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When foraging in the wild or after a disaster and it’s safe to go outside to look for food, edible mushrooms can be a good source of nourishment. The Death Cap and Destroying Angel mushrooms contain a deadly toxin that almost always causes certain death to people who consumed the mushrooms. Sulfur tuft mushrooms cause mild to severe gastrointestinal irritation, generally the least troublesome form of mushroom poisoning. Fly agaric mushrooms contain toxics that cause delirium, apparent innebriation, manic behavior, and a tendency to perceive small objects as very large.
The main toxic component of Ivory Funnel is muscarine, and thus the symptoms are those of muscarine poisoning, namely greatly increased salivation, sweating (perspiration), and tearflow (lacrimation) within 15–30 minutes of ingestion. The Cortinar and several other mushrooms in the genus Cortinarius are poisonous and cause acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.
The Deadly Fibrecap’s name is no joke because it is lethally poisonous, even in small quantities.
Yellow staining mushroom poisoning symptoms include: are nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea and vomiting.
Maslow defined the basic needs of all people as a progression from simple physical needs (needed for survival) to more complex ones, called aesthetic needs. A person must meet the needs at the foundation of the hierarchy before working toward meeting higher-level needs. NCLEX Alert The concepts within Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are fundamental components of correct NCLEX options. After they meet their basic survival needs, people can progress to more complex needs, such as safety, love, and self-esteem. Illness or risk for illness occurs when people are unable to satisfy one or more of their basic needs independently. Key Concept Nursing is concerned with helping clients meet their physical, spiritual, and psychological needs. In many cases, the nurse can determine the client’s level of need satisfaction by looking at him or her. Examples of conditions in which individuals may require assistance to meet their fluid needs include unconsciousness, inability to swallow, and severe mental illness. Nutrients are necessary to maintain life, although the body can survive for several days or weeks without food.
A bowel obstruction, bladder cancer, kidney disease, and gallbladder disease disrupt normal elimination.
The nurse may help the client eliminate wastes by giving an enema, catheterizing the person, or assisting with dialysis. The nurse can assist clients to get enough sleep and rest by providing safe, comfortable, and quiet surroundings. Sexual gratification is important; however, unlike other basic physiologic needs, sexual gratification may be sublimated. Several factors can threaten the body’s need for temperature regulation, including excessive external heat or cold or a high internal fever in response to an infection. FIGURE 5-2 · Security and safety needs can be met by helping the client ambulate using a walker. People must feel safe and secure, both physically and emotionally, before being comfortable enough to move on to meet other needs. Key Concept Any type of abuse is a threat to the basic need for safety and security If a person feels unsafe, he or she cannot pursue higher-level needs. Nursing Alert If you, as a nurse, do not report suspected abuse, you could be subject to arrest and civil penalties. They are carnivores, meaning they will eat: Bacon (raw or cooked), Bird (raw or cooked), and Fish (raw or cooked). Whales are very hostile and very hard to kill, so they can be hunted for food, but it is advised you avoid them all together.
Jewish prisoners were treated like cattle; packed tightly into cattle trucks and locked inside for days as the trains travelled to camps across Europe. These prisoners are being packed into open trains for their journey to Chelmno; little do they know that it will be their final journey.
These Jewish prisoners have just arrived at Auschwitz Birkenau at the end of their journey from Hungary.
The packed railway wagons would often be shunted around from one railway siding to another for days on end, and for what must have seemed like an eternity. Eventually, after days of travelling in the most cramped conditions, the railway carriages arrived at a camp. Under German guidance, the Hungarian authorities decreed all Jews should wear the yellow star of David. The Warsaw ghetto uprising - Jewish fighters resisted the German attempt to liquidate the Warsaw ghetto. In the Netherlands, Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David on their outer clothing.
Signs of poisoning become apparent 6-24 hrs after eating the poisonous mushrooms and include: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
Some people who ate the mushroom exhibit a desire for intense physical activity; most experience a deep sleep, usually with visions. With large doses, these symptoms may be followed by abdominal pain, severe nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, and labored breathing. The mushroom contains high levels of the toxin muscarine which causes: blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, bronchial secretions, abdominal cramping, increased gastric acid secretion, diarrhea and polyuria. Maslow described a theory of human needs that identified simple basic needs in relation to the more complex, higher-level needs.

