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This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr.
Herbert Spencer Quote“This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. On the other hand, we may feel sure that any variation in the least degree injurious would be rigidly destroyed. Evolution Evolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. Darwins Observations Living Organisms and Fossils Darwin collected and preserved fossils Darwin collected and preserved fossils Fossils resembled organisms that were still alive – other looked completely unlike any creature he had ever seen.
Darwins Observations The Galapagos Islands The Galapagos Islands Most influenced Darwin Most influenced Darwin Although islands were so close together, the islands had very different climates. Darwins Observations Galapagos Islands continued Saw that giant tortoises varied in predictable ways from one island to another. An Ancient, Changing Earth James Hutton and Charles Lyell Recognized that Earth is many millions of years old. Hutton and Lyell Volcanoes release hot lava and gases now, just as they did on an ancient Earth.
Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime. Lamarks Theory According to Lamarck's theory, a given giraffe could, over a lifetime of straining to reach high branches, develop an elongated neck. Population Growth Malthus (an economist) – observed that babies were being born faster than people were dying. Carrying Capacity The largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support. Darwins Arguments Natural Variation and Artificial Selection Argued that species were not perfect and unchanging. Darwins Arguments Natural Variation and Artificial Selection Artificial Selection: Nature provided the variation among different organisms, and humans selected those variations that they found useful.
Evolution by Natural Selection The Struggle for Existence: Means that members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life. Survival of the Fittest The concept of fitness, Darwin argued, was central to the process of evolution by natural selection. Evolution by Natural Selection Descent with Modification: Principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time. Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record Fossils that had formed in the different layers of rock were evidence of gradual change over time. Evidence of Evolution Geographic Distribution of Living Species Species now living on different continents had each descended from different ancestors.
Evidence of Evolution Similarities in Early Development In their early stages of development, chickens, turtles, and rats look similar, providing evidence that they shared a common ancestry.

Evidence of Evolution Homologous Structures: Structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues. Evidence for Evolution Vestigial Structures are structures that are the reduced forms of functional structures in different species. Analogous Structures Analogous structures can be superficially similar in construction, but are NOT inherited from a common ancestor. Analogous Structures * While analogous structures do not indicate close evolutionary relationships, they do show that functionally similar features can evolve independently in similar environments.
Evidence of Evolution Comparative Biochemistry- the more closely related species are the greater the number of amino acid sequences will be shared. Charles Robert Darwin, FRS was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. Through the process of evolution special adaptations are made to ensure the species survival. This preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations, I call Natural Selection. Beagle Sailed around the world Sailed around the world Made numerous observations Made numerous observations and collected evidence that and collected evidence that led him to propose his led him to propose his hypothesis.
However, because some animals on each continent were living under similar ecological conditions, they were exposed to similar pressures of natural selection. As animals evolve they become more and more complex, from one celled to multi cellular, from aquatic to land living, amphibian to reptile, the list is endless.
This means only the most adapted will pass on their genes, so their offspring will also be strong and well adapted.
The "hypothetical archimollusc", is the ansesctor of all mullusk and is predicted to have looked like the picture on the right. The law is not the survival of the 'better' or the 'stronger,' if we give to those words any thing like their ordinary meanings. But when abuse has gone too far, when the time of reckoning finally comes, she is equally slow to be appeased and to turn away her wrath.
It doesn't happen as often as it should, because scientists are human and change is sometimes painful. The shape of a tortoises shell could be used to identify which island a particular tortoise lived. And the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
He reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone. Presented evidence that demonstrating the process of evolution has been taking place for millions of year.
A predator that is the fastest or has a particular way of catching prey can catch more prey.

Darwin called the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment fitness.
Example: The wing of an eagle & the wing of a insect have the same function (both enable the organism to fly) – but are constructed in different ways & from different materials. Geographic distribution-distributions of fossils and living organisms found around the world. Yet it could also be viewed harmful, and that its means the animal must find more food to feed more muscle. While this animal is hypothetical, there are no fossils of it, it is very likely it exsisted and scientists have produced this diagram through extensive research of the mollusc anatomy and the course of evolution in general. Common Descent: The principle that says all species – living and extinct – were derived from common ancestors. These fossils are similar to some animals and plants today but seem more rudimentary, this is because the animal or plant has evolved and changed over time.
A change in DNA sequence results in a change of MRNA, which changes the codon, the amino acids and finally changes the proteins you're body are ordered to make.
Also said that awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of time.
Examples: Some cows gave more milk than others & some plants bore larger fruit than others. Prey that are faster, better Prey that are faster, better camouflaged, or better protected camouflaged, or better protected avoid being caught. An adaptation is any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival.
An example of this selection is if there were three types of moths, white (an extreme), grey (an average), and black (an extreme). There are two types of genetic drift, the Founders effect and the bottleneck effect.The founders effect, is when a small group of species relocates causing the gene pool to get smaller. The brown beetle can hide in the bark but is easily spotted by a specific bird and thus has few offspring. The decrease in population is caused by a random disaster, such  as a drought or earthquake, which means the genes that are left might not be the best or most useful alleles. For instance if there are two populations of beetles seperated by a mountain and one of the populations is green and the other is brown.
If one brown beetle moves to the green population it will change the alleles in that population.

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