Breast cancer survival rates in uk,healthy eating display ideas 2014,survival tool keychain carabiner - Downloads 2016

15.05.2014 admin
A new analysis of breast cancer survival rates, published today by the National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN), suggests that spotting cancer early may be one of the key reasons. The ‘All Breast Cancer’ report (PDF) is a comprehensive analysis of women with breast cancer.
To make things easy to compare, they divided the women into five groups, ranging from the least deprived (or affluent) to the most deprived. Among women diagnosed via the national breast cancer screening programmes across the UK, their background was almost irrelevant. But among women who were diagnosed in other ways – for example by finding a lump themselves and going to see a doctor – there was a stark difference.
Firstly, it suggests that women from the most deprived backgrounds who don’t attend screening, but who go on to develop breast cancer, are probably being diagnosed at a later stage, when treatment is less likely to be as successful. Text from Cancer Research UK Science blog by Cancer Research UK, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103).
Patients with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) and Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI) scores of 4, 5 or 6 may be considered for treatment with surgical excision only.
Patients with DCIS and VNPI scores of 10, 11, or 12 have been shown to exhibit high local recurrence rates, regardless of radiation therapy, and may be considered for mastectomy. Patients with early-stage breast cancer may undergo primary breast surgery (lumpectomy or mastectomy) and regional lymph node excision with or without radiation therapy (RT).
Adjuvant systemic therapy may be offered, following definitive local treatment, and is based on the characteristics of the primary breast cancer, such as tumor size, grade, number of involved lymph nodes, the status of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and expression of the HER2 receptor.
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) includes ‘lumpectomy’ or ‘breast-conserving surgery’ (BCS) plus radiation therapy (RT). The aim of BCT is to give the patient the survival equivalent of a mastectomy but to provide a better cosmetic result. Successful BCT requires a complete surgical excision of the breast cancer with negative excision margins, followed by moderate-dose, local radiotherapy (RT) to eradicate any residual tumor. Mastectomy is performed for women who are not suitable for Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT) or who prefer to have removal of the breast.
It must be such a difficult decision to have to choose between having a breast lump removed or a mastectomy. I know Jessica, but sadly a very personal decision that far too many women still have to face. There are always the specialists to guide you with a few facts and figures and sometimes a bit of TLC too. The likelihood of breast cancer metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes depends upon the primary cancer type, grade, size, location and the presence of lymphatic invasion in the primary tumor.
In all patients presenting with breast cancer and who have clinically suspicious axillary lymph nodes, the pre-operative clinical work-up will include axillary ultrasound and possibly fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of any suspicious lymph nodes or core needle biopsy (CNB). Basically, whether or not the lymph nodes are involved in the disease is a very important factor and can tell us a lot about both the nature of the cancer and the risk of spread.
Any patient with positive axillary lymph nodes that are found pre-operatively will have axillary lymph node dissection during definitive surgery. If the pre-operative assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is negative, a sentinel lymph node (SLN) only will be removed at the time of definitive surgery. Radiotherapy is performed following Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT) or mastectomy in patients who are considered to be at greater risk of recurrence.
The decision to use post-mastectomy radiotherapy will affect the choice of the type of mastectomy and the type and timing of any breast reconstruction. Survival studies have been done for women who have had axillary lymph node dissection and mastectomy, with and without radiotherapy. The tissue characteristics of the breast cancer will determine which patients may be likely to benefit from the different types of adjuvant therapy. Patients with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) –positive breast cancer may benefit from the use of hormone therapy.
What on earth do those troublesome hormones, that cause me so much strife, have to do with a breast lump? Hormone receptors for both estrogen and progesterone are proteins, found in and on breast cells, that pick up signals that tell the cells to grow. Adjuvant chemotherapy may or may not be added to hormone therapy or targeted therapy, in patients who have breast cancer with ‘high risk’ factors for recurrence. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is ER, PR and HER2 negative, may be offered chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer can benefit from treatment with a HER2 targeted drug such as trastuzumab (Herceptin®), with or without pertuzumab (Perjeta®).
Locally advanced breast cancer is non-metastatic, with the staging classification as stage IIB, IIIA to IIIC (T3, N0) but has a high risk of local recurrence and metastasis. The multiple therapeutic approaches for each patient are made possible by the co-ordinated approach of the Multi-disciplinary team (MDT).
Some patients may be considered for primary surgery, but most will be treated with neo-adjuvant therapy first. Studies have shown that neo-adjuvant therapy for locally advanced breast cancer can increase long-term disease-free survival and increase overall survival when compared to primary surgery followed by adjuvant therapy.
