Survival after breast cancer surgery 6th,midnight emergency kit urban decay,skills needed to survive in the desert - Plans On 2016

15.08.2014 admin
Researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Cancer Prevention Institute of California have discovered that breast cancer patients treated with lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy have the same survival rate as patients who had bilateral mastectomy (removal of both breasts).
This surgical technique is increasingly used to treat unilateral breast cancer, giving rise to medical and psychosocial complications. In a study entitled “Use of and Mortality After Bilateral Mastectomy Compared With Other Surgical Treatments for Breast Cancer in California, 1998-2011” and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the researchers compared the use of and mortality after bilateral mastectomy, lumpectomy (the selective removal of cancerous tissue within the breast) plus radiation, and unilateral mastectomy (the removal of the affected breast).
The team designed a comprehensive cohort study within the population-based California Cancer Registry, analyzing 189,734 women who had been diagnosed with stages 0-III unilateral breast cancer in California from 1998 through 2011. Furthermore, women from racial and ethnic minorities, along with women of lower socioeconomic status, had higher chances of receiving a unilateral mastectomy than women from middle- or upper-class, younger than 50, or non-Hispanic whites. Importantly, women who received a bilateral mastectomy or a lumpectomy plus radiation had approximately the same long-term survival rates. The registry database used to design this study provides important information about almost every cancer case in the state, including stage of the disease, surgical outcome chosen both by the patient and physician, survival outcome and racial or ethnic background information.
Even though women undergoing bilateral mastectomy did not show improved survival rates, the study revealed that there are growing numbers of women deciding to perform the complex surgery that requires a long recovery period and can result in reconstructive surgery.
Nonetheless, the authors noted that if a woman is diagnosed with a BRCA1, BRCA2 or other gene mutation that significantly increases the chances of developing breast cancer, or has a family history of breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy could be an appropriate option.
The results from this study can lead to a better evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of bilateral mastectomy, allowing a better understanding of breast surgery use and enhancing the quality of cancer care.
Tagged bilateral mastectomy, breast cancer, lumpectomy, radiation therapy, unilateral mastectomy. Ana de Barros is a postdoctoral researcher at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon, Portugal. We may seem to know a lot about breast cancer, but sometimes there is so much information that we may have difficulty in processing it all. Disclaimer:Breast Cancer News is strictly a news and information website about the disease. One of the most-cited cancer journals, the Journal of the National Cancer Institute features original research from around the world and is internationally acclaimed as the source for the most up-to-date news and information from the rapidly changing fields of cancer research and treatment. After being told they have breast cancer, many female smokers say “what the heck?” and continue to smoke, figuring they have nothing more to lose.
Fifty years ago, it was considered unladylike for women to smoke cigarettes, and when they did, it was at night, in secret, and only while sitting.
According to the US Surgeon General Report in 2014, the disease risks for women in the United States have risen sharply over the last 50 years with breast cancer as the second leading cause of female cancer deaths; plus, women are now equal to men for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases, the report states.
In this new population-based prospective observational study, researchers compared the smoking status of women in Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts before and after breast cancer diagnosis.
According to lead researcher Michael Passarelli, PhD, MPH, MS, postdoctoral scholar in the Epidemiology and Biostatistics department at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, follow-ups were made on 4,562 of these women, on average, six years after diagnosis. The researchers controlled for other risk factors, including alcohol usage and body mass index. Passarelli said that during the timeframe of the study, the prevalence of smoking among women was about 20% and that the prevalence of smoking in women on average about six years after their breast cancer diagnosis was 10%. Unfortunately, noted Passarelli, those who continue to smoke after being diagnosed with cancer are some of the hardest people to persuade to quit. Passarelli said smokers are more likely to have treatment-related complications, such as toxic effects on the heart, and may need to stop treatment earlier than intended. For example, in addition to a lower mortality rate from breast cancer for those who quit smoking after diagnosis, researchers also found a reduced rate for respiratory cancer.
An editorial appearing in the same issue as Passarelli’s study reports that half of medical oncologists do not aggressively promote smoking-cessation methods. The authors of the editorial and Ostroff point out that the National Comprehensive Cancer Network has published new Guidelines for Smoking Cessation to help oncologists advise patients.
