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This collection provides concise and practical descriptions of modern service innovations for professionals, government policy-makers, academics, social entrepreneurs and students. The purpose is to provide both academic and industry perspectives on service system innovations past, present and future. The primary market is the working professionals, executive development, MBA & master programs, and upper-level undergraduates. Why we picked BEP as a publisher: 1) BEP is very strong in the business publication, 2) BEP allows authors to reuse the content they publish with BEP, without permission, so long as the authors render it in a shorter or longer format, 3) very quick publication cycle, and 4) good loyalty programs for authors. Converting your expertise into short focused piece for the business education market will be a valuable contribution. This booklet project is an ongoing project; there is no deadline for new proposals and completed booklets in the near future. By Kathryn Zickuhr, Lee Rainie and Kristen PurcellIn addition to asking people how they use their local public libraries, we also asked them about how much they felt they know about the different services and programs their library offers.
In general, Americans feel somewhat well-informed about the various services offered by their local libraries. Whites (23%) are more likely than Hispanics (16%) to say they know “all or some” of what their library offers, while Hispanics are more likely to say that they know “nothing at all”—21% say this, more than twice the rate among whites (9%) or blacks (11%). One aspect mentioned very often, both in focus groups and in qualitative work from previous research, is that people wish they were more aware of the full range of services offered by their libraries. However, focus group members say that having resources and events listed on their library’s website wasn’t enough—as several participants pointed out, they probably weren’t going to go to the website to look for events (or even to sign up for email newsletters) unless they already knew that the library had those events.
Many of the librarians in our in-person focus groups agreed that it was difficult to reach patrons and tell them about all the services the library offered. We asked survey respondents about a variety of services that public libraries often provide to the public, and asked them how important, if at all, they think it is for public libraries to provide each to the community. It was particularly striking to note now is that provision of technology ranks just as high as helpful librarians and books as central to libraries’ missions.
Programs for children and teens and research resources such as free databases are also ranked highly, as are job, employment and career resources and free activities such as classes and cultural events. For almost all of the resources we asked about, blacks and Hispanics are significantly more likely than whites to consider them “very important” to the community, as shown in the chart above. Overall, 80% of Americans say that it is “very important” to the community for libraries to have librarians available to help people find information they need.
Blacks (89%) are significantly more likely than whites (78%) to consider librarians “very important,” and women (84%) are more likely to say this than men (77%).
Our focus groups considered librarians to be very important to libraries in general, and many had very positive memories of interactions with librarians from their childhoods. Several library staff members who participated in our online panel said that they felt patrons were not always aware of the research assistance librarians can offer.
Overall, 80% of Americans say that it is “very important” for libraries to provide books to the community for borrowing. Women (84%) are significantly more likely than men (76%) to consider book borrowing to be “very important” to the community. Most focus group members felt that books are essential to libraries, although a few vocal opponents disagreed.
As noted in Part 3 of this report, three-quarters (77%) of Americans think it is “very important” for public libraries to provide free access to computers and the internet to the community.
The vast majority of blacks (92%) and Hispanics (86%) consider the free access to computer and the internet that libraries provide “very important” to the community, making them significantly more than whites (72%) to say this. The librarian in our online panel overwhelmingly said that providing access to computers and the internet was an important service for libraries. Many librarians emphasized that they see the role of a library as a place to enable access to information, regardless of the format. Some 76% of Americans think it is “very important” to the community for public libraries to provide quiet study spaces for adults and children. Almost nine in ten blacks (89%) and Hispanics (86%) consider libraries’ quiet study spaces to be “very important” to the community, making them significantly more than whites (71%) to say this.
