,000 (online Table D2.7).
Countries or regions are ordered in descending order according to the age-standardised rate. This improvement in survival rates is due to significant advances in diagnosis as well as treatment of these diseases.
The information provided in this chapter includes both actual and estimated incidence data. The incidence rate declined in 2009 and is estimated to fluctuate between 2010 and 2012 (Figure 2.4).
As prostate cancer can be diagnosed in men without symptoms, some of these cancers may have remained undiagnosed until symptoms emerged, or never diagnosed because of mortality from another condition (AIHW & AACR 2010). The GLOBOCAN data for all cancers combined pertain to cancers coded in ICD-10 as C00-C97, excluding C44 (that is, non-melanoma skin cancer), and thus encompass a narrower range of cancers than is generally considered in this report (see Appendix I). While this rate was generally at the same level as that estimated for people in New Zealand (309 per 100,000), it was significantly higher than the rates estimated for all other regions in the world. Compared to adult cancers, children neoplasms tend to have different histologies and occur in different sites of the body. Actual incidence data cover the period 1991-2009—except for New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory; for these jurisdictions, data were available to 2008 and estimated for 2009 (see Appendix F). The trend in the rate for males is strongly influenced by changes in the incidence rate of prostate cancer—the most common cancer in males. The second rise in incidence numbers in more recent years is probably a result of changes in diagnostic procedures, including lowering the investigation threshold, which may have led to more men being sent for biopsy and increasing the number of core biopsies taken (Smith et al. Common adult cancers such as lung, breast, colon, and stomach are extremely rare among children.
Incidence data for 2010-2012 were estimated based on 2000-2009 national cancer incidence data. In 2008, Australia had the world's highest age-standardised incidence rate of melanoma of the skin (37 per 100,000), which was more than 12 times the average world rate (3 per 100,000). On the other hand some types of cancer are almost exclusively found in children, especially embryonal tumours that arise from cells associated with the foetus, embryo and developing body. Appendix G provides detailed information on the methodology for estimating 2010-2012 incidence data. Australia also had the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer (105 per 100,000) and the fourth highest rate of breast cancer in females (85 per 100,000) in 2008 (Ferlay et al.



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