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Several authors have attempted to make audience profiling scientific by assigning supposedly characteristic personality traits to particular types of job or levels of seniority. Their model for audience profiling suggests that members of your audience will fall into one of four categories - Supportive, Emotive, Directive, and Reflective.
Each category has its own needs and preferences that give you general guidance on how they interact and relate to other people and is indicated by the axes. Vertical axis - represents the levels of sociability an individual shows in their behavior.
Manning and Reece went on to describe the traits associated with each personality type and provide presentation guidelines for each one. Supportive personalities - are high in sociability and low in dominance, often fearing change. What is important is that you are able to discern each of these personalities in your audience and the proportion of the total that each one represents. This type of audience profiling has been 'reinvented' many times since, usually as part of some new presentation method that is being sold. Having already established what you need to communicate to your audience you must consider what they themselves want to get from the presentation. This may sound rather pessimistic, but in reality it is usually very difficult to achieve much more than this with the majority of any audience. Therefore, as part of you planning you must think carefully about the one thing you want your audience to remember. Once you have established the 'need' of your audience and the 'main' point you want them to walk away with you have to take into account the size of your audience.
Audience size will also have a bearing on the kind of visual aids that will be appropriate and whether or not you should rely on notes or a full script.
It is essential to know your audience and to make sure that your presentation takes account of their existing knowledge, level of interest, and what they want from it. Audience profiling can help you with this, but you also need to use common sense and experience. Audience size has implications for the level of complexity of your presentation because, generally speaking, the bigger the audience, the less the individual members have in common and the simpler the content needs to be. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Globalization Creates New Challenges in Higher Education - Two New Educational Activities Addressing the ChallengesBjoern Jaeger1, 2 and Berit I. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. New student and professional portfolios represent successful solutions for visual communication design in architecture and allied design disciplines.
The portfolio design images and text published on this web site are the property of Harold Linton and may not be reproduced, copied and otherwise published by anyone without the sole written approval of Harold Linton. This provides you as a presenter with four discrete patterns of behavior that you can easily recognize and predict.
The diagram below gives you an overview of each type of personality you will find in your audience. They tend to come across as intense, pushy, determined, and opinionated individuals who are often perceived as aggressive and unfriendly, especially if they encounter resistance to their goals at work.
These individuals tend to be serious, precise, and questioning, often appearing aloof and stuffy. The following table provides you with some general guidelines for how to make your presentation match each type.
Whilst it may have value, in as much as it encourages you to think in a logical way about the likely make up of your audience, its use in the real world is limited because you simply cannot define people's personalities in such a simplistic way, and even if it were possible to do so, many audiences are fairly mixed. However, you will also need to make a conscious effort to assess their needs as part of your planning in order to create an effective presentation that will resonate with them. The best that you can hope for is that people will go away with an understanding of one main theme or at least the gist of what you are talking about.
A small percentage might be prepared to put in the required effort to follow your arguments and the finer points of your reasoning, but most will not. You have to be absolutely clear about it right from the start of your planning and preparation. The bigger your audience the greater its diversity in terms of background and level of knowledge will be.
Generally speaking, with small audiences it is inappropriate to read a speech verbatim from a text, whereas if you're addressing a large audience in a conference environment from a lectern then this method can be appropriate. A developing concept in general compulsory education, Eurydice, The information network on education in Europe, Survey 5. These portfolios illustrate multiple solutions to the most perplexing and challenging problems of portfolio design. They often occupy product-related jobs such as scientists and engineers in which it is beneficial to be attentive to detail.
There is no mystery to doing this - all you need to do is to think about what is important to your audience.
Generally speaking, this means that the size of the audience will have a bearing on the level of complexity and detail that you can put into your presentation. The Microsoft Dynamics ERP vendor is presenting their solution for the Wingate Electric purchasing team. IntroductionThis chapter explores how educational institutions are faced with changes in the modern global business environment, and how this leads to a need for changes in curricula for universities in general and for business schools and information systems (IS) schools in particular. Most of academia still uses a strict disciplinary model of education resulting in a high degree of specialization within each discipline, while modern business environments require knowledge workers who can address problems that cut across disciplines on an increasingly global scale. Sarma, 2007Teaching ERP concepts in a Capstone Course, Ch VI, In: Enterprise Systems education in the 21st Century, Targowski, A. 2010 Mean Scores of Pre- and Post-Survey for Australian and Norwegian students for the Global Business Knowledge dimension.