Some members of the focus groups were adamant about needing areas they can use that are absolutely quiet. Almost three-quarters (74%) of Americans think it is “very important” for public libraries to provide programs and classes for children and teens. Some 92% of Hispanics and 86% of blacks consider these classes to be “very important” to the community, making them significantly more than whites (68%) to say this. Parents in our focus groups almost uniformly appreciated children’s programming at their local libraries. Many librarians in the online canvassing wrote about their experiences creating “hangout” spaces and activities for teens, citing importance of keeping teens engaged with the library as they grow older. Finally, keeping these spaces apart from the main reading room areas of the library seemed to be an important point for many of our focus group members, as many of them complained about increased noise levels during our sessions. Some 73% of Americans say it is “very important” for public libraries to provide research resources such as free databases to the community. Blacks (84%) and Hispanics (85%) are significantly more likely than whites (69%) to say that these research resources are “very important” to the community, and women (78%) are more likely than men (68%) to say this. The level of patron interest in databases seemed to vary based on the interests and needs of its patrons. Some 67% of Americans think it is “very important” to the community for public libraries to provide job, employment and career resources. About eight in ten blacks (83%) and Hispanics (81%) consider libraries’ career resources to be “very important” to the community, compared with about six in ten whites (61%), and women (73%) are more likely than men (60%) to say this. In our focus groups, awareness and use of career-related resources seems to vary widely by library, as well as by city.
Library staff members in our online panel often emphasized the importance of employment-related resources, especially for patrons who are less comfortable with technology or lack resources at home.
Many librarians said they felt that offering computers and other resources for job-seekers was increasingly important as technology became more vital to the job search process. Over six in ten Americans (63%) say it is “very important” for public libraries to provide free events and activities, such as classes and cultural events, for people of all ages. Some 84% of blacks and 79% of Hispanics consider these events to be “very important” to the community, compared with 57% of whites.
Members of our focus groups appreciated the free activities offered by their local libraries—when they were aware of them. The librarians in our online panel often said that they considered free community activities very important to the library’s core mission. Many library staff members said that activities for young children and families were a core offering of their libraries. About half (49%) of Americans say it is “very important” to the community for public libraries to provide free public meeting spaces. Blacks (61%) and Hispanics (58%) are more likely than whites (46%) to consider free public meeting spaces at libraries to be “very important” to the community, and women (55%) are more likely than men (44%) to say this. Focus group members who were involved with local organizations or more casual groups often mentioned the importance of libraries for public meeting spaces. We also asked our national survey respondents, as well as our focus groups, about some different ways public libraries could change the way they serve the public, and whether or not they thought public libraries should implement these changes (if they do not offer these services already). In general, Americans are most adamant that libraries should devote resources to services for children; over eight in ten Americans say that libraries should “definitely” coordinate more closely with local schools in providing resources to kids (85%), and a similar number (82%) strongly support libraries offering free early literacy programs to help young children prepare for school.
Younger Americans were more often in favor of these ideas than older adults, including having more comfortable spaces for reading, working, and relaxing, offering more interactive learning exhibits, offering free early literacy programs, coordinating more with local schools, and moving most services online. When we asked the library staff members in our online panel for their thoughts on these services and programs, many said that their library had either already implemented or should definitely implement many of them in the future. Some of the resources garnered more lukewarm support; most librarians said they do not currently offer interactive learning experiences or resources for digitizing patrons’ own materials, but many said only that their libraries should “maybe” offer them in the future. The following subsections explore librarians’ responses in further detail, but many described the various factors they take into account when thinking about what services they should offer, such as the specific needs of the communities they serve, budgets and staff time, and staff members’ experience with new technologies. Here is a more detailed analysis of the different services different groups would like to see implemented at libraries. Overall, 85% of respondents say that libraries should “definitely” coordinate more closely with local schools in providing resources to kids. Americans ages 16-64 are significantly more likely than older adults to express strong support for this idea, as are those who live in urban or suburban areas compared with those living in rural areas. Most of the librarians in our online panel either said that their library was already doing this, or should definitely do this in the future. Another popular service was free early literacy programs to help young children prepare for school, which 82% of respondents say that libraries should “definitely” offer. Adults ages 65 and older are significantly less likely than younger Americans to say that libraries should “definitely” do this, with 69% of this oldest age group expressing strong support (compared with more than eight in ten younger respondents).
Many librarians in our online panel said that their libraries already offer early literacy programs and considered them a core part of their library’s mission. However, the librarians whose libraries who do not currently offer early literacy programs were sometimes unsure as to whether this was a service they should clearly offer. A majority (61%) of Americans say that libraries should “definitely” have completely separate locations or spaces for different services, such as children’s services, computer labs, reading spaces, and meeting rooms. There are few differences between different demographic groups in support for this idea, although blacks and Hispanics are more likely to express strong support for this idea than whites. A common sentiment in the focus groups was the need to keep children’s areas, teen hangout spaces, and computer-centric areas separate from the main reading or lounge areas, to keep noise levels and other distractions down to a minimum.
