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In dungens you find stronger enemys, then you normaly find in vanilla minecraft, like: Lighting Creepers, Zombies with regen, jumping spiders, and much more. Barrow Island was formed around 8,000 to 10,000 years ago as rising sea-levels separated it from mainland Australia (1) (2). A network of humid caves can be found under the surface of the island, some of which extend up to 100 metres underground (2). Barrow Island was declared a public reserve for flora and fauna in 1908, and has been classified as a a€?Class Aa€™ Nature Reserve since 1910 (6). Barrow Island covers an area of approximately 234 square kilometres and is around 25 kilometres long and 10 kilometres wide (1) (2). Due to its isolation from mainland Australia and protection afforded under its statutory status, Barrow Island is one of the most important conservation reserves in Western Australia. Barrow Island is home to 13 species of mammal, including a variety of marsupials as well as native rats, mice and bats. Five resident species are protected under Western Australian and Commonwealth legislation, these are the Barrow Island golden bandicoot, the Barrow Island burrowing bettong or a€?boodiea€™, the black-flanked rock-wallaby and the Barrow Island euro (10). A total of 119 bird species have been recorded on Barrow Island, 47 of which are either resident or regular migrants (1). Barrow Island is designated as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International as it offers important habitat for summer and winter migratory shorebirds (3).
43 species of terrestrial reptiles have been recorded on Barrow Island, including a variety of dragons, legless lizards, geckos, skinks, snakes and monitors. Although arid, Barrow Island also supports one species of amphibian, a desert burrowing frog called Maina€™s frog, a species able to maintain a state of torpor underground during the dry season (12).
A total of 378 native plant species have been recorded on Barrow Island, and much of the landscape is dominated by spinifex grassland (7). As with all isolated ecosystems, one of the biggest threats to island biodiversity is the introduction of invasive species. Oil was discovered on Barrow Island in 1964 and the island is now Australiaa€™s largest operating onshore oilfield (6) (16). Since the Gorgon Project commenced, the level of human and vehicle activity on Barrow Island has increased, and a number of measures have been implemented to safeguard the islanda€™s fauna.
Undoubtedly one of the biggest conservation success stories on Barrow Island is Chevron Australiaa€™s Quarantine Management System (QMS) to prevent the introduction of harmful invasive species and diseases to the island (17).
The Gorgon quarantine management system has been acknowledged by the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority as likely to be worlda€™s best practice. The QMS has received a number of accolades including the Business Award for Best Practice Program from the United Nations in June 2012 (17).
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Barrow Island has been profiled with support from Chevron Australia to help raise awareness about the biodiversity of the island and the need for its protection and conservation. Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends. This species is featured in:Conservation in Action »Which species are on the road to recovery? Certains liens vers des societes tierces peuvent comporter des liens d'affiliation et des cookies sont utilises pour faciliter la navigation et la personnalisation.
The Indian Ocean is the smallest of the worlda€™s three major oceans and spans over 6,200 miles (10,000 kilometres) from the southern tip of Africa to the western coast of Australia.
Located off the north-west coast of Australia, Barrow Island was formed around 8,000 to 10,000 years after being separated from mainland Australia by rising sea levels.
Barrow Island is home to nearly 2,800 species, with at least 24 of those being endemic species and subspecies. The main threat to the biodiversity of Barrow Island is the development of gas and oil industries on the island, which understandably raises environmental concerns.
Standards and procedures have been put into place to try to safeguard the islanda€™s wildlife, such as site speed limits and driver awareness training, and trapping and relocation of animals before clearing any sites on the island. Christmas Island, a territory of Australia, is the summit of a submarine mountain and boasts a wide range of habitats including coral reefs, cliffs, rainforest and mangrove forests. The location of the island near to the equator has resulted in a diverse range of wildlife being found there.
Christmas Island has a huge diversity and abundance of land crabs, including about 120 million Christmas Island red crabs, and is the only known nesting habitat of the Endangered Abbotta€™s booby left in the world. In the past, 25 percent of the native forest was cleared due to phosphate mining, and introduced populations of feral cats, rats and mice have also impacted the wildlife found on the island.
Mining is now restricted to previously cleared areas and in 1980 Christmas Island National Park was opened which protects 63 percent of the island. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are an Australian territory located in the east of the Indian Ocean. North Keeling Island and the surrounding marine area extending 1.5 kilometres from shore form Pulu Keeling National Park.
North Keeling Island supports the Cocos buff banded rail, the only endemic bird to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, as well as numerous land crabs, some of the National Parka€™s more abundant inhabitants.