Both researchers and governments observing this trend have called for a change in higher education over the last decade. Mc Kibbin, 1988Management education and development: Drift or thrust into the 21st century? Wild, 2008International Business: The Challenges of Globalization, Pearson Education, 0-13174-743-6MA.
Although suggestions vary for what such a change should encompass, all agree that there is a need to increase the focus on the following three topics: (1) globalization, (2) collaborative skills and (3) information literacy. Helgheim, 2011Virtual Team Role Play Using Second Life for Teaching Business Process Concepts. How to incorporate these topics into curricula has been a subject of debate and this is still an open question, but it is clear that especially topics 2) and 3) need to be based on students’ experience and training instead of typical classroom lectures. Helgheim, 2011Teaching Business Process Management in Cross-Country Collaborative Teams Using ERP. We take a practical approach by introducing two new multinational educational activities to develop skills related to the three topics of globalization, collaborative skills and information literacy.
Activity 1 is global supply chain management using an ERP system and Activity 2 is a Virtual Team Role Play using virtual world software.
Results from several pilot studies using these techniques in two universities in Norway and Australia are discussed.2. Globalization creates new challenges for business and IS schoolsThe development of the world economy over the last decades has been strongly influenced by the increase in international trade.
According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), the yearly growth rate in international trade from 1960 to 2008 was around 6%, which is higher than the world gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of around 4%. The latest numbers from WTO show an accelerating trend with a global trade rate expected to reach 13.5% in 2011 (Economic Times, 2010).
For example, the export rate for the least developed countries shows an average growth rate of more than 20% over the 2000-2008 period, out-performing the global trends in the world trade rate of 12% growth, and in 2009 China overtook Germany as the lead exporter of merchandise, with the United States in third position. This evolution of global trade affects not only companies and countries but also the competencies needed to work in the increasingly international business environment. Competencies are defined here as a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills.
Universities have a long tradition in providing theoretical knowledge with a curriculum typically organized around disciplines such as accounting, marketing, operations management and organizational theory for business schools, while for IS schools typical disciplines are: data and information management, systems analysis and design, project management, and IS strategy, management, and acquisition (Topi, 2010). In this chapter we argue for adding a relatively small amount of practical skills to the curriculum in both business and IS schools. The addendum is a cross-functional approach where the practical operations performed by students are organized by the instructors according to established theories previously covered in the curriculum. This can be seen as a practical and extended variation of the capstone course principle used in many business schools, where capstone courses are used to integrate materials from different topics (Rajkumar, 2007).
We do not make an explicit link between the practical topics and the previously theoretical knowledge. Our idea is that any graduate student should be able to complete the practical assignments, but the more of the foundation theory the student knows the more valuable the practical skill part will be. This is also why we target the postgraduate level, since postgraduate students are better equipped with foundation theory than undergraduates. Our aim is to combine practice and knowledge in a manner that will give students relevant job competencies. As mentioned, the literature and investigations point in particular to three topics that should be addressed more by academia: (1) globalization, (2) collaborative skills and (3) information literacy. Globalization skillsWe define globalization skills as skills that give the ability to work in an international context, to see the big picture and understand how an organization works as a whole. More specifically, we use globalization in a business context related to worldwide buying and selling of goods and services.


Information systems allow organizations around the world to communicate as if they were geographically collocated. Physical distance becomes less significant, organizations can broaden their supplier and customer bases to buy, transport, store, manufacture, sell and distribute products and services in a single worldwide market. Our aim is to give students a set of practical assignments that illustrate how this can typically be done by many businesses and, as an extension of this, how the global outlook opens new possibilities. Collaborative skillsWe define collaborative skills as the skills that give the ability to function as an effective part of a team where one understands one’s own role as well as the roles of others for a common purpose or benefit.