Others have seen drastic changes: “We moved our teen library away from our adult patrons and it has made a world of difference.
Many of the library staff members in our online panel said that their libraries already have separate locations for different services, although those who do not currently offer it were split on whether their library should definitely do this or should only “maybe” do this. More than half (59%) of Americans say that libraries should “definitely” create more comfortable spaces for reading, working, and relaxing at the library. Women are significantly more likely than men to express strong support for this idea, and blacks and Hispanics are more likely to express strong support than whites.
In our focus groups, we asked participants to think about what their ideal library would look like.
About half of Americans (53%) say that libraries should “definitely” offer a broader selection of e-books.
In the past year, the percentage of Americans who read e-books increased from 16% of all those ages 16 and older to 23% as of November 2012. This idea was significantly more popular with adults ages 18-64 compared with those 65 and older, and those with at least some college experience are generally more likely to express strong support for this idea than those who had not attended college.
Technology users in general are more likely than those who do not own various devices to say that libraries should “definitely” expand their e-book selections. Many librarians in our online panel said that their library should definitely offer a broader selection of e-books. Overall, 47% of Americans say that libraries should “definitely” offer more interactive learning experiences similar to museum exhibits.
This idea was significantly more popular with blacks (66%) and Hispanics (62%) than with whites (40%), and those under age 50 are more likely to express strong support than older adults. Few of the librarians in our online panel said that their library already offered interactive learning experiences, and the rest were lukewarm on whether they should in the future. Others felt that interactive exhibits were the province of museums, not libraries—although some felt that a partnership might be worthwhile: “I think rather than always offering the interactive learning experiences and programs, libraries could do a better job partnering with groups offering services in the communities. However, some library staff weren’t convinced that interactives had a place at the library.
Some 43% of Americans think that libraries should “definitely” help patrons digitize material such as family photos or historical documents. This idea was also more popular with blacks (56%) and Hispanics (62%) compared with whites (39%).
Many library staff members in our online panel said that their library should “maybe” do this, but had no strong feelings.
About four in ten Americans (42%) say that libraries should “definitely” move most library services online so users can access them without having to visit the library.
Looking at respondents by community type, we find that those living in urban areas (52%) are most likely to say that libraries should “definitely” do this, significantly more likely than those living in suburban areas (40%), while those living in rural areas (31%) are the least likely to say this. Another focus groups member said that she found it easier to reserve books online because she has difficulty finding them in the library otherwise: “I just go online and I reserve [the book] and then I just pick it up. Overall, some focus group participants saw the library as a destination (a place to take the family for an afternoon, for instance), and others see it as a resource (a place to get books and other items). These thoughts were echoed by members of our librarian panel, who were generally ambivalent about the prospect of moving most library services online. Another librarian pointed out that “moving most services online would not serve people who 1) do not have easy access to a computer or the Internet, 2) need assistance using particular services, 3) like to interact with library staff on a regular basis.
About four in ten Americans (41%) say that libraries should “definitely” make most services automated, so people can find what they need and check out material on their own without help from staff. Again, many of the members of our online librarian panel did not generally view automating most services as a useful path. Yet while few (if any) of the librarians felt that most services should be automated, some staff members whose libraries had already implemented some automated services found that they served as a useful option for busier patrons.
Just one in five Americans (20%) say that libraries should “definitely” move some print books and stacks out of public locations to free up more space for things such as tech centers, reading rooms, meetings rooms, and cultural events.
People who do not own a desktop or laptop computer are significantly more likely than those who down own a home computer to say that this is something libraries should “definitely” do (27% vs.


The librarians in our online panel expressed the least amount of support for this idea overall, and many said that their library was very unlikely to do this.
But other library staff members said their libraries were very successful in freeing up space for other services.
In addition to asking people for their preferences on some new library services, we also asked respondents whether they would themselves use a variety of possible new activities and features at libraries.