Nearly all the natural forests in the Southern Keeling Islands have been cleared and replaced with coconut plantations or other introduced species. The marine environment of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands has not been greatly affected by human activity. The Comoro Archipelago, located in the northern end of the Mozambique Channel, was formed by volcanic activity almost eight million years ago. The four islands which make up the archipelago, Mayotte, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan, each differ in age, which is reflected in their geography. Having only formed recently in geological terms, the Comoro Islands do not support a wide variety of species, as there has not been much time for species to colonise the islands. The islands do have a lot of endemic species, including the Endangered Livingstonea€™s flying fox, which is one of the worlda€™s largest bats, and four scops owl species, one endemic to each island. Deforestation is a major threat to the biodiversity of the Comoro Islands and to the livelihoods of the local people, as when the trees are cut down the topsoil which holds onto water is swept away by tropical rains, decreasing the soil fertility.


Java is the thirteenth largest island in the world but holds the largest human population of any island, with over 130 million people. The western Java mountain forests boast a rich variety of flora and fauna, with many endemic mammal species, and still hold many species which are now extinct from other areas of Java. Ujung Kulon National Park, in the south-western tip of Java, contains the largest remaining area of lowland forest in the Java plain and is the last viable natural refuge for the Javan rhinoceros. Sumatra is home to a very rich variety of plants and animals - there are more than 15,000 known species of plants and it is the only place on Earth where you can find tigers, elephants, orangutans and rhinos in one area. Many conservation organisations are working with local partners in Sumatra to protect the remaining natural habitat.
WWFa€™s Forest Conversion Initiative is working with producers, investors and retailers around the world to ensure that palm oil and soy plantations are not being expanded into forests of outstanding and critical importance.
Madagascar split from mainland Africa about 165 million years ago and from the Indian subcontinent 80 to 100 million years ago. Approximately 80 percent of the 14,000 vascular plants and 96 percent of the snakes and chameleons are endemic. Madagascara€™s most famous endemic inhabitants are the lemurs, a group of primates that are found nowhere else in the world. The baobab tree also demonstrates the high endemism and diversity of Madagascara€™s wildlife, with six of the eight species found in the world only growing on Madagascar. The main threats to the biodiversity of Madagascar are widespread clearance of habitats, mainly for firewood and charcoal production, as well as invasive species and the overexploitation of natural resources.
It has been estimated that only 17 percent of the original vegetation remains, with the centre of Madagascar having been almost entirely deforested. In recent years there has been an increase in protected areas and the development and implementation of conservation strategies for many of the endangered and endemic species. The greatest diversity of life in the Maldives is found in the colourful coral reefs, where over 1,100 species of fish have been found.
Though terrestrial biodiversity is more limited, and there are few endemic species, there are still about 580 plant species and over 170 bird species which have been recorded in the Maldives. The main threats to the biological diversity of the Maldives are habitat destruction, overexploitation of natural resources and climate change. In 2013 the Republic of Maldives pledged to become the first nation where the entire country and its Exclusive Economic Zone will be a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The vegetation of Reunion and Mauritius was once quite diverse and included coastal wetlands, dry forest, rainforest and palm savannah.
Introduced animals have caused a range of problems, with grazers and herbivores devastating the habitat, and rats, cats and mongooses preying on endemic animals.
The number of endemic species on Mauritius is high due to the islanda€™s age, location and period of isolation, and the island was designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity by the IUCN and WWF due to the large range of plants. Unfortunately, although the Mascarenes still have many endemic species they are better known for the number of species that have gone extinct - most famously the dodo from Mauritius. In Mauritius, actions taken include banning coral sand extraction, managing invasive species and monitoring and rehabilitating coral reefs. The 115 islands which make up the Seychelles can be divided into two types, granitic islands or coralline islands.
Four of the coral limestone islands are part of the Aldabra atoll, the largest raised atoll in the world, which was designated a world UNESCO site in 1982. The Seychelles has been recognised as a biodiversity hotspot by Conservation International and has high levels of endemic species as the islands have been isolated for billions of years. Invasive species are the main threat to the forest areas of the Seychelles whereas climate change is considered to be the primary threat to the coral reef systems, which were severely impacted by a coral bleaching event in 1998. The Seychelles became the first country in the world to protect 50 percent of its land, fulfilling its obligations under the Convention on Biological Diversity to ensure conservation of the islandsa€™ biodiversity.