Collaborative skills are the specific ways in which actors are expected to behave in order to comply with norms. In principle, these could be skills for playing in an orchestra in order to reach the goal of giving a good performance. Our activities make use of collaborative skills at two management levels: first at the operational level in Activity 1 when students do business transactions by exchanging formal documents like purchase orders and invoices with the goal of completing a specific sales transaction.
Relevant skills are how to operate an ERP system in order to complete the business process. Second, at the tactical level, in Activity 2 a complex interaction takes place when sales and purchasing teams negotiate with the goal of closing the sale of a sophisticated product. Skills related to information literacy We define information literacy skills as skills that give the ability to determine what information is needed, where to find it, how to get it and how to use it. We provide this by suggesting the two new educational activities 1) Global Supply Chain Management using ERP systems and 2) Virtual Team Role Play using Virtual Worlds.3.
Activity 1: Global Supply Chain Management using ERP-systemsThe first new activity focuses on teaching Global Supply Chain Management concepts by letting students run an international value chain in cooperation with students at another university using a real ERP system provided by SAP.
The demand-driven global supply chain business process role play was developed for students to collaborate in pairs to perform various purchasing and sales operations. This is a supply chain network for trading bikes with customer demand represented by the End Customer Demand. Molde Bike Shop does not carry any inventory, and when they receive a customer order this triggers the different operations in the supply Figure 1.Setup of the Global Supply Chain used in the SAP exerciseschain. Molde Bike Shop sends an order to the German Bike Company, which builds a purchase order to their US supplier, the American Bike Company, which finally buys the bikes from its Australian vendor, the Perth Bike Company. The scenario played by the students is a situation where the end customer market is increasing for the particular bike product, Kids Bike, with the unique characteristic of high quality at a low price.
In order to stick to the low price high quality strategy, we assume the partners have agreed to optimize the information and material flow along the supply chain. A common goal for the partners is not to carry any finished product inventory that ties capital to inventory along the chain. The Perth Bike Company Australia is a fictive company that is assumed to be operated by the Australian student whose main task is to play the American Bike Company USA role.
The teachers play the fictive Molde Bike Shop Norway which we assume receives the End Customer Demand, and start the operation of the chain by generating purchase orders. For example, the role played by the Australian student in the first round is as Head of the Logistics Department in the American Bike Company, located in the US. The customer is the German Bike Company located in Germany, which means that the student must export the product from the US to Germany. Further, since the Head of Logistics wants to look for possibilities to decrease costs, the student is asked to run both the purchasing and selling processes. Communications between the companies in the form of incoming customer order, invoicing, purchase order, invoice payment and acknowledgement are effected via e-mail external to SAP.
The SAP exercises consist of three main parts: initial setup of master data, procurement by doing Material Management (MM), and fulfillment of sales by doing Sales and Distribution (SD). Import, export and customs handlingThe SAP hands-on exercises for operating the Global Supply Chain included handling of all import and export operations.
The SAP operative cockpit (SAP Cockpit, 2008) was used to guide the management of the inbound business processes (procurement, import). The cockpit shows whether replies from the customs authorities are received for any messages sent, and it keeps track of whether any follow-up actions are needed. EvaluationActivity 1 has been run three times; a pilot run and two full scale runs, in three teaching periods (February-April) in years 2009, 2010 and 2011. To evaluate the activity we used two methods; a questionnaire to measure the students’ perceived knowledge gain, and discussions with lecturers at both campuses to get their perceptions and experiences. It contained five knowledge dimensions: General Background, Business Knowledge, Process Knowledge, SAP Transaction Skills and Global Business Knowledge (in the questionnaire, Global Business Knowledge included questions on both theoretical knowledge and practical skills). The students were asked at the end of the course to report on both pre-course and post-course knowledge and skills by entering a number on a 5-point Likert scale (1 lowest, 5 highest). As a result, the Norwegian students had a theoretical foundation with a closer match to the practical business operations that could explain the higher gain. All results on the other knowledge domains from the pilot study in 2009 and the full study in 2010 can be found in our paper (Jaeger, 2011). Generally, the students reported an increase in competence for all the knowledge dimensions. Observations from the lecturers were that those students who participated in the international role play exercise performed better and showed better understanding of the transactional aspects of the sales order processing, while those working locally had some issues with the clarity of these concepts.
