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Russian scientists claim to have grown a plant from the fruit of an arctic flower that froze 32,000 years ago in the Arctic.
It’s not altogether clear why fruits have changed less than vegetables, but it might have something to do with their evolutionary purpose. Just because there are some paleolithic fruits in production today doesn’t mean you can easily mimic the paleolithic diet. Explainer thanks George Armelagos and Craig Hadley of Emory University, Bryce Carlson and Jules Janick of Purdue University, Naama Goren of Hebrew University, Susanna Hoffman of Hoffman Consulting, Mordechai Kislev of Bar-Ilan University, Yusheng (Christopher) Liu of East Tennessee State University, Katherine M.
Since wolves must conserve energy on their hunts, they do not go after the strongest beast in a herd. Jordan: Let’s begin with a simple question: What do we mean by the term “human-wildlife conflict”?
Conflict can also occur when wildlife—both native and introduced—impacts human infrastructure and economies. In the final analysis it is difficult to blame wildlife for human-wildlife conflict, because the animals are simply, doing what animals do. Jordan: The interactions between humans and wildlife and the perceptions of wildlife held by various stakeholders can heavily influence management and policy programs aimed at conserving imperiled species. In today’s world, for many species, we can expect human-wildlife-conflict to increase in direct proportion to conservation success.
How animals are perceived by humans is a major factor contributing to the development of wildlife management and conservation policy.
Michael: As with virtually anything involved with conservation, there have been some successes and some failures.
Regulated hunting is another way to prevent human-wildlife conflict, not only in that it reduces the numbers of problem animals, and perhaps even more importantly, prevents animals from becoming habituated to and thus more dangerous to humans. Another example of conflict is bird-aircraft collisions; birds, such as the ubiquitous Canada goose, can threaten human safety and lives when they collide with flying aircraft in the vicinity of airports. Sometimes attempts to manage human-wildlife conflict a priori through lethal control have gone too far. New technologies may revolutionize our ability to manage human-wildlife conflict non-lethally, at least for some species.
Predator compensation programs are an example of a post-hoc (after the fact) approach to reducing human-wildlife conflict.
Jordan: You have traveled extensively and have seen the plight of both people and wildlife as they attempt to coexist in an increasingly crowded world.
Michael: I’ve already given you several examples from around the globe, so instead I’d like to concentrate on why it is so difficult to address human-wildlife conflict in developing countries. So, how do we protect people and their crops and livestock from large carnivores and herbivores?
Jordan: Road ecology is an emerging field, but few people are familiar with this applied scientific discipline. Michael: Yes, road ecology is a fascinating topic and one that has important implications for wildlife conservation. Jordan: In the minds of the general public, the notion of human-wildlife conflict often conjures up aggressive encounters between humans and wild carnivores, but these interactions are actually quite rare in North America relative to some other places around the world, where wild carnivores often seriously injure or kill humans and are later killed as retribution. Michael: Large carnivores represent some of the most complex challenges when it comes to human-wildlife conflict. You are correct in stating that the problem of human-large carnivore conflict is minimal in North America when compared to other areas of the world. One idea is to set aside the Sundarbans as a reserve and limit the number of people that can enter.
By far the best way to decrease human-tiger conflict is to give the animals large reserves that have plenty of prey, thus decreasing the potential for human-tiger encounters. Surely radically improved education and dependence on renewable and sustainable resources would be a better solution than suggesting population control or depopulation.
Too often negative conflicts can be easily solved but their answers are woefully overlooked. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others share stories, insights and ideas about our living planet's rapidly changing geography. Fulbright-National GeographicThe Fulbright-National Geographic Digital Storytelling Fellowship provides a unique platform for U.S.
Follow the links on the sidebar of any of the blog's pages for details and tips on how to apply for a Fellowship. Featured Research: Mushara Elephant ProjectCaitlin O'Connell and her husband, Tim Rodwell, started the Mushara Elephant Project in Namibia 24 years ago to better understand elephant social structure, communication and health in order to apply this knowledge to improved care in captivity and ultimately to elephant conservation in the wild. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Bites from venomous snakes require anti-venom medicines administered only by medical professionals. There are well over 3,000 known species of snakes in the world, with the number increasing as new ones are discovered. Snakes that live in temperate climates undergo a kind of hibernation known as brumation in the winter.