Overall, blacks and Hispanics are significantly more likely than whites to be interested in all of the services we asked about. Additionally, those who say they know the least about the services at their local library were as likely as those who say they know the most to say they would be “very likely” to use many of these resources, including classes on e-borrowing, digital media labs, an online research service, and the device try-out program. When we asked the library staff members in our online panel about these services, and the three that were most popular were classes on e-borrowing, classes on how to use handheld reading devices, and online “ask a librarian” research services. Our librarian panel was most ambivalent about offering a cell phone app with GPS and library kiosks located around the community, with both seen as expensive and irrelevant for all but the largest libraries or communities. Almost three-quarters (73%) of respondents say they would be interested in an “Ask a Librarian” online research service, where they could pose questions and get responses from librarians; some 37% say they would be “very likely” to use this type of resource.
Some 87% of blacks and 88% of Hispanics expressed an interest in this resource, compared with 67% of whites, and over half of blacks and Hispanics say they would be “very likely” to use an online research service.
Additionally, smartphone owners are more likely than non-owners to express an interest in this service overall; some 79% of smartphone users say they would be “likely” or “very likely” to use this service, compared with 68% of non-owners.
It seemed as though the libraries in our online panel either already offered this service (about half of the librarians said this), or were unlikely to do so in the future. Overall, 69% of respondents say they would be interested in a “technology petting zoo” program that allowed people to try out the newest tech devices or applications; some 35% say they would be “very likely” to use such a service.
Over half of blacks (51%) and Hispanics (58%) expressed a strong interest in this resource, compared with 28% of whites. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Americans who already own gadgets such as tablets and smartphones are significantly more likely than those who do not own these devices to indicate a strong interest in this service. Many of the librarians in our online panel said that their libraries already offered opportunities for patrons to try out new devices, and that the try-out programs had been well-received overall.
Many of the librarians who said their libraries did not offer this service were not sure that they would be able to offer it in the near future.
Overall, 64% of respondents say they would be interested in personalized online accounts that provide customized recommendations for books and services based on their past library activity, similar to the recommendations offered by commercial sites like Amazon; some 29% say they would be “very likely” to use a service with customized book recommendations. In general, blacks (73%) and Hispanics (77%) are both significantly more likely than whites (58%) to express interest in this service, and Americans under age 65 are also more likely than those 65 and over to be interested.
Americans who use technological devices (including cell phones or computers) are more likely than those who do not own these devices to express a strong interest in this resource, including 37% of e-reader owners, 35% of tablet owners, and 34% of smartphone owners. Many focus group members were very enthusiastic about the idea of personalized book recommendations, and idea that had also been frequently mentioned by e-book borrowers from a previous online panel. One way that some libraries have tried in order offer this service is with a voluntary, opt-in system. Some libraries also use more general lists of recommendations that they send out to patrons via email or post on their websites.
Yet for many of the librarians in our online panel, the best solution for now is to use external sites and third-party book communities that are not connected to patrons’ library records.
Overall, 63% of respondents say they would be likely to use library a cell phone app that would allow them to access and use library services from their phone; some 35% say they would be “very likely” to use such an app, including 45% of smartphone owners and 41% of tablet owners. Some 57% of blacks say they would be “very likely” to use a library app, significantly more than Hispanics (43%) or whites (29%); overall, about three-quarters of blacks and Hispanics are interested in using a library app, compared with 58% of whites. While some of the librarian in our online panel said that their libraries already offered an app for patrons, others said they were unsure as to whether their library would have the resources to create one.
For the libraries that already have an app, many of the responses from patrons were extremely positive.
As with many other library services, some librarians found that the difficult part was simply getting the word out to the public that the app existed. Overall, 63% of respondents say they would be likely to use library kiosks located throughout the community where people can check out books, movies or music, similar to Redbox’s DVD rental service; some 33% say they would be “very likely” to use such kiosks.
Blacks (46%) and Hispanics (43%) are significantly more likely than whites (29%) to say that they would be “very likely” to use remote kiosks. Few of the library staff members in our online panel said that their library currently offered this, and most said they were not particularly likely to offer this resource in the future. Finally, other librarians expressed interest in kiosks, especially for their busier patrons.
Overall, 62% of respondents say they would be interested in a GPS-driven cell phone app that helps patrons easily locate material within the library; some 34% say they would be “very likely” to take this type of class, including 45% of smartphone owners and 41% of tablet owners. Blacks (43%) and Hispanics (55%) are more likely to express strong interest in a location-drive app than whites (28%), and respondents under the age of 50 are more likely than older adults to express a strong interest as well.