Reasons may be that those working with international partners spent much more time with their exercises.
They had to wait for their partners to post documents such as invoices and purchase orders for transactions. Having experienced being in another time zone, students had to work on their own to figure out how to organize their work better to avoid or reduce problems. The time lag, not wanted in a real business environment, became an advantage in the educational setting since it allowed students to reflect more upon the problem at hand, and since the separation of tasks enforced by the distributed operations helped to clarify the processes.
The lecturers affirm the valuable experience gained on how the exercises were set up, the actual contents and the overall learning experience encountered by all parties. Relation to skills in globalization, collaboration and information literacyWe illustrate how students acquire skills related to globalization, collaboration and information literacy by relating these topics to the description below of the build-up of the assignment for the sales process and the steps the students must carry out.
The purchasing process follows exactly the same setup so we do not describe the details here. The five steps cover the business cycle from sales order to receiving cash: first a sales order is created, then a delivery note is created before doing picking and packing followed by the shipment of the goods.
The students run sales processes first in a local environment in various ways as described below. In the assignments, students first run this process as a manual paper-based process using five documents, as shown in Figure 3. The students had to play these roles filling in information by hand in each document.Next the students run the complete sales process again, now by using the SAP ERP system playing the roles of first the sales manager, then the warehouse manager and at last the accountant.
The major elements of the information flow in and out of the ERP system is illustrated in Figure 4. In step 1 the student retrieves information from the ERP system regarding the products to be entered into the sales order.
This is master data in the ERP system previously configured by the students in another exercise. The students enter the remaining information required to create a new sales order, typically customer details and the set of sales order lines, one for each product ordered with details of the product. In step 2 the students must retrieve information from the ERP system regarding the previously created sales order to create a Delivery Note. Likewise, information is retrieved and entered into the ERP system to complete the remaining steps.
By doing this the students get a hands on experience in following the information flow across the departments involved. Also for purchasing each student does the job for employees in all departments when using the ERP system. That is the purchasing department, the warehouse department and the accounting department giving experience in following the information flow across the departments involved.After the students have gained some experience in running the basic steps of the sales process as described, the students start to operate the process as part of the global supply chain adding hands on operations of export and import using the SAP cockpit. This gives experience in following the information flow across companies operating in different countries.To do this each student is assigned a fellow student in a class at the partner university acting as a customer.
The student playing the customer at the other university runs the purchasing process of the company buying (importing) the goods sold (exported) as illustrated in Figure 5. The “Order” in Figure 5 is a purchase order created by company A, and inserted in an e-mail that is sent to company B who based on this creates a sales order.
Company A pays the Invoice after verifying that the purchase order, the goods receipt and the Invoice corresponds to each other. The payment is inserted in Accounts Payable in the Financial Accounting part of the ERP system.
Company A runs the purchasing process, buying (import) from company B who runs the sales process (export).Returning to the Global Supply Chain displayed in Figure 1, we let company A be the American Bike Company located in the USA and the German Bike Company located in Germany as described above. Note that in the Global Supply Chain each student is part of a chain, and so has to do both sales (export) and procurement (import) exercises with their respective partners. Globalization skillsRunning the paper-based process illustrated in Figure 3 shows in a clear and explicit manner the tedious work involved in a paper-based process. A student has to fill in and deliver each document he or she is responsible for and send or give it to the next student, who is responsible for another department. At this stage, the students should draw parallels to their theoretical knowledge obtained in previous classes in accounting, marketing, operations management, IS strategy, management, and acquisition. For example, using the ERP system to decouple the process from geographical locations shows how companies can outsource and offshore parts of their operation in an efficient manner.
By experiencing how the ERP system makes information immediately available, they will understand that this can be an advantage for other business operations like transport, payment handling, integration with the customs authorities, and several others.