At first glance, it would seem that all snakes are built the same way, just in different sizes and colors; however, on closer examination, differences in body plan can be found, determined by the environment in which the snakes live.
Snakes often inspire fear in humans, but they will generally do their best to avoid people. Venomous snakes do pose a potential hazard, but they will not attack people unless they feel threatened, and cannot escape.
I have a family of raccoons (a HUGE mama and her five babies) who come out every night and steal my cats' food and make a general mess (plus they scare the bejesus out of my wife!). Feral cats tend to be nocturnal, but are sometimes sighted during the day – primarily in the early morning and twilight hours.
Feral housecats are very prolific, producing up to three litters of 2 to 10 kittens per year. Feral kittens can make very nice pets, especially if they can be captured when they are very young (6-8 weeks).
Last year, paleoanthropologists found bits of date stuck in the teeth of a 40,000-year-old Neanderthal. Many of the ones we eat today have undergone profound changes at the hands of human farmers.
Plants developed sugary fruits millions of years ago so that sweet-toothed mammals would gobble them up and disseminate the seeds. Modern apples, dates, figs, and pears aren’t necessarily nutritionally equivalent to their late Stone Age ancestors. The truth is, they typically go after the very young, the very old, the sick, the slow, and the weak. Rabbits, squirrels, and other such forest creatures are frequently going to be meals for wolves. This might seem strange for a carnivore, but in the wild, a predator is not going to be too selective about what it eats.Another fact about the eating habits of wolves is that they are willing to eat carrion.
This might range from offensive smells coming from the accumulation of bat guano in one’s attic to raccoons or black bears turning over garbage cans and spreading their contents across your lawn to deer or rabbits eating your expensive ornamental plants or produce grown in a backyard garden.
On the other hand, if humans view wildlife as pests, as damaging to their livelihoods, or as a danger to their community or family, then wildlife is going to lose.
Generally, the greater the negative impact wildlife has on human lives and livelihoods, the greater the perception of wild animals as “pests”, as opposed to valued components of our environment. The basic concept behind HWCC was to share information and improve responses to human-wildlife conflict through consultation, not only among wildlife professionals and between their organizations, but also with economic and social development organizations, land use planners, agribusiness, and other key decision makers. Such conflict occurs in developing regions of the world as well as in more developed areas.
In southern Florida, for example, negative interactions between humans and alligators are comparatively rare given the large populations of both.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) maintains a database on wildlife strikes on aircraft. They have several tools at their disposal, the success of which varies with the circumstance.
Can you provide some examples of lesser-known negative human-wildlife interactions in some of the developing countries you have visited? Can you explain what it is and discuss some of what we have learned about managing wildlife in regard to our expanding network of roads here in North America and around the globe. The construction of a system of roads that allow us to drive from place to place or transport goods can have a number of direct and indirect effects on wildlife.
For example, fragmented habitats can be reconnected by using over- or under passes that allow the safe movement of animals across roads. Can you elaborate on the human-wild carnivore conflict and discuss the implications for carnivore conservation and wildlife conservation in general?
First, as apex predators, with comparatively, large home ranges, they require a great deal of space.
But portions of the Sundarbans are already tiger reserves with no permanent human settlements.
With the former attitude, you reduce human -human relationships and trust, as opposed to unifying with developing countries and offering them the technology that allows them to not make the same environmentally degrading mistakes that first world counties made in order to maximise their economies. From Darwin’s time upto date, nature has to control animal populations including humans yet man has ways to prevent nature from taking its course. Flow devices are cheap and efficient solutions to beaver flooding problems, and allowing those beavers to stay can let their own naturally territorial behaviors keep others away. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service.
Fulbright awardees to build awareness of transnational challenges, comparing and contrasting cross-border issues. O’Connell is on the faculty at Stanford University School of Medicine and CEO of the elephant-focused nonprofit, Utopia Scientific.