A version of this article originally appeared in the Journal of the Nation Cancer Institute. Life Insurance after Breast CancerApril 4, 2013Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women. Before we get into options for coverage, I’d like to introduce a couple of terms that will give you a better understanding of how life insurance companies may price insurance following cancer. Another insurance term you will find when dealing in high risk life insurance is “postponement”.
If you have had stage 0 or stage 1 cancer, there is a good chance you can qualify for coverage immediately following successful treatment.
If your cancer was stage 2, 3 or 4, there will likely be a postponement period of anywhere between 5-10 years following treatment before you can qualify for a traditional life insurance policy. If after evaluating your specific situation we come to the conculsion that you can’t get a traditional life insurance policy, you may want to consider a graded death benefit policy. Whether you already have a life insurance policy post breast cancer or looking to get a life insurance policy it is important to consider a few things. By working with an independent life insurance agency, such as ours, you will have the best chances of getting a policy at the best rates. Drinking alcohol in moderation may not worsen a woman's odds of surviving breast cancer, a new study finds. Alcohol is believed to increase estrogen production in pre-and post-menopausal women, which can increase breast cancer risk.
New research may be able to help identify people who are at increased risk for cancer before they get it. The American Cancer Society estimates that 12 percent of women will develop invasive breast cancer in their lifetime. Researchers looked at data from 23,000 women from New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Wisconsin who were part of the Collaborative Breast Cancer Study. There was no link between the amount and type of alcohol a woman said she drank before she was diagnosed and an increased likelihood she would die from breast cancer. No association was found for women who drank alcohol after being diagnosed with breast cancer as well.
Newcomb said that it could be that the kinds of breast cancer that moderate drinkers were getting may be more responsive to existing hormone-reduction therapies, which increases their survival rate. Fancy living somewhere with low taxes, affordable real estate and a reasonable cost of living? Patients with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) and Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI) scores of 4, 5 or 6 may be considered for treatment with surgical excision only. Patients with DCIS and VNPI scores of 10, 11, or 12 have been shown to exhibit high local recurrence rates, regardless of radiation therapy, and may be considered for mastectomy. Patients with early-stage breast cancer may undergo primary breast surgery (lumpectomy or mastectomy) and regional lymph node excision with or without radiation therapy (RT). Adjuvant systemic therapy may be offered, following definitive local treatment, and is based on the characteristics of the primary breast cancer, such as tumor size, grade, number of involved lymph nodes, the status of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and expression of the HER2 receptor.
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) includes ‘lumpectomy’ or ‘breast-conserving surgery’ (BCS) plus radiation therapy (RT). The aim of BCT is to give the patient the survival equivalent of a mastectomy but to provide a better cosmetic result.
Successful BCT requires a complete surgical excision of the breast cancer with negative excision margins, followed by moderate-dose, local radiotherapy (RT) to eradicate any residual tumor. Mastectomy is performed for women who are not suitable for Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT) or who prefer to have removal of the breast. It must be such a difficult decision to have to choose between having a breast lump removed or a mastectomy. I know Jessica, but sadly a very personal decision that far too many women still have to face.
There are always the specialists to guide you with a few facts and figures and sometimes a bit of TLC too. The likelihood of breast cancer metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes depends upon the primary cancer type, grade, size, location and the presence of lymphatic invasion in the primary tumor. In all patients presenting with breast cancer and who have clinically suspicious axillary lymph nodes, the pre-operative clinical work-up will include axillary ultrasound and possibly fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of any suspicious lymph nodes or core needle biopsy (CNB). Basically, whether or not the lymph nodes are involved in the disease is a very important factor and can tell us a lot about both the nature of the cancer and the risk of spread.
Any patient with positive axillary lymph nodes that are found pre-operatively will have axillary lymph node dissection during definitive surgery. If the pre-operative assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is negative, a sentinel lymph node (SLN) only will be removed at the time of definitive surgery.


