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This book is the one single place, a new chemistry professor or any new professor, can go to find practical information on how to teach and how to prepare for teaching their first course. Disease Control: A Complete Problem-Solving Guide to Keeping Your Garden and Yard Healthy Without Chemicals by Barbara W. You should look up information concerning any organic chemical you’ll be working with so that you know what to expect in terms of molecular weight, density, solubility, crystalline form, melting or boiling point, color, and so on.
Some solvents have such a long tradition of use, they are our old friends and we use very informal names for them: alcohol. There are a few differences in the entries, what with benzoic acid being a solid, and I’ll point these out.
I’ve included #2532 (Benzoic acid, 2-acetamido) to show that you sometimes get a bonus.
I’ve included the entries from the 43rd and 49th editions of the CRC to show you that not all things improve with age. Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 110 N. Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy to treat many tumors and shows improved delivery, reduced toxicity and higher treatment efficacy when being part of nanoscale delivery systems. Tall Tweets gives you two options for extending your tweet: create tweetstorms (multiple posts that make up a larger discussion on your feed), or a text image that people can view and read.
In addition, you can use a highlighter in the text to make certain words or sentences stand out to the reader. It is simple, doesn’t take up a lot of space or resources (a big issue for Apple users), and is easy to use. Twitter really rewards images these days; when you have such a tiny space, photos say more. I like using it in Chrome because I can right click in to get what I want clipped quickly, without any fuss. The post Tweet Productively: Tools to Break Long Text into Tweets Easily appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog.
Facebook, AMP Pages, and Google’s 3-Pack are just some of the big news items our users are talking about this week.
On SEO Chat, users are talking about web hosting and how to juggle mobile and desktop versions of your pages. And on Cre8asiteforums, users are taking an SEO question and debating it from a UX standpoint. The comments there indicate that those who choose to block ads are in it for the long haul.
Google is working on expanding its AMP results and AMP viewer in SERPs, and you can see a demo of that and read about reactions to it in this thread.
John Mueller and the folks at Google put to bed the idea that adopting AMP will improve your rankings this week.
Users on WebmasterWorld – many of whom have been around since before the WWW was invented!
Apps and the Internet of Things are like new layers, and more are being created as time goes on – but the Web was the first!
Get them clicking on content, try for sales, try for ad clicks, try for impressions, try for it all and see what sticks! The post AMP Pages, Ads in the Three Pack, and More: Weekly Forum Update appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. Since the launch of critic reviews last year, we have been focused on supporting more types of reviews, like restaurant reviews, cafes, or any other type of a local business.
For businesses, people’s growing penchant for mobile search and browsing is an opportunity to outshine and outperform the competition. You can also use Fetch as Google within the Crawl section of Google Search Console to render your site the way Google sees it on different mobile devices.
For a deeper look at mobile and voice search optimization, our SEO Tutorial’s step on mobile SEO provides a starting place. Accelerated Mobile Pages, AMP for is an open source project that enables web pages to load instantly for mobile users.
Google intends to broaden the scope of Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) to extend to all web pages, and as of this writing, AMP is available for news publishers, ecommerce, entertainment, travel and recipe sites. Review each important page, from the home page to a high-priority product page, with an eye to these issues.
The description tag should also include the most important information and keywords before the SERP cutoff, which translates to approximately 24 words or 156 characters including spaces. The meta keywords tag is not a ranking consideration for Google, but our SEOs use it for basic optimization guidance and tracking over time. If a page has an SEO keyword target, record a primary and secondary keyword in the meta keywords tag.
Headings serve the purpose of allowing a reader to see the main sections and points of a page. The amount of words you have on a web page will vary by topic, keyword, competition and user intent (read about the three types of user intent to the right). To determine the number of words needed on a page, count the number of body words on the top ranking pages for a keyword you’re targeting.
These are queries done to help a searcher get somewhere, whether online or in the physical world. It is important that your key pages all make it clear what primary action a visitor should take.
On the home page, it should be easy for the visitor to take the next step in the conversion funnel. Images provide additional ranking opportunities through image search and they do pose some additional optimization considerations. On your company’s About page, for example, use structured data markup to indicate your street address and phone number so it has the potential to show up on a SERP. Along with a location and phone number, other common data types you can use mark up are reviews and ratings, such as on a services page or product page, and events. There are various structured data markup languages: microdata, microformat and RFDa, and the most often discussed Schema. Social markup, or social meta tags, refers to the code used to enhance content on Facebook, Twitter or Pinterest. Facebook Open Graph tags, Twitter Card markup and Pinterest Rich Pins are the major social markup tags. By specifying social markup in your HTML, you can ensure you look your best on social media. The Twitter Card types are: Summary Card (with or without a large image), Photo Card, Gallery Card, App Card, Player Card and Product Card. The basic Open Graph tags are title, image, and description; Google+ will use the Open Graph tag content to generate a preview, and Twitter will fall back on Open Graph tags if no Twitter Card markup is specified.