HER2 or Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 is a protein caused by a gene mutation in cancer cells that promote growth. The use of endocrine therapy in the neo-adjuvant role in patients with ER and PR- positive breast cancer is controversial but may be considered if there are clinical contraindications to the use of chemotherapy.
Surgery is advised for all patients following neo-adjuvant therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Following neo-adjuvant therapy, the surgical choice will be to perform either mastectomy or breast conservation surgery (BCS). Following neo-adjuvant surgery, all patients with locally advanced breast cancer will have a surgical evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Post-operative systemic adjuvant therapy is determined by the clinical status of the patient and the characteristics of the breast cancer.


Patients who did not receive pre-operative neo-adjuvant therapy will receive post-operative adjuvant therapy. Patients with breast tumors that are ER and PR –positive may receive hormone therapy post-operatively to reduce the risk of recurrence. Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer may receive a year’s post-operative treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin®) instead of chemotherapy. Patients who have been given pre-operative neo-adjuvant hormone therapy may continue with this as post-operative neo-adjuvant therapy, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. With the implementation of the breast screening program, it has become rare for patients to present with Stage IV metastatic breast cancer. The rarity of stage IV breast cancer is really good news and shows the importance and effectiveness of the breast screening program.
For patients diagnosed with stage IV breast cancer, the median survival is 18 to 24 months, although the range can be from only a few months to several years. If you’re facing a Stage IV diagnosis belief in recovery is essential, as is a good diet and lots of sleep. Follow-up studies have shown that between 5 % and 10 % of patients with stage IV metastatic breast cancer survive for 5 years or more and between 2 % and 5 % become long-term survivors (Greenberg et al., 1996). Once the diagnosis of breast cancer has been made on cytology or biopsy and tumor metastases have been identified, systemic treatment approaches may begin. However, resection of the primary tumor in the breast in stage IV breast disease can provide prevent or limit bleeding, ulceration or infection (Carmichael et al., 2003).
Targeted therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin®) and Pertuzumab (Perjeta®) combined with chemotherapy. Participation in clinical trials for new targeted therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Breast cancer patients who have completed treatment will undergo regular clinical follow-up to exclude symptoms and signs that may indicate recurrence or metastasis. Annual mammography will also be performed in patients who have had breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Having a mammogram is stressful at the best of times but waiting for the results, especially after cancer treatment, must cause a lot of anxiety.
The routine use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or whole-breast ultrasound is not usually recommended for breast cancer survivors because of the lack of evidence of patient benefit.
Patients with early-stage breast cancer have a better prognosis than those with locally advanced disease. There is no evidence that follow-up laboratory tests or whole-body imaging in breast cancer patients, who have survived and who are asymptomatic, is beneficial. That must be really tough – to have beat cancer once only for it to come back again many years later.
According to TNM stage, studies have calculated the 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer by stage (Newman, 2009).
For patients who present with synchronous breast cancer (bilateral breast cancer diagnosed simultaneously), the prognosis has been recently shown to be no different from that of patients presenting with unilateral breast cancer.
For patients who present with multi-focal breast cancer (invasive tumors identified within the same breast quadrant) or with multi-centric breast cancer (invasive tumors identified in separate breast quadrants) some reports have shown poorer and others have shown no difference in prognosis (Nichol et al., 2011). Si las celulas individuales fuesen conscientes de si mismas (?o seria mejor decir inconscientes…?) de la misma manera que los somos los humanos, probablemente tambien habrian inventado sus propias religiones para adorar a seres imaginarios y establecer unas reglas morales totalmente aleatorias. Os propongo un ejercicio de imaginacion para que especulemos sobre estos pecados teniendo en cuenta actividades reales que realizan las celulas en los seres vivos, lo cual nos servira como excusa para contar brevemente y de forma sencilla algunos conceptos interesantes relacionados con las celulas.
FECUNDACION o FERTILIZACION: es el proceso por el cual dos gametos o celulas sexuales se fusionan para crear una nueva celula llamada cigoto, que dara lugar a la formacion de un nuevo individuo con un genoma derivado de ambos progenitores.
CONJUGACION: La conjugacion bacteriana es el proceso de transferencia de informacion genetica desde una celula procariota donadora a otra receptora a traves de unas estructuras llamadas pili sexuales. FAGOCITOSIS: La fagocitosis, es un tipo de endocitosis por el cual algunas celulas rodean con su membrana citoplasmatica a un antigeno, molecula o celula y lo introducen al interior celular.