Geographically speaking, they are found in all the continents except Antarctica, but they are absent from a number of islands, including Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, and New Zealand.
Mammals, such as humans, can regulate their body temperatures internally, but snakes are dependent on their environment for maintaining a suitable temperature. These may be hollow tree trunks or stumps, caves, burrows within soil or sand, or under piles of leaves. They can live in forests, prairies, deserts or even bodies of water, but will typically be found where there is an ample supply of food, such as rodents, small reptiles, birds and frogs.
In tropical forest areas, many species live in trees, and these tend to have relatively long, slender bodies, suitable for wrapping around branches. The reptiles are very sensitive to vibration, and will respond to footsteps by quickly slithering off to a suitable hiding place. Snake bites are extremely unlikely when walking outdoors; the greatest risk is in disturbing a resting snake in its hiding place.
I understand that you want to poison those freaking raccoons that are causing you a headache.
I've tried everything short of trapping them, which doesn't much appeal to me (trapping five little raccoons and big mama?
How much do you charge for your trapping services, and do you guys work at night (they always come at about 10:00ish PM)?
They are fertile at 4-6 months of age, and they reproduce exponentially – one pair of breeding cats can potentially produce 420,000 offspring in just seven years! Extreme caution should be taken since feral mother cats are very protective and will vigorously defend their young. This particular plant doesn't produce an edible fruit analogous to an apple or nectarine, but rather a dry capsule that holds its seeds. There's evidence that several of the fruits we enjoy eating today have been around for millennia in much the same form. Consider the brassicas: Between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago, humans took a leafy green plant and, by selecting for different characteristics, began to transform it into several different products. By the time hominids descended from the African tree canopy, delicious fruits were widely available with no need for artificial selection. Selection by humans has made them larger and sweeter, and may have caused other chemical changes. The canine creature is often shown to be willing to eat anything it can sink its teeth into. Simply put, this is the best way for the wolf to increase its chances of actually getting a kill, eating, and surviving.The other incorrect assumption about what wolves eat would be the belief that wolves only hunt big game animals.
In his responses to my questions, the noted wildlife biologist provides an array of examples of conflict, solutions to some of these pressing conservation concerns, and some direction as to where we can go from here to advance efforts to mitigate the global problem facing our wildlife resources.
The challenge for conservationists is to somehow change those attitudes by offering practical and effective solutions. The primary focus of HWCC in recent years has been the development of an interactive workshop that applies techniques used to resolve human-human conflict to human-wildlife conflict. Here in North America, advances in wildlife management practices often prevent or subvert (thwart) would-be negative interactions between people and free-ranging wildlife. Some involve addressing the issue a priori, that is, before the negative interactions occur. Garbage had been a major attractant to bears, which placed them into close proximity to humans, thus increasing the probability of negative encounters. This is despite the fact that recreational activities involving water are very popular and bring humans and alligators into potential contact.
From 1990 to 2007, the number of recorded strikes on civilian aircraft went from 1,759 to 7,666, respectively.
The basic concept is that herders or ranchers that lose livestock to wild predators would not suffer any economic loss, which is a great idea in theory.
Are we making any progress in reducing such conflict between people and wildlife in these regions?
Even those that are better off are highly dependent on their crops and livestock for their and their family’s survival, particularly in rural areas. I’ve mentioned some of the recent innovations that people are using as non-lethal alternatives for addressing the issue. Fencing can also be used to direct animals to safer places to cross or prevent wildlife-vehicle collisions in areas of highest risk. Current Indian wildlife protection laws state that animals must be saved unless the tiger is a repeat offender and no hope exists for rehabilitation. Nonetheless, thousands of people still feel the need to travel into the area to collect resources, such as fish, honey and wood. However, setting aside vast tracts of land has become increasingly difficult in countries like India and Bangladesh that have rapidly growing human populations. I believe we can set aside room for nature of we are more radical in our approach to environmental and conservation issues.