Many members of our focus groups said they often had trouble finding their way around, and wished they had a way to avoid getting lost in their libraries. One librarian was in favor of general wandering: “Sometimes, I think we are looking at technology as panacea for everything…is a GPS in the actual library necessary?
Overall, 58% of respondents say they would be likely to check out pre-loaded e-readers if their library offered them; some 26% say they would be “very likely” to take advantage of this service. About four in ten blacks and Hispanics say they would be “very” likely to check out pre-loaded e-readers, compared with one in five whites.
Interestingly, people who already own e-readers (29%) are just as likely as non-owners (25%) to express a strong interest in this service, and smartphone owners (29%) are more likely than non-owners (23%) to say they would be “very likely” to use this service.
The librarians in our online panel had mixed reactions to the idea of lending out pre-loaded e-readers. However, many of the librarians whose libraries don’t currently lend e-readers are skeptical. Overall, 58% of respondents say they would be interested in a digital media lab where patrons could create and upload new digital content; some 26% say they would be “very likely” to use such a resource. Though just 18% of whites expressed a strong interest in a digital media lab, 45% of blacks and 44% of Hispanics say they would be “very likely” to use one.
Both Americans who do not have a computer and Americans who do own a tablet expressed particularly strong interest in this resource. The librarians in our online panel expressed some interest in this idea, but not a strong interest; few said that their libraries already offer this.
Overall, 57% of respondents say they would be interested in classes on how to download library e-books to handheld devices; some 28% say they would be “very likely” to take this type of class, including 34% of e-reader owners. Blacks (50%) and Hispanics (49%) are significantly more likely than whites (19%) to say they would be “very likely” to take classes on e-book borrowing. Classes on e-borrowing were among the most popular services among our panel of librarian, with many saying that they already offer these and the rest indicating at least some interest in offering these classes in the future. About half (51%) of respondents say they would be interested in classes on how to download library e-books to handheld devices, including 23% who say they would be “very likely” to take these classes.
Groups who are most likely to say that they would be “very likely” to take classes on how to use handheld reading devices like e-book readers and tablet computers include blacks (38%) and Hispanics (37%); overall, seven in ten blacks and Hispanics say they would be interested in these classes, compared to 43% of whites. Many high school Photography students are unsure how to present flat, printed photographic images in a creative and visually appealing way. Two A Level sketchbook pages by Melissa Kelsey, completed while studying at ACG Strathallan College, Auckland, New Zealand. Mr Sam Kiff, an Art teacher from Thomas Tallis School, London, UK, has generously uploaded the sketchbooks of his A Level Photography students, providing these as valuable learning opportunities for others.
It is clear from the examples above that there is not one best presentation style for a photography sketchbook; ultimately a student should embrace a style which complements their own work and plays to their strengths. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers. Here are a few things that stand out to me from this infographic called: How American Teens Communicate. I have paid for a mailchimp account in the past and watched the analytics to see how many were opened, forwarded, bounced, etc.
With that said however, Facebook is heading the way of MySpace for the students in our community.
I’m curious to know if our community is the odd one in the bunch or settling in with the rest of the country. Well, first of all, I ask that all our leaders have a twitter account and follow all the students that they interact with through any ministry context. Second, because we use the SYM tool, it connects to our ministry twitter account and sends all updates through text as well as Twitter.
Service innovations impact quality, productivity, compliance, and sustainability of service systems using new technologies, business models, organizational networks, governance mechanisms and end-user capabilities.
We also examined how important Americans feel various library services are to their communities, and explored what sort of activities and resources people might be interested in using at libraries in the future. While about one in five (22%) feel they are aware of “all or most” of the services and programs their public library offers, a plurality (46%) feel they just know of “some” of what their library offers.
Women are also more likely to consider themselves well-informed of library services than men, and those with higher levels of education are more likely to say they’re aware of at least some services than those with less education. Instead, they said they usually stumbled across listings either at their library in-person, when trying to do something else online, or by seeing signage outside the library as they were driving past.
