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14.07.2016 admin
Topics in our 2015 edition include unique fundraisers, why early detection matters, helping young women cope with a breast cancer diagnosis, how exercise can help in prevention, and a profile of the National Breast Cancer Foundation.
The media is available in InDesign pages, ready-to-print PDFs, text and photos so you can re-arrange it for your market. A new analysis of breast cancer survival rates, published today by the National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN), suggests that spotting cancer early may be one of the key reasons. The ‘All Breast Cancer’ report (PDF) is a comprehensive analysis of women with breast cancer. To make things easy to compare, they divided the women into five groups, ranging from the least deprived (or affluent) to the most deprived. Among women diagnosed via the national breast cancer screening programmes across the UK, their background was almost irrelevant. But among women who were diagnosed in other ways – for example by finding a lump themselves and going to see a doctor – there was a stark difference. Firstly, it suggests that women from the most deprived backgrounds who don’t attend screening, but who go on to develop breast cancer, are probably being diagnosed at a later stage, when treatment is less likely to be as successful.
News digest – apricot kernels, CRISPR, waiting time target missed (again) and… is tap water bad? Text from Cancer Research UK Science blog by Cancer Research UK, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License.
Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103). Pink ribbons have helped to raise awareness and funds for breast cancer, but they've also perpetuated a deadly misunderstanding.
Pink ribbons are the widely-recognized symbol of breast cancer, used to raise awareness of the disease and to show support for finding a cause. The Nick Foundation was founded in 1995 to promote awareness of male breast cancer and to provide support for those with the disease after NickÂ?s father, John W. Today, the Nick Foundation continues raising awareness of male breast cancer while supporting those with the disease, but it also provides education to both men and women about breast cancer prevention and treatment options. Pink and blue ribbons are available for online use and for print applications from the foundation's website so that everyone can help to raise awareness. Reach out to the author: contact and available social following information is listed in the top-right of all news releases. Patient information: See related handout on ovarian cysts and ovarian cancer, written by the authors of this article. The differential diagnosis of an adnexal mass includes benign and malignant gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiologies (Table 1). Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period. Genetic counseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer [published correction appears in JAMA.
Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy [published correction appears in Am Fam Physician.
Is three-dimensional ultrasonography of additional value in the assessment of adnexal masses? Cancer of the skin is a change in some of the cells of your skin such that they grow abnormally to form a malignant tumor. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma are all associated with chronic sun exposure, light or fair complexion, and immune suppression. Basal cell carcinoma is classically described as a small, well-defined nodule with a translucent, pearly border, with overlying telangiectasias (abnormal superficial tiny blood vessels).
The lymph nodes should also be examined as they are a common site for metastasis, especially for melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Join the effort to help spread information about prevention and raise money for research during Breast Cancer Awareness Month in October with our Breast Cancer Awareness section.


One of our goals as a charity is to help ensure that everyone in the UK – no matter what their background or where they live – has equal access to the best treatment for cancer. Its authors collated in-depth data on a wide range of factors, including how long women survived, how they were diagnosed, and their socio-economic background.
There was very little difference in the percentage of women who survived their disease for at least five years (99 per cent among the most well-off group, against 94 per cent of the least well-off fifth).
Just 68 per cent of the poorest women survived their breast cancer for at least five years, compared with 83 per cent of the most affluent.
This could be for a number of reasons, including lower awareness of symptoms or being more hesitant about seeing the doctor.
Making sure women from all backgrounds are aware of the potential benefits of breast screening is crucial. We also highlight other relevant material, debunk myths and media scares, and provide links to other helpful resources. Nick, died of breast cancer at the age of 58 because of symptoms that were ignored by two different doctors visited two years apart.
The goal of evaluation is to differentiate between benign and more serious conditions, such as ovarian cancer.Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy.
A woman with abdominal or pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and positive pregnancy test may have an ectopic pregnancy. These abnormal cells can invade through the skin into adjacent structures or travel throughout your body and become implanted in other organs and continue to grow, a process called metastasis. They are often brown or tan in color, and may show scaling, ulceration, bleeding, or crusting. But the evidence shows that people from different backgrounds have different cancer outcomes.
We need to redouble our efforts to make sure as many women as possible have access to appropriate information about screening. We need to make sure that everyone benefits from the hard work of our doctors and researchers.
The initial detection and evaluation of an adnexal mass requires a high index of suspicion, a thorough history and physical examination, and careful attention to subtle historical clues.
It is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States, accounting for 15,280 deaths in 2007.1,2 The risk of ovarian cancer increases steadily with age, with the greatest risk occurring after menopause.
A patient who develops sudden onset of severe, intermittent, and unilateral pain associated with nausea and vomiting may have ovarian torsion.
Family history and certain types of nevi (moles) may also indicate a predisposition to melanoma. A biopsy is needed to confirm that the lesion is malignant and can either be done taking only a small part of a big lesion or excising and removing a small one in its entirety. Patients presenting with these symptoms require immediate attention because this can be a medical or surgical emergency. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer of the hand, followed by basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Some people may mistakenly think that the cancer is just a cut or infection that just doesn’t seem to heal (see Figure 2). Pelvic pain with a more gradual onset associated with fever, nausea, emesis, or purulent vaginal discharge may indicate pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or a tubo-ovarian abscess.
There are other, more rare forms of this cancer, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, dermato-fibrosarcoma protuberans, sweat gland tumors, and Merkel cell carcinoma, to name a few.
These vague symptoms are present for months in up to 93 percent of patients with ovarian cancer. Other etiologies, such as functional cysts, leiomyomata, and ectopic pregnancy, are more common and can cause significant morbidity.
Any of these symptoms occurring daily for more than two weeks, or with failure to respond to appropriate therapy warrant further evaluation.