Make sure to periodically review your content (web pages and blog posts) to make sure that it is up to date. For example, this very checklist is continually refreshed as SEO best practices evolve with search engine guidelines. You want to be sure the most important code is the first thing the search engine bots crawl. In March 2014, a document called the Google Quality Rating Guidelines introduced the terminology E-A-T to the SEO community. A site as a whole should signal expertise, authority and trust while conveying subject relevance and optimizing for search engine accessibility.
An explicit E-A-T signal, the search engines expect that a trustworthy site will clearly and visibly include contact information, such as a phone number and address. Another E-A-T signal, testimonials located on your site supports your authority as a business and your value to your customer base. Having a privacy statement on your site is considered a trust signal for the search engines. Verify there is text navigation, not JavaScript or Flash navigation that spiders can’t see.
Your site should have an HTML sitemap, and every page should link to that sitemap, probably in the footer. The keyword strategy development and research is an ongoing process that essentially never ends. Our SEO Tutorial will get you started and includes a free version of the SEOToolSet Keyword Suggestion Tool. This section warrants way more than just a few sentences, but it should be noted as part of the SEO checklist. Here’s a free tool, no sign in required, and instructions on how to use the Check Server Page Tool to monitor your web server for errors. If you have a home page with content that constantly changes, it can result in diluting the theme of your site and cause poor rankings for key terms. Make sure your SEO strategy is following Google Webmaster Guidelines and Bing Webmaster Guidelines.
Duplicate content is a problem because it’s a low-quality signal to search engines and can cause your site to rank lower. Per usual, our SEO Tutorial unpacks the role of analytics in the step How to Monitor Your SEO Progress.
Webmaster tools accounts for Google and Bing give site owners insight into how search engines view their sites with reports on issues like crawl errors and penalties.
If a manual penalty has been levied against you, Google will report it to you within Google Webmaster Tools. If your site is running Google Analytics, use the Panguin Tool to check your traffic levels against known algorithmic updates. Reddit has spent the last handful of years evolving into the super-content aggregation site that it is today. So, where can users who want a website that takes the concept of Reddit and evolves to something better go? Unlike the up and down vote systems of other websites, Steemit has an interesting approach.
You put money on your account, and when you see content you appreciate you can provide a tiny payment to the user who posted it.
Others have tried this approach before, but Steemit is really gaining traction with the crowd that thinks you should put your money where your mouth is. This led him to create Imzy, a more selective and carefully managed community that seeks to build a positive environment and safe space for discussion. While the most notorious of these new sites is arguable Voat, most will find it an inhospitable place.
The post 5 New Sites that Evolve the Concepts of Reddit appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. There’s no denying a fact that most of marketing tasks we get to perform cannot (or should not) be automated. However automation can reinforce your marketing efforts and a few powerful automation tools should definitely be on your marketing agenda (especially if you value your time and mind your budget). GetResponse is the prime example of how automation not only saves your time but also discovers new marketing opportunities letting you engage customers exactly when they are ready to act.
That being said, you can send a customized and personalized email to someone who clicked a specific link, skipped your specific email, opted in on a specific date or using a specific landing page.

I haven’t had a chance to play with those yet but it would be amazing if those two spoke to their email marketing automation settings too! In short, it looks like Getresponse is turning into an all-in-one online marketing platform with powerful marketing automation features. VCB RSS sharing feature lets you save time on adding projects: You add your RSS feed and whenever you have a new article going live, it will be automatically added to VCB. This means, as soon as you publish an article, it gets shared by someone outside your immediate following which gives it an immediate social media boost. RSS to social media: Once you publish a new article, the update goes to your social media streams automatically. You plan a long trip and have a bunch of blog posts scheduled and want them to get shared on your social media accounts for more exposure. A powerful alternative to DrumUp is Mavsocial which I am using quite often as well, especially for scheduling to multiple Facebook brand pages. Another recent discovery of mine, Zapie offers much more automation opportunities than you could imagine.