Being responsible for the sales (export) and purchasing (import) processes in a company in the supply chain in Figure 1 demonstrates several issues and details when performing international transactions supported by an ERP system.


This includes currency conversions, time and location adoption, consolidation across diverse accounting standards, multilingual facilities, legal control, and import-export issues. This lets the students experience how information flows along the chain, and by comparing commercial information like price and availability along the chain, they get a real experience of seeing how the price increases along the chain, for example. By using the ERP system students also get an understanding of how information exchange with authorities can be done in an efficient way and even automated for standard operation according to trade agreements.
Collaborative skillsThis activity makes use of collaborative skills at the operational level when students do business transactions by exchanging formal documents like purchase orders and invoices with the goal of completing a specific sales transaction. Relevant skills are how to operate an ERP system in order to complete the business process within a company across departments, and further how to collaborate with business partners (customers and suppliers) by exchanging orders and formal business messages. The communication can be said to be primarily transaction oriented: communicating information that is formal, precise, structured, and in an asynchronous manner.
It is asynchronous in the sense that a response to, for example, a purchase requisition that is sent to the purchase manager via the ERP system is not expected to be responded to immediately.
In this way the student will get to know how his responsibility relates to the responsibility of others later on when entering a specific job in a specific department.
Information literacy skillsFor this activity information literacy skills are mainly related to hands-on operation of the SAP ERP system. The student needs to log in, look up data, create master data, and perform sales and purchasing transactions, etc., by using the ERP system as illustrated in Figure 4. Skills in using other tools like word processing, e-mail and the Learning Management System to download and hand in their assignments are also required.4.
Activity 2: Virtual team role play using virtual worldsThis work describes the use of a virtual world environment to facilitate a role play assignment for buying and selling Enterprise System solutions in a distributed environment.
The exercise involved the use of Second Life to facilitate the virtual presentation and meeting among vendors and a purchaser of an Enterprise System. Students from Molde University College in Norway and Curtin University of Technology in Australia participate in a procurement role play involving presentations and negotiations in Second Life.
Students playing sellers and purchasers were organized into teams who meet, collaborate, and negotiate business transactions in the virtual environment. In the role play a combination of open ended play and manuscript were used, letting the students fill in open parts. The students were exposed to practical experience of selling and buying ERP systems and also in operating virtual world software for business purposes. Using virtual world software like Second Life provides the students with a tool to work in an international context. Second Life, being an Internet-based virtual world, uses an avatar as the primary interaction object to represent a user. The users of Second Life can be distributed all over the world as long as they have an Internet connection. An avatar has human characteristics, including speech and facial expressions which enables transfer of expressions in the affective domain making Second Life a suitable medium for conducting role play.Other technology such as video conferencing is a common technology used for distance education. However, video conferencing does not support the concept of a common place to meet and interact when each participant is in a separate geographical location.
Typically, the video conferencing environment facing each participant is a screen of “talking heads”, each with a different background. Making efficient team presentations, performing negotiations, showing group membership and coordinating activities are difficult and ineffective in a video conferencing environment when all participants are distributed in separate places. The participants express team membership by grouping themselves together in much the same way as in real life. It has been frequently used in classes worldwide for addressing the complex issue of buying an ERP system, as described in the text book by Mary Sumner (2005). The context of the role play is a fictional mid-sized manufacturing company, Wingate Electric, which has a set of computer applications handling their information management needs. Their applications have become fragmented over time and costly to operate and maintain, and consequently the company considers buying a new ERP system to solve these problems. There are three competing ERP vendors who respond to the request-for-proposal; SAP, Microsoft and Oracle.
After a presentation by each vendor, Wingate Electric goes through a decision process to decide upon a system.
During the preparation each sales team conducts a literature search together with additional activities to gather information, while the purchasing team has to set up a score matrix based on a set of selection criteria from the request proposal, and a scoring method for evaluation of alternative ERP systems.
Each sales team develops a sales presentation which is made to the purchasing team, who ask questions and use the score card to record their marks.