My own city installed a flow device 5 years ago and now because of beaver-created wetlands we regularly see otter, heron, steelhead, woodduck and even mink in our tiny urban stream. Explore the list alongside to dive deeper into some of the most popular categories of the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. A grantee of the National Geographic Society, she is also an award-winning author of six books about elephants. Read Caitlin's dispatches from Mushara. Snakes live in a wide variety of habitats, but are restricted in their distribution because, like other reptiles, they are cold-blooded and therefore have less control over their body temperatures than mammals.
When they get too hot, they move into the shade, and when they are too cool, they move into a sunny area. It does not need to eat, and can survive many months without food, but it will emerge from time to time to drink water. Often, decaying organic matter in these places will give out some heat, keeping the temperature above freezing point.
Those that spend most of their time on the ground are more compact, with bodies made for burrowing. Even in areas where these creatures are common, people may never see one, and might pass very close by one without being aware of it. In areas where venomous snakes are known to occur, caution should be exercised in reaching into natural crevices or, in populated areas, anything in which a snake might hide, such as pot, a pile of household rubbish or garden waste, or even an old boot.
Poisoning animals that are not on the label for a product is illegal, and you could cause some serious damage to the wildlife around your home.
They feed extensively on native animals such as birds, rodents, reptiles, rabbits and other wildlife. However, life is not easy for feral housecats and, for the most part, they have an extremely short lifespan (about 3 to 5 years, as opposed to 15-20+ years in captivity).
For example, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of 780,000-year-old figs at a site in Northern Israel, as well as olives, plums, and pears from the paleolithic era. Modern kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi are all members of the same species, derived from a single prehistoric plant variety.
Since vegetables gain nothing from being eaten, they didn't experience the same pressure to evolve delectable roots, stems, and leaves.
Ancient man also ate plants that you can’t find at a grocery store, like ferns and cattails. If a wolf eats a salmon, for example, that is stuck swimming upstream, a wolf may make a meal out of it.Wolves might even eat very small prey.
Large carnivores, such as lions, jaguars, leopards, wolves, and crocodilians kill and eat domestic livestock.
Can you explain some of the success we have had here in the United States with regard to mitigating human-wildlife conflict?
The development of bear-proof containers has helped to alleviate this problem, as has improved regulations and public education. The entire database contains records of 82,057 strikes, of which the vast majority involved birds (97.5%). When hunger pangs arrive, they cannot simply saunter down to the local MacDonald’s to order a hamburger and fries. Depending on the type of animal and amount of vehicular traffic present, roads can be risky to cross or completely impenetrable. When natural prey populations dwindle, the animals will seek other alternatives, including domestic livestock and even humans.
Sometimes man-eaters are live- captured and translocated to other more remote reserves, though the success of this is often minimal, with the newly introduced cats being killed when crossing into the territory of an existing tiger.
Unfortunately, tigers will still venture onto the periphery of their range and enter plantations and other areas that are frequented by people. Meet the Fellows and follow their adventures across the world on the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling blog. A snake must regulate its temperature by seeking out warmer or cooler conditions, as required. It is easier for them to live in areas where the temperature does not drop below 50°F (10°C), and, although they can survive at temperatures close to freezing point, they are not thought to be able to survive if their body temperatures drop below freezing. Sometimes a snake will share a hiding place with many others: this helps to keep temperatures up. While some types — for example, boa constrictors — will squeeze their prey to death before eating it, most unhinge their jaw and swallow their prey alive. For people with an interest in snakes, often the best chance of observation is when one is sunning itself on open ground or a rock, to keep up its body temperature. If a raccoon did eat the rat poison, that animal would might leave the home and die in the woods where other animals would eat its remains and then become ill. This of course lowers the carrying capacity of the area for native animal predators that belong here, such as raccoons, foxes, bobcats and coyotes.
Researchers have also dug up grapes that appear to be 7 million years old in northeastern Tennessee (although, oddly, the grapes are morphologically more similar to today’s Asian varieties than the modern grapes considered native to North America). Wild carrots may predate human agriculture, but they’re unpalatable and look nothing like the cultivated variety.