CANCER: El cancer es una enfermedad durante la cual el organismo produce un exceso de celulas malignas (conocidas como cancerigenas o cancerosas), con crecimiento y division mas alla de los limites normales, lo que implica la invasion del tejido circundante y, a veces, metastasis. CELULAS TUMORALES: Son las celulas que componen un tumor, en el sentido de cualquier bulto que se deba a un aumento en el numero de celulas, independientemente de que sean de caracter benigno o maligno.
CNIDOCISTO o NEMATOCISTO: Los cnidocitos son unas celulas exclusivas de los Cnidarios, especialmente abundantes en los tentaculos y alrededor de la boca, que segregan una sustancia urticante y cuya funcion es tanto defensiva contra los posibles depredadores, como de ataque para capturar presas. Una persona envidiosa se encarga de divulgar a los cuatro vientos los defectos de la persona envidiada y se encargara de contar chismes a sus conocidos con la unica intencion de desprestigiar a la persona que le provoca el sentimiento de envidia.
TOTIPOTENCIALIDAD: Una celula madre, stem cell o celula troncal, es una celula que tiene la capacidad de autorrenovarse mediante sucesivas divisiones mitoticas o bien de continuar la via de diferenciacion para la que esta programada y, por lo tanto, producir celulas de uno o mas tejidos maduros, distintos, funcionales y plenamente diferenciados en funcion de su grado de multipotencialidad o totipotencialidad. MITOSIS: Es un proceso que ocurre en el nucleo de las celulas eucarioticas y que consiste en el reparto equitativo del material hereditario, es decir, del ADN. 0 (0 Votos) Respondealejandro 25 febrero, 2011felicidades por el corpus del texto, ya te felicitaran mas, en realidad yo te escribo porque aunque soy ateo y todas las religiones me parecen un lastre para la dignidad humana creo que tu frase de que las reglas morales que construyeron las religiones son ARBITRARIAS es incorrecta. Sumamente original e interesante, ensena mucho sobre biologia celular de una manera muy divertida. One of our goals as a charity is to help ensure that everyone in the UK – no matter what their background or where they live – has equal access to the best treatment for cancer. Its authors collated in-depth data on a wide range of factors, including how long women survived, how they were diagnosed, and their socio-economic background. There was very little difference in the percentage of women who survived their disease for at least five years (99 per cent among the most well-off group, against 94 per cent of the least well-off fifth). Just 68 per cent of the poorest women survived their breast cancer for at least five years, compared with 83 per cent of the most affluent. This could be for a number of reasons, including lower awareness of symptoms or being more hesitant about seeing the doctor. Making sure women from all backgrounds are aware of the potential benefits of breast screening is crucial. We also highlight other relevant material, debunk myths and media scares, and provide links to other helpful resources. Patients with intermediate scores of 7, 8, or 9 may be considered for treatment with radiation therapy or for re-excision if previous surgical margin width is less than 10 mm, provided that a re-excision is cosmetically feasible.


It has replaced radical mastectomy as the preferred treatment in early stage breast cancer. In a recent meta-analysis study of more than 3,700 women with invasive breast cancer who have had mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance, there was a reduction in cancer recurrence in those who had received post-mastectomy radiotherapy (EBCTDG, 2014). Before deciding to give adjuvant therapy, the oncologist or surgeon takes an evidence-based approach for each patient to improve symptoms and survival. This is why the current management of locally advanced breast cancer combines local surgical treatments with systemic treatments for most patients.
For patients with HER2 –positive breast cancer, a HER2 targeted agent (trastuzumab [Herceptin®] with or without pertuzumab [Perjeta®)]) may be given with chemotherapy.
The decision will be made based on treatment response and the size of the residual tumor in relation to breast size.
Complete remissions when systemic chemotherapy is used are uncommon, and only a fraction of complete responders remain progression-free for a prolonged period. These long-term survivors with stage IV breast cancer tend to be young, with limited metastatic disease.
Book your mammograms and go together for a bit of mutual support is my advice to all women. In general terms the prognosis for patients with recurrent breast cancer has improved over the last 25 years.
Teniendo en cuenta que esto fuera asi, ?cuales serian entonces los siete pecados capitales de estas celulas humanizadas imaginarias? Esto se produce gracias a la emision de pseudopodos alrededor de la particula o microorganismo hasta englobarla completamente y formar alrededor de el una vesicula, llamada fagosoma, la cual fusionan posteriormente con lisosomas para degradar el elemento fagocitado. La metastasis es la propagacion a distancia, por via fundamentalmente linfatica o sanguinea, de las celulas originarias del cancer, y el crecimiento de nuevos tumores en los lugares de destino de dicha metastasis.