When all the sales teams have completed their presentations the purchasing team provides feedback to each sales team before announcing the winning ERP vendor. As an example, one way to organize it is to have one sales team with four members for each of the three vendors (i.e.
12 students), and one purchasing team with four members representing a panel of managers from the buying company, Wingate Electric (4 students).
The number of teams and the number of participants in each team can easily be adjusted by adding or deleting vendors and roles. Each participant is at a separate geographic location.In Figure 6 all participants are at different geographic locations connected to the virtual meeting room in Second Life through a PC running Second Life. The sessions in Second Life can easily be recorded for students to review their performance and for instructors to provide feedback. Students from one class in Molde, Norway and one class in Perth, Australia participated in the same role play, forming true virtual teams. In order to make the role play as realistic as possible, the students were asked to familiarize themselves with the business etiquette and code of conduct required in business dealings and negotiations. This includes requiring avatars to have a formal dress code in a typical executive style aligned with the real world environment. The students in Norway and Australia did not know each other beforehand which made the virtual team role play more realistic. EvaluationActivity 2 has been run a number of times, of which three were among students at the two universities in Australia and Norway in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. A questionnaire with both numbered answer alternatives and open-ended questions was used to get an impression of student reflections on using Second Life for the role play. The second method was discussions with students and teachers at both campuses to get their view, and the third method was the use of playback of recorded sessions in Second Life to facilitate analysis of the sessions and to give feedback to students in a debriefing session. The questions were related to i) the impression of using Second Life for doing the Virtual Team Role Play and its potential for a real business situation, ii) the level of presence felt with the other geographically distributed participants, and iii) the amount of workload experienced compared with similar on-campus role plays. For topic i) the results showed that the students considered the role play as useful and that it could be used by real businesses.
For ii) the students perceived that they got a feeling of presence, and for iii) they considered the amount of work required for the role play in Second Life as about the same or less than performing the role play at campus. Globalization skillsThe students participated in activities that introduced them to a collaborative tool to do negotiations in a distributed environment. The leaders directed their group towards a common goal of selling the ERP system for the sales team, and making a purchasing decision for the buying team using imperfect information.
Compared to the communication in Activity 1, it can be said to be less formal, less precise, and unstructured. Real presence is achieved by voice communication and to some extent control of the body language including lip synchronization and a set of simple gestures of the avatar.
The presence by avatars allows for simulated face-to-face interaction combined with voice, where ideas and knowledge are shared. Collaborative skillsThis activity makes use of collaborative skills at the tactical level in the complex interaction that takes place when sales and purchasing teams negotiate with the goal of closing the sale of a sophisticated product.
Relevant skills are related to behaviour that supports concepts like trust, sharing, belonging and respect. One relates to the management side, where skills for information handling are more open-ended than in Activity 1. This is related to handling information for business needs, product offerings and the financial situation.
The second part relates to skills to operate IT tools like Second Life and standard office support software.5. ConclusionThis chapter has presented two new educational activities addressing the need for educational activities that provide competencies that cuts across disciplines on a global scale.
The activities are targeted at the postgraduate level in business and Information systems schools. We suggest running these activities as hands on exercises giving students practical skills in doing typical business operations at both the operational and the tactical management level of an organization doing business in an international setting.
The practical skills gained in combination with the theoretical knowledge previously covered in other courses will give students competencies highly sought in the job market.
Our results indicate a gain in competencies in the three domains of (1) globalization, (2) collaboration and (3) information literacy.
Activity 1, Global Supply Chain Management using ERP systems, the students had to understand both how to do the exact import and export operations in SAP and how to manage their business processes in the global supply chain. In Activity 2, Virtual Team Role Play using Virtual Worlds, students got competencies needed at the tactical level in an organization both by operating the virtual world software, and by participating in the role play in a negotiation between sales and purchasing teams.We believe these two new educational activities can be added to existing curricula with only small changes to the total curriculum. We think the combined effect of practical skills and theoretical knowledge will contribute to more relevant programs addressing the growing needs for these competencies by businesses and organizations.



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