A powerful alternative to Zapie is IFTTT (which I know is awesome but I haven’t had a chance to play with it enough). There are also rumors of a Google algorithm change or hiccup – perhaps more zombie traffic choking up the pipes? Facebook released some news about their own algorithm, Alphabet posted record profits, and our users are discussing 300 series redirects, the value of Domain Authority, and more! In Search Console you can access Search Analytics Reports which, among other things, will tell you some basic information about your impressions, clicks, and average position within search results. Is zombie traffic related to the recent changes, or are zombies increasing in conjunction with a “Phantom 4” update? Many newbies on SEO Chat talk about Domain Authority as if it is a totally infallible, Google-sanctioned metric. Honestly, I place some value on Moz DA, it’s the most accurate metric that I believe we now have access to. The natural response is that Google might favor you in SERPs – but is that really why a website should be higher up? It may well, however, treat unrelated redirects as soft 404s, to counter SEO abuse.” This is a big shake-up in how 300 series redirects have been treated in the past!
The post Search Analytics, Algorithm Rumors, and More: Weekly Forum Update appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. It's 2016 and it's hard to believe that browsing the web on a mobile phone can still feel so slow with users abandoning sites that just don't load quickly. Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site. This information is kept in handbooks that should be available in the lab, if not in the library.
If I don’t reexamine a heading, see the explanation back in the 1-Bromobutane entry for details. The entries are similar to those in the CRC Handbooks so I’ll only point out the interesting differences. However, a major drawback remains its toxicity to healthy tissue and the development of multi-drug resistance during prolonged treatment. IntroductionThe anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is potent and therapeutically efficient for treatment of a variety of tumors [1,2].
Tweetsplit is a handy little app that will split up your posts into naturally readable parts based on the best area for a pause. A lot of people are doing that lately, not only for the ease, but because it is a highly visual way to get across a message. You can either do a straight text image, or make a visual quote with a provided background.
Give this thread a read for some great insights into where the Internet came from – and where it’s going! Would adding content from the desktop version to the mobile version create duplicate content issues? See how your site is performing on mobile devices with the Mobile Usability Report, located within the Search Traffic section of Google Search Console. Lastly, you can run important URLs through Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test for developers here. Remember, the information you put in these tags is often used to render the title and description in the search engine results pages, and could likely be what searchers see in the search results. You want to make sure the most important information, including top keywords, shows up before the cutoff in the SERP in Google around 600 pixels, which translates to approximately 70 characters including spaces.
This way, the target is contained on the page and can translate even when a page changes hands between teams and over generations. That will give you a ballpark for what a search engine considers the normal word count for that topic. Since the Google Panda Update penalizing low-quality content, avoid duplicate content and thin content and focus on robust coverage of your website topics that prove your subject matter expertise.
Searching for the name of a restaurant will get the user to that restaurant’s web presence or physical address. The actual language of the call to action should be active and the placement and design of the CTA should draw the visitor’s attention. If an informational page is a top-performing traffic driver, for example a blog post that answers a common question or a FAQ page, include a CTA to encourage the visitor to further their engagement or enter the conversion funnel. Images are important to include on a page to break up text elements and keep a reader interested in the content. To reduce file size and to increase speed as much as possible, include width and height attributes in image tags.
The American with Disabilities Act says you should always describe the image on the page for the vision impaired. Specifically, it helps the search engines understand what type of information you’re presenting. For more on how to implement structured data on your site, check out How to Use Schema Markup to Improve Your Website Visibility in Search.
Content in these tags dictate what image and text will show up on Facebook, Twitter or Pinterest when someone posts your content on social networks. Work to ensure there aren’t unnecessary lines of code above the body text by externalizing JavaScript and CSS code that gets in the way of keyword-rich content. A shorthand way of referring to expertise, authority and trust, E-A-T is now a pillar of search engine optimization. In addition to bolstering your trust with Google and Bing, it’s a best practice to include one. Make sure you at least have text navigation on the bottom of the page if there aren’t any spiderable navigation links in the top nav.
If ever in doubt about any of your tactics, you can also refer to what Google accepts for SEO. If you, for example, have three pages on your site with the same content, a search engine will then choose on its own which one to rank for relevant queries — and the page they choose might not be the page you wanted to rank.