As a nurse, you will help people to satisfy their basic needs and to reduce threats to this need fulfillment.Most types of nursing care are prioritized using the same hierarchy. According to Maslow, basic physiologic needs, such as for food and water; must be met before a person can move on to higher-level needs, such as security and safety. You may be given more than one correct response but you must choose the best, most appropriate response. For example, people who are hungry will not be concerned about cleanliness or learning until they are fed.
You may feed an infant, provide full range of motion for a person who has had a stroke, give a tube feeding to a person who cannot swallow, bathe a person who is in a full body cast, or play with a child.
For example, the nurse can estimate oxygenation by looking for cyanosis (blueness of skin) and difficulty breathing.
Individuals of all cultures have basic needs; in other words, basic needs are transcultural— across all cultures. The body can survive only a few days without water, although certain conditions may alter this length of time.
If the kidneys do not function, the body may retain water in the tissues (edema) or the body may not have enough water (dehydration). Poor nutritional habits, inability to chew or swallow, nausea and vomiting, food allergies, refusal to eat, and overeating pose threats to a client’s nutritional status. Difficulty in breathing, poor circulation, acid-base imbalance, allergies, cuts, wounds, diabetes, and infection also hinder adequate elimination. You may assist with surgery to eliminate a bowel obstruction and administer medications to relieve diarrhea or constipation. The amount of sleep that people need varies; factors such as pregnancy, age, and general health have an influence.
Various treatments such as a soothing back rub, warm tub bath, warm milk, and certain medications can also promote sleep. Exercise helps maintain the body’s structural integrity and health by enhancing circulation and respiration.
Examples include encouraging a person to walk after surgery, teaching a client to walk with crutches, providing passive range of motion, and teaching the person in a cast to do exercises.
The need for sex is not vital to the survival of the individual, but it is vital to the survival of the species. Notice how the nurse uses her body position and her arms to anticipate helping the client in case of loss of balance. Individuals, families and whole communities together with their personal belongings were packed into cattle trucks. They did not know where they were going, the length of the journey or what would happen to them when they eventually arrived at their destination.The conditions on the journey were appalling.
Many of the very young, the old and the sick would die because of the inhumane conditions during the journey. The doors of the carriages would be pulled open to give the prisoners their first glimpse of daylight, at a place they had never seen before.
Homo sapiens (us) lived through the Stone Age along with genetic cousins such as Homo erectus and Homo habilis.Our ancestors achieved a number of major developments during the Stone Age, key innovations that not only assured our survival in a harsh world, but laid the foundation for the more dramatic innovations that have shaped our world today.
The Bug Out Bag List is a basic list of essential items to survive for a minimum of seventy-two hours hours period when evacuating you home from a disaster emergency situation. These mushrooms contain the toxin orellanine which is easy to detect because it is fluorescent. These needs are common to all people regardless of age, sex, race, social class, and state of health (well or ill). This topic summarizes human needs and explains their relationship to health and nursing care. Nursing is based on helping people to meet the needs they cannot meet by themselves because of age, illness, or injury. Individuals in pain will not be concerned about personal appearance or relationships with others until pain is relieved. You may encourage the recovering person to attend to personal care, visit with someone who is lonely or frightened, or arrange for a social worker or a member of the clergy to visit. For example, emphysema, asthma, paralysis, or secretions may make breathing difficult; circulation may be impaired, thus preventing oxygen from reaching the cells.
For example, the person in a very hot climate needs more water and fluids to sustain life than the person in a cold climate.
The nurse can assist in these conditions by measuring intake and output, weighing the client daily, and observing intravenous infusion of fluids. The nurse helps by feeding the client, monitoring calorie counts, or maintaining alternative methods of nutrition such as tube feedings or assisting with intravenous infusions. The absence of sleep is not immediately life threatening but can cause various disorders if allowed to continue.
Mobility is not necessary for survival, but some form of exercise is needed to maintain optimum health. Clients in nursing homes are encouraged to exercise, even if they are confined to wheelchairs. The nurse will assist clients to meet the need for temperature regulation in cases such as a severe burn, a high fever, or exposure to extreme heat (heat stroke) or cold (hypothermia, frostbite) by monitoring the client’s temperature and providing treatment for the effects of thermal damage. Characteristics of safety include predictability, stability, and familiarity, as well as feeling safe and comfortable and trusting other people. Print the Bug Out Bag List using your inkjet or laser printer and start preparing you Bug Out Bag now. Uneaten specimens or at least good photographs of the specimens should be provided to a bona fide expert for identification in case symptoms appear.

Symptoms subside when the body gets rid of the meal but in severe cases, medical treatment and hospitalization are needed to maintain fluids and electrolyte balance.