His relative dietary proportions of meats, nuts, fruits, and vegetables are in dispute, and probably varied significantly with location. In some cases, wildlife may pose a threat not only to human livelihoods, but also to human lives and well-being.

This is not surprising given the fact that human populations continue to expand, pushing wildlife into increasingly smaller areas of “natural” habitat and bringing humans and wildlife into more frequent contact. Based on evaluations and testimonials by participants, the workshops have been successful, but it remains to be verified that this is resulting in effective on-the-ground action. Solutions can also be post hoc, meaning that the problem is addressed after the negative interactions occur.
Around 12% (9,814) of these strikes caused damage to the aircraft, and in 2,700 of these incidents, the damage was considered substantial. This might, for example, involve reducing goose-grazing activity in an area by providing an alternative feeding site and then hazing the geese off the site, as for example, by using trained dogs, where grazing is unwanted.
For example, in order to be compensated, the owner must prove that his or her animal was killed by a wild predator.
When they leave their homes to travel by foot, they may be threatened by large, dangerous animals, which that have the ability to kill or seriously injure them or their family members.
Third, they are highly mobile and can travel long distances in a relatively short time span. In one experiment, human figures were erected and hooked up to a battery, so that when tigers attacked they received a powerful shock. They are more efficient in warm weather, and in tropical areas, they can be active throughout the year. In populated areas, snakes may occasionally venture into human dwellings or other buildings, such as huts, sheds or garages, or into piles of rubbish or garden waste, with a view to spending the winter there. A snake’s teeth are pointed backward, which prevents the live prey from darting out of the snake’s mouth before it swallows. If it didn’t die outside, the raccoon might just crawl into the unreachable places in your home before it takes its last breath. Apple trees blanketed Kazakhstan 30,000 years ago, oranges were common in China, and wild berries grew in Europe. The earliest domesticated carrots were probably purple, and the orange carrot emerged in the 17th century. Some paleoanthropologists also believe hunter-gatherers ate a far wider variety of foods than modern man, each in a smaller quantity, to minimize the risk of poisoning. Examples of a priori approaches include the proper containment or protection of human food sources so that wildlife cannot access it.
Public feeding, when the public wishes to interact directly with wildlife, thus bringing them into closer proximity, is particularly problematic. All of these help to prevent the association between humans and food, hence also reducing the chance of habituation and maintaining a healthy fear of humans in alligators. Large carnivores are critical to functioning ecosystems and regulated hunting as a method of population and behavior management must be science-based and sustainable (Peek, J. The devise has been used in Alaska on habituated bears and looks to be an extremely valuable new tool for wildlife management. Given the condition of the kill site or what is left of the carcass, if anything, this may be difficult.
I’ve often wondered how relatively wealthy, good intentioned conservationists from developed countries would feel about having lions or leopards in their own back yards in areas where their children play? In the past, however, local people (those living with the animals) derived little benefit from tourism, with the profits from these operations going to large companies based in other countries and operated by foreigners. Individual animals attempting to cross roads in order to migrate, find food or mates, or return to their breeding grounds are not always successful as evidenced by the vast number of dead animals found on or near roads.
Last, but not least, they are stealthy, powerful and efficient killers, which pose a direct threat to both humans and their domestic livestock and pets.
In In 1975-1985, 425 people were reportedly killed by tigers in the Indian Sundarbans and another 187 were killed by tigers in Bangladesh (McDougal, C. In another, the Indian government issued groups of workers masks to be worn on the back of their heads, and surprisingly, because tigers prefer to attack prey from the back, the idea worked.
This is somewhat karmic, as you will need to find the raccoon and remove it or your house will stink for months.
None of these fruits were identical to the modern varieties, but they would have been perfectly edible.
Food is not always easy to come by for a predator, which is why a wolf must accept whatever food source it can find.