Radiotherapy is performed following Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT) or mastectomy in patients who are considered to be at greater risk of recurrence. The decision to use post-mastectomy radiotherapy will affect the choice of the type of mastectomy and the type and timing of any breast reconstruction. Survival studies have been done for women who have had axillary lymph node dissection and mastectomy, with and without radiotherapy. The tissue characteristics of the breast cancer will determine which patients may be likely to benefit from the different types of adjuvant therapy. Patients with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) –positive breast cancer may benefit from the use of hormone therapy. What on earth do those troublesome hormones, that cause me so much strife, have to do with a breast lump? Hormone receptors for both estrogen and progesterone are proteins, found in and on breast cells, that pick up signals that tell the cells to grow. Adjuvant chemotherapy may or may not be added to hormone therapy or targeted therapy, in patients who have breast cancer with ‘high risk’ factors for recurrence.
Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is ER, PR and HER2 negative, may be offered chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer can benefit from treatment with a HER2 targeted drug such as trastuzumab (Herceptin®), with or without pertuzumab (Perjeta®). Locally advanced breast cancer is non-metastatic, with the staging classification as stage IIB, IIIA to IIIC (T3, N0) but has a high risk of local recurrence and metastasis. The multiple therapeutic approaches for each patient are made possible by the co-ordinated approach of the Multi-disciplinary team (MDT). Some patients may be considered for primary surgery, but most will be treated with neo-adjuvant therapy first.
Studies have shown that neo-adjuvant therapy for locally advanced breast cancer can increase long-term disease-free survival and increase overall survival when compared to primary surgery followed by adjuvant therapy. HER2 or Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 is a protein caused by a gene mutation in cancer cells that promote growth. The use of endocrine therapy in the neo-adjuvant role in patients with ER and PR- positive breast cancer is controversial but may be considered if there are clinical contraindications to the use of chemotherapy. Surgery is advised for all patients following neo-adjuvant therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Following neo-adjuvant therapy, the surgical choice will be to perform either mastectomy or breast conservation surgery (BCS).
Following neo-adjuvant surgery, all patients with locally advanced breast cancer will have a surgical evaluation of the regional lymph nodes.
Post-operative systemic adjuvant therapy is determined by the clinical status of the patient and the characteristics of the breast cancer. Patients who did not receive pre-operative neo-adjuvant therapy will receive post-operative adjuvant therapy.
Patients with breast tumors that are ER and PR –positive may receive hormone therapy post-operatively to reduce the risk of recurrence.
Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer may receive a year’s post-operative treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin®) instead of chemotherapy. Patients who have been given pre-operative neo-adjuvant hormone therapy may continue with this as post-operative neo-adjuvant therapy, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. With the implementation of the breast screening program, it has become rare for patients to present with Stage IV metastatic breast cancer.
The rarity of stage IV breast cancer is really good news and shows the importance and effectiveness of the breast screening program. For patients diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer, the median survival is 18 to 24 months, although the range can be from only a few months to several years. If you’re facing a Stage IV diagnosis belief in recovery is essential, as is a good diet and lots of sleep. Follow-up studies have shown that between 5 % and 10 % of patients with stage IV metastatic breast cancer survive for 5 years or more and between 2 % and 5 % become long-term survivors (Greenberg et al., 1996). Once the diagnosis of breast cancer has been made on cytology or biopsy and tumor metastases have been identified, systemic treatment approaches may begin.
However, resection of the primary tumor in the breast in stage IV breast disease can provide prevent or limit bleeding, ulceration or infection (Carmichael et al., 2003).
Targeted therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin®) and Pertuzumab (Perjeta®) combined with chemotherapy. Participation in clinical trials for new targeted therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Breast cancer patients who have completed treatment will undergo regular clinical follow-up to exclude symptoms and signs that may indicate recurrence or metastasis. Annual mammography will also be performed in patients who have had breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Having a mammogram is stressful at the best of times but waiting for the results, especially after cancer treatment, must cause a lot of anxiety.
The routine use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or whole-breast ultrasound is not usually recommended for breast cancer survivors because of the lack of evidence of patient benefit. Patients with early-stage breast cancer have a better prognosis than those with locally advanced disease.
There is no evidence that follow-up laboratory tests or whole-body imaging in breast cancer patients, who have survived and who are asymptomatic, is beneficial. That must be really tough – to have beat cancer once only for it to come back again many years later.
According to TNM stage, studies have calculated the 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer by stage (Newman, 2009). For patients who present with synchronous breast cancer (bilateral breast cancer diagnosed simultaneously), the prognosis has been recently shown to be no different from that of patients presenting with unilateral breast cancer. For patients who present with multi-focal breast cancer (invasive tumors identified within the same breast quadrant) or with multi-centric breast cancer (invasive tumors identified in separate breast quadrants) some reports have shown poorer and others have shown no difference in prognosis (Nichol et al., 2011).