Symptoms appear half an hour to two hours after ingestion and last for up to four hours or more. Maslow asserted that people respond to needs and need satisfaction as whole and integrated beings. Those facing surgery will not be able to learn about the operation unless they feel safe and secure. This text discusses issues common to all people, noting that individual needs may be unique. Primary needs must be met to sustain life; secondary needs are met to give quality to life. If the body should inappropriately allow wastes to accumulate, many serious conditions can result. Physical therapists and nurses work together to assist clients with rehabilitation of injured bones and muscles. As part of the assessment, the nurse may learn that the client has concerns relating to sexual issues. Examples include using proper handwashing techniques, preventing wound infections by using sterile dressings, using a night light, disabling the gas stove in the home of a person with Alzheimer’s disease, and locking up poisons in the home to safeguard small children. The free printable Bug Out Bag List is very basic and you can add other items not included here. Death can occur from heart failure secondary to dehydration and electrolyte depletion, but this is rare. Regression, or focusing on a lower-level need that has already been fulfilled, is common in illness or injury. The person who is paralyzed from the waist down can do pushups in bed and many other upper body exercises.
For example, the client recovering from surgery may be concerned about the physical effects of sexual intercourse on a healing incision. The nurse can explain to clients their surgical procedure before surgery, as well as any other treatments or medications. Abuse may take the form of spousal or partner battering, child abuse, or rape by family members or others. Includes items like water bottle, multi-tool, freeze dried food, portable water filter, survival knife, paracord, emergency ration bars, whistle, poncho, compass, tent, fire starter, flashlight, etc. If you suspect mushroom poisoning, seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, take uncooked specimens with you! Hospital treatment of poisoning by this mushroom is usually supportive; antispasmodic medicines may lessen colicky abdominal cramps and activated charcoal may be administered early on to bind residual toxin. For example, a client recovering from an illness will focus their physical and emotional energies on recovery (physical needs) before returning to employment (security).
Turning the immobilized person often helps to prevent lung problems, skin breakdown, circulatory problems, bowel obstruction, and pressure ulcers (bedsores).
Remember that age or physical disability usually does not eliminate a person’s desire for sexual activity. Intravenous fluids may be required if dehydration has been extensive, especially with children and the elderly.
Metoclopramide may be used in cases of recurrent vomiting once gastric contents are emptied.
SewingFlax fibers more than 34,000 years old have been discovered that had been spun to make thread. Our ancestors fashioned needles from animal bones and used the thread to sew animal hide and fur into clothes, shoes and packs and to create string or yarn that had many uses including hefting and being used in making baskets and other domestic pieces.But what was particularly interesting about these fibers, found in the Republic of Georgia, was their color. So much for Stone Age people walking around in dull variations of beige, here is evidence that they made an effort to introduce color into their lives.Perhaps even a sense of fashion? Indeed Neanderthals and Homo sapien were known to have existed in the same areas of ancient Europe together up until the Neanderthals disappeared around 35,000 years ago.Music.
Long Hunting SpearFor the purposes of getting food and defending themselves Stone Age man had to contend with numerous creatures that had sharp claws and teeth. Stone AxeOur Stone Age ancestors made a giant leap when they invented the stone axe somewhere between 250,000 and 1.2 million years ago. ShelterAmazingly, the earliest evidence that our ancestors built fixed shelters is from around 2,000,000 years ago. These shelters showed evidence of a hearth or fireplace and separate rooms representing a major improvement in living conditions for people using the shelter.
The Controlled Use of FireFire wasn’t discovered as such as it existed before Homo Erectus harnessed its power, however the ability to control fire was the greatest step forward in the history of mankind and our ancestors.Fire enabled us to cook food meaning we were better nourished, keep warm which meant we were better rested, migrate into colder climates which saw us diversify across the globe, fight away predators, clear forests for agriculture and bake clay to make utensils. Evidence clearly places the earliest wheels in the Middle East and Central Europe between 3,400 BC and 3,000 BC.
Our Stone Age friends did not have the wheel.Interestingly, homo sapien (mankind) faced extinction as recently as 75,000 years ago when the total population of homo sapien on earth was as low as 600 individuals. Perversely, this low base allowed strong genes to come through and according to some archaeologists, mankind took a ‘great leap forward’ at this time, resulting in our rapid rise to dominance.
It is a genius invention of the highest order.ReplyLeave a Reply Cancel replyYour email address will not be published.

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