Dicho sentimiento se puede manifestar contra uno mismo o contra los demas y entre sus multiples manifestaciones, tanto psiquicas como fisicas, podemos encontrar impaciencia, venganza, fanatismo, intolerancia, discriminacion, agresiones, homicidios e incluso genocidio. El cnidocisto es un gran organulo caracteristico, el cnidocisto o nematocisto, que consta de un flagelo muy modificado, el cnidocilio que capta los estimulos que desencadenan la descarga. El chismorreo rapidamente se transmite, se distorsiona y se amplifica mientras pasa de boca en boca. Los neurotransmisores, como la noradrenalina y la acetilcolina son los encargados de excitar o inhibir la accion de la otra neurona. La potencialidad es por tanto la capacidad de dar origen a varios tipos celulares, incluso pudiendo una sola de estas celulas dar origen a millones de celulas, tejidos, organos, hasta incluso embriones.
Se pueden englobar en la soberbia tambien el orgullo, la altivez, la vanidad y la arrogancia.
Normalmente concluye con la formacion de dos nucleos separados (cariocinesis), seguido de la particion del citoplasma (citocinesis), para formar dos celulas hijas.
Es obvio que las morales son contingentes, pero eso no implica su arbitrariedad, au contraire, son contingentes porque obedecen al tiempo y el espacio en que se generaron.
But the evidence shows that people from different backgrounds have different cancer outcomes. We need to redouble our efforts to make sure as many women as possible have access to appropriate information about screening. We need to make sure that everyone benefits from the hard work of our doctors and researchers. Breast cancer treatment is always individually tailored to each specific case and the treatment suggestions outlined above are research-based guidelines only. However, the treatment of small breast cancers that measure ? 1 cm in diameter is controversial, with any benefit remaining unproven.
For these patients, combined therapy, including surgery, may provide an improved long-term, progression-free survival (PFS) than chemotherapy alone. Don’t forget to repeat the whole process on getting the results (whatever they turn out to be). La ira celular la podemos encontrar en unas estructuras asesinas llamadas CNIDOCISTOS o NEMATOCISTOS, que podemos encontrar en unas celulas llamadas cnidocitos de los Cnidarios, es decir, polipos, corales anemonas y medusas. Tiene de una capsula invaginada de doble pared, un operculo que la cierra y el cnidocilio, que puede tener espinas, enrollado en su interior. Cuando el nematocisto es estimulado se produce la evaginacion del filamento que se clava en la piel de la victima o depredador e inyecta un veneno hemolitico o miolitico contenido en la capsula. Al contrario que ocurre en la avaricia, la envidia no se centra tanto en los bienes materiales, sino en la emulacion o deseo de poseer algun bien inmaterial que otro posee. El simil con las neuronas y sus sinapsis esta mas o menos claro, si consideramos estas como celulas chismosas, que tambien transmiten y amplifican la informacion, aunque por suerte no la distorsionan.
En el mundo celular la correspondencia al pecado de la soberbia no podia ser otra que la MITOSIS, ese fantastico proceso en el que las celulas hacen copias exactas de si mismas, intentando no cometer errores al replicar su ADN, como si pensaran que ellas son las mejores, las mas perfectas, unicas en su cometido e insustituibles, si no es por copias identicas a ellas.
La mitosis completa, que produce celulas geneticamente identicas, es el fundamento del crecimiento, de la reparacion de tejidos y de la reproduccion asexual. Nunca habia visto algo tan gracioso, en el buen sentido, por original y porque, bueno, tengo que admitir que me parece super gracioso la apoptosis y todo el mecanismo, porque lo puedes comparar como lavado de cerebro o algo asi por parte de las NK. De esta manera, pueden esperar ser eficientemente englobadas por otras celulas mediante fagocitosis. Segun este enfoque, podemos relacionar la envidia con un proceso y una caracteristica celulares: la SINAPSIS y la TOTIPOTENCIALIDAD.
En cuanto a la totipotencialidad, hablamos de una caracteristica celular que hace que una determinada estirpe de celulas sea capaz de convertirse o dar lugar casi a cualquier otro tipo celular, lo que las convierte en las perfectas celulas envidiosas capaces no solo de imitar a las demas celulas, sino que transforman literalmente en ellas.
Las celulas en mitosis no conciben la variacion, no dejan opcion a la mutacion para que la evolucion trabaje sobre ellas, aunque siempre alguna se escapa. Aunque creo que no lo podemos interpretar todo como un credo, porque estas enfermedades pueden o no ser creadas por estos llamados pecados. La sinapsis se puede considerar como parte de la envidia celular si la encuadramos en los chismorreos que acompanan a cualquier gesto envidioso. La soberbia de las vanidosas celulas les lleva a dividirse por mitosis para no rebajarse a cambiar y transformarse en otra cosa distinta.



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