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Following Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest, bacteria normally evolve in such a way that they evade destruction by antibiotics. It’s up to physicians to educate patients on the risks and benefits of antibiotics use.
This site is meant for informational purposes only and is not meant for medical diagnosis or treatment. East Meets West: The Future of Medicine 30 Days to Healthy Living with Dr.
Metaphase occurs when the kinectorial-microtubule interactions move chromosomes to midline and chromosomes line up at the equatorial plane. Cdk (cyclin dependent kinase, adds phosphate to a protein), along with cyclins, are major control switches for the cell cycle, causing the cell to move from G1 to S or G2 to M. Cancer is a disease where regulation of the cell cycle goes awry and normal cell growth and behavior is lost. Chemotherapy: used to cure cancer, keep it from spreading, to slow the cancer's growth, to kill cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body, or to relieve symptoms caused by cancer. Biologic Therapy: can stop or slow down cancer cell growth, help healthy immune cells control cancer, and help to repair normal cells damaged by other forms of cancer treatment. Meiosis is a process of cell division that allows for the production and replication of sex cells in organisms that can reproduce sexually. Interphase: In this phase the cell begins to prepare itself for cell division by duplicating its DNA and by growing in size and internal composition.
Growth 2 (G2): after the synthesis phase, the cell returns to its function of growing and preparing itself for either meiosis or mitosis. Prophase 2: the nuclear membrane of the cell condenses to allow for the second cycle of meiosis to continue. Metaphase 2: the chromatid pairs line up in the middle of the diploid cells as the chromosomes did in metaphase 1. Telophase 2: during telophase 2, the two daughter cells begin to split into four new cells. Heredity can best be described as the process of genetic traits (expressed and not expressed) being passed on to the offspring generation after generation. In Mendel's experiments, the terms character and trait were used to describe the visible inherited characteristics of a given species, such as the color, height, texture, etc. The main importance of the F2 generation is that is brought up the basics for Mendel's Laws of Inheritance. Mendel's Law of  Segregation basically stated that different allele pairs segregate during meiosis when gametes are being produced, and then later recombine during fertilization. Alleles are different forms of genes that can be present on a locus, which can be homozygous or heterozygous depending on their similarity in pairs. Picture showing the combination of genotypes and phenotypes in the laws of segregation and independent assortment. An organisms expressed traits are called its phenotype, the inner genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment states that alleles and their traits separate independently during meiosis and recombine to have many different probabilities for how a gene will be expressed in an offspring organism. Meiosis is the most essential and important process to the sexual life cycle of humans, and any other organism that reproduces sexually.
The process of mitosis is responsible for the dividing and multiplying of regular human body cells, such as the skin, hair, eyes, finger nails, internal organs, etc.
Genetic variation is the variation in genetic traits and alleles that account for the inherited characteristics of an offspring from generation to generation, the cause and effect for the evolution of man. Independent assortment and crossing over that occur during prophase and metaphase of Meiosis is responsible for the varying genetic material that offspring acquire. Picture #1 shows a regular human RBC, picture #2 shows an RBC affected by Sickle-Cell anemia. Sickle-cell anemia occurs in African Americans, this is because in Africa, a disease called Maleria is a major problem.
This inherited disease supports the idea of "survival of the fittest." Certain traits and characteristics are either kept or thrown out of the gene pool in order to maximize survival. A Karyotype is a chart that organize somatic and sex cells by their size and band striations.
An example of a mutation on a chromosome is the defect that results in a disease called Down's Syndrome.
Genetic variation is very important to the human race, because without it, we would all look the same.
Mendelian genetics include the two laws of genetics that Mendel's experiments on pea plants started.