Composed of four islands and two rocky islets, the Socotra Archipelago, which belongs to the Republic of Yemen, is located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. Nicknamed the a€?Galapagos of the Indian Oceana€™, Socotra has incredibly high levels of biodiversity and many endemic species, and was recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2008. The fauna is very rich and 37 percent of the plant species are endemic, including the well-known dragona€™s blood tree. The Socotra archipelago is important for animals, with BirdLife International identifying 22 Important Bird Areas. With 75 percent of the land area included in national parks, sanctuaries or areas of special botanical interest, the majority of areas important for threatened species are protected. The main threat to the biodiversity of Socotra is the development of infrastructure, including a new airport and new roads. Sri Lanka is a continental island located at the southern point of the Indian subcontinent, separated from south India by the Palk Strait. Identified as one of 18 biodiversity hotspots in the world, Sri Lanka has the highest biodiversity of flowering plants and all vertebrates except birds in Asia. The climate of Sri Lanka can be grouped into three main areas: dry zone, intermediate zone and wet zone.
Invasive species are increasingly becoming a problem, with aquatic ecosystems being particularly threatened. In 1994 Sri Lanka signed the Convention on Biological Diversity which led to the development of an action plan which identified the main issues and recommended actions to be taken.
Most of the remaining habitats in Sri Lanka are now protected, with about 30 percent of the nationa€™s land area getting some natural resource management.
Indian Ocean islands have been profiled with support from The Bromley Trust to help raise awareness about the importance of Indian Ocean islands and their distinctive biodiversity, and the need for their protection and conservation. Located approximately 60 kilometres off the north-west coast of Western Australia, Barrow Island is the second largest island in the state (2). These provide a home for some of the islanda€™s varied subterranean species, including species of eel, snake and blind fish (5).
Most of the annual rainfall occurs during the cyclone season between November and April, and amounts to around 320 millimetres per year (2) (3).
Nearly 2,800 species have been recorded on Barrow Island, including at least 24 endemic animal species and subspecies found nowhere else on Earth (7). With no introduced predators such as foxes or cats on the island, and a lack of competition from species such as rabbits and cattle, Barrow Island is a haven for some species threatened on mainland Australia (8).
Over half the worlda€™s cetacean species are known to occur in Australian waters, and of these the most commonly seen in the Barrow Island region is the humpback whale and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (11). Common landbirds found on Barrow Island include the spinifexbird, an endemic subspecies of the white-winged fairy wren, the singing honeyeater, the white-breasted woodswallow and the welcome swallow.(1) (3) (5).
Barrow Island is known to support significant populations of pied oystercatcher, grey-tailed tattler, red-necked stint and fairy tern (3). Perhaps the most notable is the perentie, the second largest lizard in the world and Barrow Islanda€™s top predator (2) (12). Between 2004 and 2006 an intensive survey recorded a total of 2,200 terrestrial invertebrate species on the island, including many believed to be new to science (7) (13).


The Barrow Island Marine Park was designated in 2004, and is home to an estimated 9,000 species including a great diversity of corals, fish and other marine species (7). This is one of the leading causes of species extinction on islands, as native species often lack the adaptations necessary to cope with the introduction of predators or competitors (14).
The introduction of an oil industry on Barrow Island naturally raised environmental concerns, and because Barrow Island is such an important conservation area, the extraction of oil by Chevron Australia is now only permitted under a Department of Environmental Protection licence. After years of planning, approval to build and operate a liquefied natural gas plant on the island was granted in 2009.
These include the introduction of site speed limits, using buses to limit the number of vehicles on the road, installing warning signs and conducting driver fauna-awareness training. By preventing unauthorised visits and carefully monitoring the movement of goods, materials, equipment and personnel, Chevron Australia has been able to provide effective protection for the islanda€™s biodiversity (16) (17). It pioneers a new, risk-based quarantine approach, with an inter-related set of more than 300 procedures, specifications, checklists and guidelines and is the worlda€™s largest non-government quarantine initiative (17). When born, the tiny young crawls to the mothera€™s teats, where it attaches and stays for a variable amount of time, while it continues to develop. These green-flagged Materials may be used by End Users, who are individuals or not-for-profit organisations, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes.
Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted. However, the islands do have a high number of endemic species including four different species of scops owl, one species having evolved on each island. The northern atoll is just one island, North Keeling Island, whereas the southern atoll is composed of the South Keeling Islands.