In nonpregnant patients, the most common etiologies are functional cysts and leiomyomata.10Adnexal masses are characterized on ultrasonography as cystic, solid, or complex. Patients presenting with oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, or menorrhagia associated with obesity and hirsutism may have polycystic ovary syndrome. Simple cysts 10 cm or smaller can be managed conservatively with serial ultrasonography (Figure 1).
Findings suggestive of malignancy in an adnexal mass include a solid component, thick septations (greater than 2 to 3 mm), bilaterality, Doppler flow to the solid component of the mass, and presence of ascites. These cysts have a very low incidence of malignancy.11,20,25,31 The optimal interval for repeat ultrasonography is controversial, and varies from four to 12 weeks. Family physicians can manage many nonmalignant adnexal masses; however, prepubescent girls and postmenopausal women with an adnexal mass should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist for further treatment. Solid masses are most commonly pedunculated fibroids, but can be benign ovarian tumors, fibromas, thecomas, malignant ovarian tumors, or an ovarian torsion.
If a mass persists for more than 12 weeks, the patient should be referred to a gynecologist. All women, regardless of menopausal status, should be referred if they have evidence of metastatic disease, ascites, a complex mass, an adnexal mass greater than 10 cm, or any mass that persists longer than 12 weeks.
Complex masses in premenopausal women can also be followed conservatively if they are 10 cm or smaller or if they persist for less than 12 weeks.
A careful history should detail gynecologic and systemic symptoms, particularly those associated with life-threatening conditions, symptoms related to other underlying disorders, and menstrual history. Patients have few unique symptoms in early-stage ovarian cancer, but they often have nonspecific symptoms (Table 2). Physicians should inquire about family history of ovarian, endometrial, breast, or colon cancer. Several characteristics are associated with BRCA1 mutations, including Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, young age at breast cancer diagnosis, bilateral breast cancer, family history of breast and ovarian cancer, multiple cases of breast cancer in the family, and a male family member with breast cancer.
Patients with any of these risk factors are at increased risk of ovarian malignancy.PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONBased on the nature of adnexal masses, a physical examination may not be useful. Women exhibiting pelvic or lower abdominal symptoms should undergo a targeted examination based on their presenting condition (Table 2). Women with nonspecific abdominal or pelvic symptoms, particularly those that do not respond to conservative therapy and that persist for more than a few weeks, should be thoroughly evaluated. Chest auscultation should be done to evaluate for pleural effusion.10 A detailed abdominal examination should be performed to assess for ascites, masses, tenderness, hepatosplenomegaly, or increased girth. A bimanual examination can assess the size, tenderness, location, consistency, and mobility of the uterus and both adnexa.
If the pregnancy test is positive, a quantitative beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level and transvaginal ultrasonography should be obtained. Patients with these conditions usually have an elevated white blood cell count with a predominance of neutrophils. In a postmenopausal woman, a low hematocrit may be caused by colon cancer or anemia of chronic disease.Several tumor markers exist that may be helpful in the evaluation of patients with adnexal masses (Table 2).
Only 50 percent of stage I cancers have elevated CA 125 levels.22 CA 125 levels are ordered preoperatively.
If ovarian cancer is diagnosed, CA 125 level is used to monitor the patient's response postoperatively. If a granulosa cell tumor is suspected, inhibin A and B levels are followed postoperatively.



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