As such, the need for a better understanding of its use and outcomes is essential towards optimization of cancer care. They observed that in 2011, up to 12% of all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients chose to preform a bilateral mastectomy, even though they were uncertain if this approach was better than the remaining alternatives.
Furthermore, a mastectomy is a major procedure that can require significant recovery time and may entail breast reconstruction, whereas a lumpectomy is much less invasive with a shorter recovery period,” lead author Allison Kurian, MD, an assistant professor of medicine and of health research and policy at Stanford also added in the press release. We can ask and answer questions that couldn’t be answered in a randomized clinical trial”, Dr. It’s an important piece of evidence that can guide their decision-making process,” concluded Dr.
She graduated with a BS in Genetics from the University of Newcastle and received her Masters in Biomolecular Archaeology from the University of Manchester, England. A new study finds that’s not true—that quitting is advantageous even after such a dire diagnosis. Those who quit had a 33% lower mortality rate from breast cancer than those who kept smoking.
Then in 1968, Virginia Slims were marketed to young professional women with the slogan “You’ve come a long way, baby.” Soon after, other brands and advertising geared toward hooking female smokers appeared. The Collaborative Breast Cancer and Women’s Longevity Study included 20,691 women, aged 20–79 years, diagnosed with incident localized or regional invasive breast cancer between 1988 and 2008. Data collected from subjects included whether they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime, how old they were when they began smoking, and the average number of cigarettes they smoked daily.
Hazard ratios were calculated according to smoking status for death as a result of not only breast cancer but also cancers of the lung, pharynx, or intrathoracic organs, along with other cancers as well as respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
Ostroff, PhD, chief of the behavioral sciences service and director of the Tobacco Treatment Program at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York, agrees. He is a frequent contributor to the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, where "Continuing To Smoke After Breast Cancer Diagnosis Lowers Survival Rate" was recently published.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
I personally know women that have been affected, and if you’re reading this blog post you may have been personally affected or know someone that has. Insurance companies use a flat extra in situations where they want to charge an additional fee on top of the regular premium. In these cases you will likely pay a “flat extra” if your treatment was within the last 3-5 years.


In these cases, you may want to consider a graded death benefit policy, which I’ll discuss now.
Graded death benefit life insurance policies have a waiting period of 2-3 years from the time of purchase, before 100% of the death benefit is in effect. We will evaluate your situation and recommend the life insurance company that will offer you the best coverage at the best price. Meaning – it’s possible that after having your policy for a year or two, you will be able to get a better rate by reapplying with the same carrier, or another insurance company. His mission is to help individuals across the country in finding the best rates on life insurance as well as helping individuals with high risk life insurance. However, the study published April 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology showed that consuming alcohol had no affect on the person's survival rate. In 2013, about 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 64,640 new cases of non-invasive cancer called carcinoma in situ (CIS) will be found. It was a population-based study on breast cancer risk factors conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Women who drank in moderation -- meaning three to six drinks per week -- before their cancer diagnosis were 15 percent less likely to die from cardiovascular disease than non-drinkers. In addition, those who drank alcohol in moderation after diagnosis had a 39 to 50 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Pamela Goodwin, an oncologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada, told Reuters that this means women with breast cancer can make a lifestyle choice to drink and not worry as much. Patients with intermediate scores of 7, 8, or 9 may be considered for treatment with radiation therapy or for re-excision if previous surgical margin width is less than 10 mm, provided that a re-excision is cosmetically feasible.
It has replaced radical mastectomy as the preferred treatment in early stage breast cancer. In a recent meta-analysis study of more than 3,700 women with invasive breast cancer who have had mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance, there was a reduction in cancer recurrence in those who had received post-mastectomy radiotherapy (EBCTDG, 2014). Before deciding to give adjuvant therapy, the oncologist or surgeon takes an evidence-based approach for each patient to improve symptoms and survival. This is why the current management of locally advanced breast cancer combines local surgical treatments with systemic treatments for most patients.