This park, which is an example of an atoll in its natural state, is the only seabird breeding area within a radius of 900 kilometres and supports eight species of seabird of special conservation significance. This, combined with predation by feral cats and rats and competition for food with feral chickens, is thought to be the reason why the Cocos buff banded rail is now extinct on the southern atoll. Grande Comore, the youngest of the islands, is dominated by the active volcano Mount Karthala. Over the past 20 years, the islands have had one of the fastest rates of deforestation in the world. They were formed by volcanic activity, and each has a range of mountains along the length of the island.
However, only five percent of the original habitat remains in this area, with soil erosion and fires threatening the remaining fragments. In 2004 the Indonesian government established the Tesso Nilo National Park after more than four yearsa€™ work by many local groups led by WWF and supported by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Due to this long period of isolation, large numbers of endemic species have evolved on Madagascar. The major challenge for Madagascar is integrating environmental policy with human wellbeing. Several marine and bird species have been protected, and at 25 marine sites only diving and bait fishing are now allowed. These are sites established by countries to promote sustainable development based on local community efforts and science. In Mauritius there are three Ramsar sites of international importance, as well as two marine parks and eight islet national parks, while Rodrigues has four marine reserves and one multiple use marine protected area.
There have been positive results, with former sand mining sites showing recuperation, increases in fish abundance, and species such as the Mauritius kestrel now increasing in numbers. The biodiversity differs depending on island type, with the granitic islands showing higher levels of endemic species. The Aldabra atoll provides a home for over 400 endemic species and subspecies, including a population of over 100,000 Aldabra giant tortoises, the worlda€™s largest giant tortoise population.
Endemic species include the coco-de-mer, an Endangered plant which produces the largest seeds of any plant in the world, as well as the Critically Endangered jellyfish tree and the Endangered Seychelles white-eye, which was brought back from the brink of extinction due to focused conservation action. Subsequent bleaching events have provided evidence which suggests that it is likely to be changes in climate which most threaten the corals. Rain-drenched mountains are able to support evergreen bushes while other areas are desert-like and only drought-adapted plants are able to grow. Nearly all of the countrya€™s woody endemic plants and 75 percent of the endemic animals are located in the wet zone rainforests. Much of the rainforest has been cleared for coffee, tea and rubber leaving only 1.5 percent of original forest cover remaining, which is itself highly fragmented. Much of the island is covered by spinifex grasslands which provide important habitat for a variety of wildlife (3). Some mammals such as the burrowing bettong or a€?boodiea€™ now only remain on a few isolated islands like Barrow Island, having been driven to extinction on the mainland (9).
There are also a number of raptors present on the island, including the brahminy kite, osprey and white-bellied sea-eagle (1) (2).
In terms of marine reptiles, Barrow Islanda€™s coastline provides important sea turtle rookeries, particularly for green turtles and flatback turtles which come ashore to nest over the Australian summer months between November to February (2) (5) (12). Introduced black rats were discovered on Barrow Island in 1990, but have since been eradicated thanks to a successful baiting programme (15). While the oilfield brought with it many potential risks, including damage to the islanda€™s habitats, disturbance from lights, noise and chemicals, and the presence of people and motor vehicles, strict environmental, safety and health standards and procedures were put in place in order to safeguard the environment and minimise the impact on the island ecosystem. As with the development of the oilfield, strict environmental conditions were applied to the Chevron-operated Gorgon Project to limit the impact on Barrow Islanda€™s wildlife (5) (6); for example, the location of the plant on the island was specially selected to avoid disrupting areas of particular conservation significance (17).
Low resolution, watermarked versions of the Material may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. The islands of the Indian Ocean are formed either from continental fragments, such as Sri Lanka and Madagascar, or have volcanic origins, such as Mauritius and the Comoro Islands. The forest is being cleared to make room for pulpwood and oil palm plantations, and as a result of commercial and illegal logging.
While the main feature of Barrow Islanda€™s geography is the undulating limestone uplands, the island is surrounded by a mixture of sandy beaches and rocky shores, low cliffs, dunes, salt flats and reefs (2) (4) (5).
Three of the main environmental concerns in relation to the Gorgon Project were the potential impacts on nesting marine turtles, the potential quarantine implications associated with the introduction of non-indigenous species to the island, and the dredging of marine channels to create access for large ships. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use. The diversity of species on the Indian Ocean islands is varied but one thing many of the islands have in common is high levels of endemic species a€“ they contain many species that have evolved in isolation from the mainland and occur nowhere else on Earth.
To address these concerns, Chevron Australia established three independent expert panels to provide advice on each issue and help to minimise the impact of the project on the island (5) (17).




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