If you haven’t already set up a Google Search Console account, this article will walk you through it. The first place to begin troubleshooting this issue for Google is the Crawl Errors Report, which can be found in the Crawl section of Google Search Console. Review the Index Summary chart with the dashboard of Bing Webmaster Tools — if the number of pages for a given site is set at zero, you have been hit with a penalty. If you see any drops or rises in search referrer traffic at a time that coincides with Penguin, Panda and other known algorithm updates, you may be affected by a penalty.
Our online SEO Tutorial teaches you search engine optimization step-by-step, and it’s free! Controversial leadership as a brand, subreddits being banned for abuse, doxxing, and illegal content, and the firing of beloved personnel are only a couple of the reasons the site has been struggling. It works by creating micropayments that can be given through a localized wallet filled by the user.
This builds over time to monetize and incentivize good content, and helps weed out the bad. Hubski is a more thoughtful place where people are encouraged to provide civil discord and positive content, rather than so much of the fighting and hatred that ends up on communities like Reddit (or, in more extreme cases, Voat). But if you want a pleasant conversation with like minded people, it can be a polite little haven in a digital world that can be cruel. But he eventually became disillusioned by some of the subreddits that were running rampant on the site, and are continuing to do so under the protection of locked communities. You then create an anonymous peer to peer network of conversation and content shared across space.
Its most well known and active boards are those dedicated to insulting overweight people, writing racist diatribes, and even sharing images of underage girls. Google released a big ol’ document explaining clicks, impressions, and placements in search analytics reports recently. Some confusion over the inconsistency of certain points and their meaning led Google to release a new article explaining almost everything you need to know. You can check out some reports about it and read the thoughts of other webmasters in this thread. Reading some of these is not easy, but once someone tells you what some of the fancy symbols mean, there shouldn’t be a problem. The 43rd and 49th editions make use of boldface type to list parent compounds, and lighter type to list derivatives.
This is why in our work we aimed to improve DOX delivery and reduce the toxicity by chemical conjugation with a new nanoplatform based on polymalic acid.
However, it has considerable toxicity, which limits its therapeutic use, preventing treatment at high dosages, and it has an acquired resistance [3–6] excluding repeated treatment at tolerated dosages.In recent years, significant efforts have concentrated on nanoscale delivery systems of DOX [7–11].
Now it is a little harder to conform to that size, and people are always trying to find ways around it. By incorporating structured data to their sites, publishers can promote their content on local Knowledge Graph cards and users can enjoy a range of reviews and opinions.
Here are basic but important things to check related to a website’s optimization for a mobile visitor.
This report lets you know if your touch elements are too close, if your content is sized to the viewport, your Flash usage, font size and more. At the very least, become familiar with AMP technology so you can implement and be ahead of the curve as Google prioritizes AMP further. It’s safe to say that informational web pages almost always warrant a minimum of 450 words. For example, if someone searches for the best electric toothbrushes, there’s a good chance that a purchase in the near future. Also, resize images to the display size rather than uploading the original file and asking the browser to shrink it.
Ensure your images have proper descriptions associated with them, and if appropriate, keywords for the page. Dashes (or rather, hyphens) are word separators, but should not appear too many times or it could look spammy. A privacy statement lets site visitors know what you’re doing with any data you collect about them.

Also make sure the file doesn’t accidentally exclude important files, directories or the entire site. Ensure your analytics are properly set up and monitor them regularly to find out of if the keywords that are generating traffic are in your keyword list, and that your site is optimized for them.
For help setting up a Bing Webmaster Tools account, view the Bing Webmaster Help & How-To Getting Started Checklist.
In Bing Webmaster Tools, go to the Crawl Information Report in the Reports & Data section. While optimization for AI is not as straightforward as checking for traffic drops, familiarize yourself with how SEOs should approach RankBrain in our recent podcast episode.