This ranges from rodent- and insect-proof grain storage containers to predator-proof fences that keep livestock safe. Not surprisingly, when people feed wild animals, the animals come to perceive humans as a source of food. Negative interactions still occur and people do not always follow the rules; however, in the absence of active management, the situation could be much worse. In some situations, especially those that involve a high risk to human safety, wildlife professionals have recommended lethal control, such as hunting or live-capture and euthanasia to reduce goose numbers. In fact, large animals find the experience so distasteful that they appear to totally avoid the location of their experience and humans, in general, after only one application. If large carnivores, such as lions, grizzly bears, and tigers are going to survive into the future, then it is critical that every effort be made to promote coexistence and prevent negative interactions—a goal that is becoming increasingly difficult in a world dominated by human influences. Human-wildlife conflict will likely continue to be one of the most significant impediments to the conservation of large carnivores worldwide.
Instead of dealing with the mess of a decomposing raccoon, it’s easier to trap the animal alive and relocate it.
In North America, fatal encounters between humans and grizzly bears, though comparatively rare, are well known (Herrero, S.
Over time, this can lead to habituation, wherein the animals become increasingly comfortable around humans and do not view them as a threat.
For example, following the recent US Airways incident at LaGuardia Airport in which a bird-aircraft collision brought down a large jet, New York City ordered as many as 2,000 geese rounded up and euthanized by the U.S. Similarly, a young boy in Kenya recently came up with an innovation that could reduce human-lion conflict—LED lights that flicker on and off giving the impression of a person moving with a flashlight in hand. Combined with a lack of adequate law enforcement, these factors make it difficult to address human-wildlife conflict in many areas of the world, as local people are often taking matters into their own hands.
Wildlife can then be seen as a valued resource, one that warrants protection and conservation. In the United States alone, there are an estimated 1.3 million deer-vehicle collisions annually, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars and in both human and deer lives. A major question becomes how can we maintain the tenuous balance that exists between large carnivores and humans? This practice is illegal without a license in some states, but there are many wildlife removal companies that could help out.
While some people would see this as a positive outcome, it is, in fact, when animals become the most dangerous. Rather than indiscriminate killing, new approaches have attempted to focus lethal control solely on problem animals. When animals have a healthy fear of people, they keep their distance and negative interactions are less frequent, only occurring during rare chance encounters.
These geese were living in public parks and other open areas near the city’s two busy airports.
For example, the livestock protection collar is a relatively new tool used to selectively kill coyotes that attack sheep or goats. In their efforts to keep elephants from decimating their crops, innovative African farmers have installed beehives on their farms. But, the tigers eventually adapted and the method was less successful; in one later fatal attack on a mask wearer the tiger attacked from the side rather than the rear. These are non-lethal approaches; however, depending on the circumstances, lethal approaches also have been utilized. In the case of many animals, such as wolves and coyotes, the habituation process is known to follow a predictable pattern. First, the animals are attracted to humans by the presence of food, which brings them into close proximity. Perhaps, however, this is a difficult argument to make to the families of those that are, in fact, killed by tigers. If these initial interactions are positive, the next stage often involves “testing”, wherein the animals may approach even closer and perhaps nip at humans, assessing their reactions.
Because of their design and position on the throat, most attacking coyotes will puncture the collar and ingest a lethal dose of the toxicant.
Elephants find hot peppers unpalatable and, when planted as a buffer around crops, they can discourage elephants from foraging in the area.
Clearly, predator control is a complex and difficult issue, which may vary from circumstance to circumstance. The final stage might involve an all-out attack, wherein the animals treat humans as prey (Geist, V. 1080 is slow acting, and a coyote ingesting the toxicant do not exhibit symptoms or die for several hours. I often wonder whether we would still have grizzly bears in North America if the toll on human life were that substantial. A similar controversy is now playing out as the numbers of wolves increases across the western and north-central U.S. Large predators are key to the health of functioning ecosystems, as they keep prey populations in check (Unger, K. The collar is registered only for use against coyotes and may be placed only on sheep or goats.
Overpopulation of herbivores can result in over-browsing and grazing and alter the composition of entire plant communities.
So the basic question becomes: how many coyotes or wolves are too many, and how can populations be managed sustainably, while still maintaining the tenuous balance between humans and large carnivores?

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