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Our vision is to deliver an innovative Essential Skills program to the Aboriginal Community through employer partnerships and customized training that supports employment success and retention; Essential Skills for Aboriginal Futures (ESAF) an Access (Aboriginal Community Employment Services Society) program and funded by the Government of Canada.
All of our programs include a customized essential skills classroom experience which is tailored to meet both learner and employer interests. An eight-week program that builds targeted foundational workplace Essential Skills identified for specific employment positions.A  Upon completion learners are provided interviews for prospective hires with the Employer Partner.
A two-week targeted, structured and supported program where learners gain job search skills that enable them to effectively tap into the workforce.
A two-week career discovery program, where learners identify their career goals and make informed career decisions. While overt protection strategies based on physical or visual inspection remains an important part of verifying authenticity, covert methods using specialized materials and detection schemes have been devised for high value goods including currency3 and pharmaceuticals.4 Forensic methods requiring laboratory analysis for authentication are of particular interest, as the overall complexity of observation serves as a counterfeiting deterrent. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has recently been used in security applications since it produces non-destructive visual representations of mass profiles that can be compared to samples known to be genuine.11 For example, Cooks et al.
To validate our system, we first deposited gold NP 1 onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides, commonly used in IMS.11b,14 The ions from the gold core as well as ions from the surface ligands were successfully detected.
To further investigate the capability of this inkjet printing technique, we printed separate inks in one printing cycle.
Since the pattern above could in theory be determined simply by scanning for Au+ or Au2+, we printed two different patterns superimposed on each other on the same NALDI substrate area.
In summary, we have developed an efficient security strategy using the mass signature barcode of functionalized gold nanoparticles to provide discernible patterns through LDI-IMS.
Footnote† Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle synthesis, ink formulation, and LDI-IMS procedures.
They provide the foundation for learning all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change.


You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. These patterns can only be visualized by mass, providing a robust yet tunable system for potential anti-counterfeiting applications. Destructive chemical analysis of the material by thin layer chromatography,5 liquid chromatography,6 and gas chromatography7 can identify the inks and pigments used in the material; these methods are however unattractive where sample preservation is needed.
Recent work by our groups has shown that surface ligands attached to gold NPs are ionized far more efficiently than the ligand alone due to the particle’s strong absorbance at wavelengths (i.e.
The ligands featured a thiol bonding group for the gold nanoparticles, an alkane chain to stabilize the ligand shell, an oligo(ethylene) glycol to aid water solubility, and a variable ammonium group with a flexible mass head group to provide distinctive mass signatures.
A commercially available Nano Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (NALDI™) surface was employed in the following experiments.15 For our study, we deposited four different gold NP inks onto the NALDI substrate to investigate their use as an anti-counterfeiting technique.
By using inkjet printing, we can create surfaces that can be quickly altered either by modifying the physical pattern or by changing the functional gold NPs used. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier.
Furthermore, the solvent needed for analysis can often alter the integrity of the response providing unreliable results.
Designing a system where a manufacturer can incorporate a specific chemical signature into their security inks whose pattern can be visualized only through IMS provides a significant challenge for the counterfeiter. 337 nm and 355 nm) commonly used in commercially available mass spectrometers.13 We report here the use of surface ligands with unique structures and mass fingerprints as “mass barcodes” to identify gold NPs (Scheme 1). The chemical structures of the particles and the corresponding MS spectra are shown in Fig.
2a, we show the successful patterning of our gold nanoparticle inks as the specified pattern can be seen when analyzed for the Au+ signal.


The diversity of mass options coupled with the efficiency of the “read” process makes this strategy promising for a wide variety of covert anti-counterfeiting applications. Ambient, non-destructive analysis techniques such as infrared reflectance,8 microscope ATR-infrared spectroscopy,9 and Raman spectroscopy10 have been used to verify authenticity, although the broader use of these methods is limited due to the lack of specific chemical information, limiting the output diversity.
These ligands can be altered through a wide range of synthetic means, providing flexible and tunable masses for detection by LDI-IMS. Scanning for both the Au2+ signal and the NP 1 ligand also provided the correct image as seen in Fig. 3a shows a LDI-IMS searching for just the mass barcode for NP 1, indicating no visible response from the other printed gold NP inks.
Moreover, different ligands can be employed to provide multiple channels for higher security as well as higher density of information reporting.
3b–d also show minimal response from the other mass barcodes, however, combining all of these scans provides us with the image of interest (Fig. The correct pattern was visible only when the surface was scanned for the correct mass signature of the gold NPs. This demonstrates the ability of inkjet printing to deposit multiple nanoparticle patterns onto the same portion of a substrate, providing unique and sophisticated mass signatures.
This image can only be obtained by analyzing for each of the four mass barcodes, greatly reducing the ability of the counterfeiter to visualize the image.




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