For patients with HER2 –positive breast cancer, a HER2 targeted agent (trastuzumab [Herceptin®] with or without pertuzumab [Perjeta®)]) may be given with chemotherapy. The decision will be made based on treatment response and the size of the residual tumor in relation to breast size. Complete remissions when systemic chemotherapy is used are uncommon, and only a fraction of complete responders remain progression-free for a prolonged period.
These long-term survivors with stage IV breast cancer tend to be young, with limited metastatic disease. Book your mammograms and go together for a bit of mutual support is my advice to all women. In general terms the prognosis for patients with recurrent breast cancer has improved over the last 25 years.
We were able to address these questions using data from the California Cancer Registry, which covers nearly all women diagnosed with breast cancer in the state.
She later returned to Portugal where she finished her PhD in immunotherapy at the University of Lisbon. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This is one of the largest studies of survival outcomes based on smoking habits in women with a breast cancer diagnosis who included their smoking habits both before and after receiving the news of their diagnosis. The researchers compared the causes of death of four groups of women: those who never smoked, smokers who quit before diagnosis, smokers who quit after diagnosis, and smokers who continued to smoke after diagnosis.
Specifically, breast cancer patients may find it too hard to focus on quitting, and some believe it is just too late to make a meaningful improvement in long-term prognosis. Edelman, MD, vice president for Health Sciences and professor of preventive medicine, internal medicine, and physiology and biophysics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The good news is that survival rates for breast cancer are increasing, and there are about 3 million breast cancer survivors in the U.S. For example if you have had stage 2 or 3 cancer, a life insurance company might “postpone” coverage for a certain length of time following successful treatment. Typically in the first few years of coverage your death benefit will be a return of all premiums paid plus additional interest. The reason for this is that the more time has passed since treatment of your cancer, the better the offer will be in terms of price.
What's more, women who were moderate drinkers before and after their diagnosis were shown to have a significant boost in survival. Th study kicked off in 1988, and a subset of about 5,000 women in the study were followed up with between 1998 and 2001 and given questionnaires about their alcohol consumption habits. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in breast cancer survivors, the authors pointed out. Goodwin, who wrote a commentary to go with the study, agreed that it is plausible that women who drink alcohol may be more likely to get a less-dangerous form of breast cancer. Breast cancer treatment is always individually tailored to each specific case and the treatment suggestions outlined above are research-based guidelines only.
However, the treatment of small breast cancers that measure ? 1 cm in diameter is controversial, with any benefit remaining unproven.
For these patients, combined therapy, including surgery, may provide an improved long-term, progression-free survival (PFS) than chemotherapy alone. Don’t forget to repeat the whole process on getting the results (whatever they turn out to be). The registry is enhanced with information on factors that may influence a treatment decision, including their socioeconomic status, health insurance and where they received their care”, senior author Scarlett Gomez, PhD, research scientist at CPIC said in a Stanford University press release. Her postdoctoral work is focused on research in cancer and the emerging field of immunotherapy. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. He is also executive vice president and chief medical officer of the American Lung Association. In this blog post I’ll discuss options for life insurance after breast cancer, what questions you should be prepared to answer to get an accurate cost, and explain how life insurance companies price life insurance post breast cancer.
For example, if you had low grade breast cancer and just finished treatment within the last few months you can potentially get approved for coverage. For example, if you have had stage 2 cancer, it would not be uncommon for a life insurance company to postpone coverage for a minimum of 5 years following treatment. By evaluating your policy on a yearly basis, you may be able to save money or get better coverage for the same money.
Moderate wine consumption was best associated with the lowest cardiovascular disease mortality risk. This would make their survival rates higher than the average non-drinker who gets a more deadly form of the disease. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. If you would like to get a quote specifically based on your situation, just fill out the form right below this paragraph. A Life insurance company may charge you a “flat extra” fee for the first 5 years of the policy. In these cases you would need to pursue a graded death benefit policy, which I’ll cover later in this blog post. Drinking beer or spirits wasn't shown to have any additional benefits, nor was drinking heavily. She posited that the results may also be due to the fact that women who drink moderately may have a healthier lifestyle that non or heavy drinkers. Since you present more risk to the insurance company right after treatment,(as opposed to 3 or 4 years later without additional complications) the flat extra allows the insurance company to take on that risk by charging you a fee for a certain period of time.



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