In this article I am sharing my most recent find which I ended up using more often than the others. In this thread, a user posts that their “beef with DA [is that] I notice with older, authority sites, DA is more accurate as more backlinks are picked up. That was why we started working with the Accelerated Mobile Pages Project, an open source initiative to improve the mobile web experience for everyone. Many of the symbols are common to all handbooks, and are discussed only once, so read the entire section even if your handbook is different. Thus, pa ye nd (al) means that pale yellow needles are obtained when you recrystallize the compound from ethanol. Benzoic acid starts to sublime (go directly from a solid to a vapor) over 100 °C, before any crystals left melt at 122.4°C. For delivery into recipient cancer cells, DOX was conjugated via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkage along with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to a biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic nanoconjugate platform: poly(?-l-malic acid) (PMLA). Compared with chemotherapeutic molecules for cancer treatment, “nanodrugs” offer several advantages such as increased solubility, tumor targeting, enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue and tumor cells, decreased systemic toxicity and increased maximum tolerated dosages. Are you accounting for searches formed as questions and in sentence structure, more and more common with the advance of voice queries? You can also use the canonical tag to tell search engines that the current page is intended to be indexed as the canonical page. They occasionally flat out lift the posts and republish them, a practice that has gained the ire and mockery of Reddit users across all subreddits. There are at least four fairly popular handbooks and I’ve included sample entries of 1-bromobutane and benzoic acid, a liquid and a solid you might come across in lab, to help explain things. This is a mass of the density of the liquid taken at 20 °C referred to (divided by) the density of the same mass of water at 4°C. These are the actual solubilities, in grams of benzoic acid per 100 g of water at 4, 18, and 75 °C, respectively. DOX-nanoconjugates were found stable under physiological conditions and shown to successfully inhibit in vitro cancer cell growth of several invasive breast carcinoma cell lines such as MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB- 468 and of primary glioma cell lines such as U87MG and U251. Nanodrugs can selectively accumulate in tumor through a passive targeting mechanism known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect [12–14]. You can automate your tweet to go live a few more times throughout upcoming days and weeks for more of your followers to be able to see it.
But the new way of presenting the solubility data (what there is of it) is useless for many things you need to do in your lab. In addition, an efficient tumor accumulation is achieved through active targeting by combining nanodrugs with specific antibodies that bind to receptors overexpressed on vascular tumor endothelium. Another important targeting is binding to surface antigens which are specific for tumor cells [15–17]. You need more useful solubility data for that experiment than you can extract from the most recent CRC Handbook. The effect of this targeting will be enhanced internalization of nanodrugs and increased treatment efficacy. This process, detailed in our critic reviews markup instructions, allows publishers to communicate to Google which snippet they prefer, what URL is associated with the review and other metadata about the local business that allows us to ensure that we’re showing the right review for the right entity. Google can understand a variety of markup formats, including the JSON-LD data format, which makes it easier than ever to incorporate structured data about reviews into webpages!
One such successful example is “DOXIL®” a clinically approved nanodrug for the treatment of refractory ovarian cancer [23]. Among nanoconjugates used to deliver DOX, the polymer platform N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) showed promising results in animal models [8] and also entered clinical trials [13].
The drug then diffuses into the cytoplasm after spontaneous deprotonation of the galactosamine residue.We have demonstrated the successful delivery of several anti cancer agents specifically to brain and breast tumor using the targeted nanoconjugate delivery system Polycefin including temozolomide [26] and antisense oligonucleotides [27–29]. This system uses the nanoscale platform poly(?-l-malic acid) (PMLA) known to be biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic.
It provides numerous pendant carboxyl groups accessible for the chemical attachment of drugs and other functional moieties. In order to enlarge our palette for chemotherapeutic drugs, we have chosen here the delivery of DOX. We’re starting with a preview to get feedback from users, developers and sites so that we can create a better Search experience when we make this feature more broadly available later this year. Also, we wished to attach a bactericidal in addition to antisense oligonucleotides and antibodies to be effective during immune compromising anticancer treatments. In this PMLA based delivery vehicle, DOX is bound to the carrier platform via an acid labile hydrazone linker that can be cleaved in the endosomal compartment before delivery to the cytoplasm of the recipient cell.
And beyond developing AMP pages, we invite everyone to get involved and contribute to the AMP Project.
Nanoconjugate contains PEG for protection against resorption by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and it may optionally contain a fluorescent dye for tracking after systemic injection. A Beginner's Guide to the Selection of Textbooks and Course Materials: It's All That and More. Tumour tropism and anti-cancer efficacy of polymer-based doxorubicin prodrugs in the treatment of subcutaneous murine B16F10 melanoma.
Characterization of NanoconjugatesHydrodynamic diameter and ?-potential were measured at 25 °C using the Zetasizer Nano ZS90 System (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK), and the results are summarized in Table 1. According to the protocol provided by Malvern, the hydrodynamic diameter that was measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) refers to a sphere that has the same translational diffusion coefficient as the studied nanoconjugate.