Law of segregation basically states that different allele pairs segregate during gamete production in the process of meiosis, and later recombine during fertilization.
Law of Independent Assortment states that traits on alleles separate independently during meiosis and recombine to have different probabilities for how a genotypes and phenotypes will be expressed in an offspring organism. When an organism is heterozygous for a trait it means that  the organism has inherited two different traits from the gamete cells, such as if one parent has curly hair, and one parent has straight hair, the offspring would have wavy hair and therefore it is heterozygous for the traits of curly and straight hair. Probability is one of the most important things during meiosis, with probability, traits are expressed or not expressed, with chance, mutations can occur and be carried to the offspring or they can be thrown out to increase survival of fittest. The genetic material in a cell is coded in the sequence of the heterocyclic amines of DNA. Bacterial cells may have 1000 genes, while the human cell contains more than a million genes. Prior to cell division, the DNA material in the original cell must be duplicated so that after cell division, each new cell contains the full amount of DNA material.
The DNA single strand template serves to direct the synthesis of a complementary strand of DNA. Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above. However, inappropriate antibiotic use in healthcare settings and increasing antibiotic administration to farm animals is creating a rising number of “superbugs” such as MRSA and drug resistant E. Ask any doctor and you will find that there are high expectations from patients for antibiotic prescriptions, especially for colds. I find that most of my patients feel comfortable when I educate them about their symptoms and reassure them that I will be available to prescribe antibiotics if necessary. As for patients, your involvement and accountability for your health could be the reason you and your family members survive an antibiotic resistant infection in the future.
An extreme case of this is Li Fraumeni syndrome, where a genetic a defect in p53 leads to a high frequency of cancer in affected individuals.
These sex cells are called gametes, which are the ovum of the female, made in the process of oogenesis, and the spermatozoan of the male, made from the process of spermatogenesis. This phase is not included in the process of meiosis because the cell does not do any kind of dividing. Telophase 1: A new nuclei begins to form at both ends of the cell where the chromosome pairs are also awaiting. Spindle fibers are made up of microtubules and are responsible for seperating the chromatid pairs. Heredity was a theory first proposed by Gregor Johann Mendel, the "father of modern genetics." He was a scientist that first studied and experimented with the genetic traits and inheritance of pea plants. Mendel started his experiment by cross-breeding the P Generation (Parental generation) of peas that carried different specific characteristics. Mendel's laws of inheritance include the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment.
Fertilization is the combining of the male and female gametes to produce a zygote organism. Phenotype and genotype are not always expressed, and they also have their dominant and recessive traits. Different characteristics can be carried from the mother and father to the offspring, the combination's are random and can cause the organism to be homozygous or heterozygous for specific traits. Each and every sex cell carries different traits and characteristics in its chromosomes to be passed on to the offspring. Recombinant chromosomes are chromosomes made by combining genes from the mother and father to make new traits and characteristics.
By having uniquely shaped blood cells, people with Sickle-Cell anemia are practically immune to the disease, because it is impossible for the Maleria parasite to live and inhabit the blood cells, therefore the carrier cannot get sick because of the parasite. If a defect or mutation in any chromosomes or genes occur, the defected gene is dropped, usually because it is not a dominant trait, or because it was not carried on with another gene.
Karyotyping is important for looking at chromosomes and to see if a certain one may have mutations or defects of any kind.
This is a defect that occurs will the fetus is still within the womb of the female, it is usually not a deadly disease, but it can cause defects and impairments to physical and mental growth and ability.
Down's syndrome can also be a result of women having children at a very late age, because the longer a woman waits to have children, the more prone and likely she is to bearing a child with genetic defects such as Down's Syndrome.
It is important to have a large gene pool because it allows for a wider variety of traits and characteristics to float around.
Within the laws of segregation and independent assortment, there are statistics and randomness that contribute to how alleles and their traits will be distributed during meiosis.
Both of these parents had different traits and characteristics to contribute to the offspring, such as hair, eye, and skin color, texture of the hair (if its curly or straight), and even genetic diseases and disorders can be passed on. According to the CDC 2 million people in the United States become infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria and 23,000 people die from such infections each year.


However, many people do not realize that colds are usually caused by viruses and viruses are not treatable with antibiotics. Eating a healthy diet, managing stress, getting adequate sleep and staying physically active are all great ways to boost the immune system and promote overall health. Humans are the result of the two haploid cells made from meiosis coming together to make a diploid organism. Crossing over is when the chromatids pair together and allow for genetic variation of heredity, this process is also known as recombination.
Independent assortment is the random arrangement of chromosomes during the process of meiosis. The cell is now ready to split into the two daughter cells by the process of cytokinesis, these two new cells can now continue for division in Meiosis 2. These four cells can now combine with gametes of the opposite sex to create a fertilized offspring called a zygote.
Dominant alleles are the genes that are mainly expressed in an offspring, such as eye, hair and skin color, recessive alleles are the genes that are suppressed or dominated by the dominant genes.
It is by meiosis that fertilization is able to result in the production of an offspring called a zygote (by the union of the sperm and ovum), which will inherit certain traits from its parents gene history depending on the dominant and recessive alleles.
Some genetic traits have been passed down in order to increase survival, such as the inheritance of a strong immune system, or diseases like sickle-cell anemia, which results in blood cells with an abnormal crescent shape. The smaller the gene pool, the more the people within that gene pool are likely to inherit a genetic defect due to increased incest, causing traits to be repeated, mutated, or even deleted. When chromosomes separate there is a chance the traits of that chromosome will be carried in a different way, some traits may be dominant, and others recessive. All of these traits are passed on by rules of probability, such as tossing a dye to get a number between 1 and 6, or flipping a coin to get heads or tails, the outcomes are unpredictable and random, but yet, we still know what characteristics are possible. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Specific regions, called genes, on each chromosome contain the hereditary information which differentiates individuals from each other. The replication is termed semi conservative since each new cell contains one strand of original DNA and one newly synthesized strand of DNA. Consistent hand washing is also paramount as our hands are a primary means of spreading germs. Each human haploid cell has 23 chromosomes, and every diploid cell has 46 chromosomes; 23 chromosomes donated from the father, and 23 chromosomes given from the mother. Recessive alleles are usually carried from generation to generation and sometimes they are not exclusively expressed in an offspring.
The original polynucleotide strand of DNA serves as a template to guide the synthesis of the new complementary polynucleotide of DNA.
The few effective second line treatments that are available are usually expensive and require hospitalization. Many providers give into pressure from patients, sometimes writing antibiotic prescriptions and advising patients not to fill them just for patient satisfaction.
Mendel continued to conduct his experiments to see how different traits and characteristics were carried on and expressed in the peas. Antibiotic resistance is only a part of the problem, as antibiotics are also not free of side effects. To give you an idea of how high the pressure is to prescribe antibiotics, I didn’t get a job once because during the interview I told the lead physician that I only prescribe antibiotic prescriptions when they are warranted. This means that the leftover antibiotic originally given for a skin infection, which should have been completed in the first place, may not cover that urinary tract infection. He kept records of all the hybrids he created and what P generations he used, including their specific traits that were contributed to their offspring generations.
Certain antibiotics can cause vomiting and diarrhea, tendon rupture and even heart arrhythmias. I was also threatened once by an asymptomatic patient who wanted antibiotics because her son had a cold. Since antibiotics also decrease the beneficial bacteria that live within our bodies, yeast and the bacteria Clostridium difficile, which are normally contained by our body’s “good” bacteria, can overgrow and lead to deadly infections.



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