Thus, the feature of an elongated structure like the one assumed for the nanopolymers would not be indicated. Biocompatibility of N-(2-Hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers containing adriamycin: Immunogenicity, and effect on haematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow in vivo and mouse splenocytes and human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Another observation with our nanopolymer was the relatively high PDI-value after conjugation with PEG or other molecules. Acid-Sensitive polyethylene glycol conjugates of doxorubicin: Preparation, in vitro efficacy and intracellular distribution. Such small sizes are favorable for deep diffusion into tumor tissue; however, particles of this size are washed out through the kidneys within a few hours and could be disfavoring the treatment efficacy.
This finding supports the above assumption of different conformers for the nanoconjugate in dynamic equilibrium that could have affected the high PDI-value by the light scattering technique but escaped detection by SEC-HPLC. Identical retention times at different wavelengths and absence of major other elution peaks suggested high chemical purity. The difference of 0.2 min between positions by absorbance and fluorescence (Figure 2C) corresponded with the time interval between absorbance and fluorescence detections.
HPMA copolymers with pH-controlled release of doxorubicin: In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Polymer-Drug conjugates: Towards a novel approach for the treatment of endrocine-related cancer. Vascular permeability enhancement in solid tumor: Various factors, mechanisms involved and its implications.
Thus, DOX containing nanoconjugate and free DOX significantly decreased viability in all four cell lines. Brain tumor tandem targeting using a combination of monoclonal antibodies attached to Biopoly(?-l-Malic Acid). Human glioma cell line U251 is known to express P-glycoproteins, which is associated with drug resistance [35].
The overexpression of the membrane-bound protein that affects efflux of certain drugs from cells leads to decreased intracellular concentrations of DOX [36] and hence causes low cytotoxicity. In addition, U251 has significantly higher expression of ABC transporters [37] which is another source for drug resistance. By delivering DOX via PMLA nanoplatform, the mode of drug uptake was significantly altered and bypassed the efflux mechanisms thus avoiding drug resistance. In addition to the observation of a decreased IC50, the concentration range of U251 toxicity spanned four orders of magnitude, while that in all the other cases covered only 2–3 orders of magnitude.
Polycefin, a new prototype of a multifunctional nanoconjugate based on Poly(?-l-Malic Acid) for drug delivery. This broad concentration dependence suggested that the U251 cell line consisted in a population of varying DOX-resistance.
Heterogeneity in gene expression is not unusual for cancer cells and has been addressed in the issue of personalized cancer therapy [38]. In the case of U87MG cell line, the free DOX was more active than the polymer conjugated one and showed a similar trend as seen in breast cancer cell lines. This suggests that the mechanism for U251 cells to bypass resistance may not hold in this case.DOX is primarily the drug of choice to treat breast cancer and other types of cancer but not brain tumor because of several factors, most of all including blood brain barrier.
It is noticed, however, that IC50 values were 2–3 fold higher for the treatment with the nanopolymer version.
The amount of DOX conjugated to PMLA was determined spectrophotometrically by absorbance measurements using coefficient (?480 = 11500 M?1 cm?1). Mixed polymer micelles of amphiphilic and cationic copolymers for delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. A single dose of doxorubicin-functionalized bow-tie dendrimer cures mice bearing C-26 colon carcinomas. After centrifugation at 1500g for 10 min, the clear supernatant containing glycine hydrazide (GH) was passed over a Sephadex column (PD-10, GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, USA) pre-equilibrated with deionized (DI) water. Temozolomide delivery to tumor cells by a multifunctional nano vehicle based on Poly(?-l-Malic Acid).
Inhibition of brain tumor growth by intravenous Poly(?-l-Malic Acid) nanobioconjugate with pH-Dependent drug release. The peak intensity at 475 nm was directly proportional to the amount of DOX released from the polymer conjugate.
All drug-release data are expressed as the amounts of free DOX relative to the total DOX content in the conjugate.
ConclusionsFor the purpose of delivering DOX to human cancer cells, DOX was successfully conjugated to a PMLA platform via an acid labile hydrazone bond.
The majority of DOX (>80%) was released from the PMLA-platform under acidic pH prevalent in late endosome and lysosomes. Since most of DOX (~90%) still remained bound to the platform after 40 h, drug delivery in vivo was considered efficient and the level of cytotocitity low due to clearance of the nanoconjugate from the blood during this time. DOX containing nanoconjugate showed significant reduction in tumor cell viability of both human glioma and human breast cancer cell lines, whereas the PEG containing platform in the absence of DOX was inactive. The results indicated that DOX containing nanoconjugates of PMLA were active comparably to free DOX in arresting cancer cell viability and could be used as safe delivery vehicles to treat brain and breast cancer.

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