All but one of the services are considered to be “very important” by a majority of respondents. Just about half (49%) of Americans think it is “very important” for libraries to provide free public meeting spaces, making it the lowest-ranked service that we asked about, although 85% of respondents say this service is “somewhat” or “very” important overall. Women are also generally more likely than men to say these resources are “very important” (see following chart). Those living in households making less than $30,000 per year are also more likely to consider librarians very important compared to those living in households earning more than $75,000. Even when they suggested automating certain services for the sake of convenience, our focus groups overwhelmingly saw a future with librarians as an integral part of libraries. Adults ages 30-64 are more likely than other age groups to say this, as are those who had at least some college experience compared with those who had not attended college.
Additionally, women (81%) are more likely than men (73%) to consider this access “very important,” as are adults ages 30-64 (81%) compared with other age groups. Several said that this focus on access is even more important in the digital age than before.
Additionally, women (81%) are more likely than men (70%) to consider this resource “very important,” as are Americans who have not graduated from college (78%) compared with college graduates (69%). Additionally, women (79%) are more likely than men (68%) to consider this resource “very important,” as are Americans in households making less than $75,000 per year (79%) compared with those in households earning more (65%). Some parents said that they would appreciate extended hours at libraries so their children could spend time there in a monitored environment; others wished there were more activities on weekends, instead of during the work day. Those under the age of 65 are more likely than older adults to think these resources are important to the community. Those who had not completed college and those living in lower-income households are also generally more likely to say these resources are “very important.” Additionally, Americans under the age of 65 are most likely to consider these resources important overall compared with those ages 65 and older. A few focus group members said that they relied heavily on these services in their job searches; other focus group members weren’t aware of these services at all. Women (71%) are also more likely than men (56%) to say this, as are those who had not completed college (67%) compared with college graduates (53%).
One participant valued these activities as “something that will bring you out of your house and meet your neighbors and say, ‘Hi.’” The main issue many of them cited was simply finding out about these activities in the first place.
Americans who have not graduated from college (53%) are also more likely to consider this “very important” compared with college graduates (41%).
Many librarians in our online panel whose libraries offered these meeting spaces also mentioned their popularity. In a separate, qualitative questionnaire aimed at public library staff members, we also asked librarians and other library workers their thoughts on these services. The services about which our national survey respondents are more ambivalent involved moving library services online and automating services (such as installing self-checkout stations). Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to support having more comfortable spaces and having separate areas for different activities, as well as moving print stacks out of public areas, offering interactive learning experiences and helping digitize patrons’ materials. The programs that were most popular with these librarians were: having separate locations for different activities, offering free early literacy programs, coordinating with local schools, and having comfortable spaces for reading, working, or relaxing at the library.
Our library staff respondents were also ambivalent about moving most library services online and making most services automated. Some 11% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 2% say libraries should “definitely not” do this.
Many said that they would love to see libraries offer resources such as homework help and tutoring, as well as afterschool study programs. Another 14% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 3% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Those who had not completed high school are also generally more likely to express strong support for this idea. Some 27% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 9% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Many librarians in our online panel agreed, “When possible I think that it works well to keep the computer, group meeting, and children’s area noise away from the quieter reading areas,” one said. Some 28% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 9% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Many participants said that while they wanted a quiet space in the library, they wanted one that’s not too quiet.


Some 30% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 5% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Some 68% of e-reader owners expressed strong support for this idea, compared with 50% of non-owners; tablet owners (63%), smartphone users (62%), and those who own a desktop or laptop computer (55%) are also more likely to say libraries should do this. They often cited a lack of funds and restrictions from publishersas their main impediments, and the balance of trying to provide e-books for their tech-savvy patrons while still providing print and audiobooks for those who prefer print. Some 38% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 12% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Interactive learning experiences are significantly more popular with those who had not completed college compared with college graduates, as well as with those in lower-income households compared with those at higher income levels.
Many were intrigued by the idea, but said that a lack of space and resources were the main reasons they don’t currently offer interactive exhibits.
Some felt that expanding the offerings of the library was a vital innovation for the future.
Some 39% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and 14% say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Adults ages 30-64 are also more likely to express strong support for this idea than adults over the age of 65. Along with offering more museum-like interactive learning experiences, this potential service had the fewest number of librarians saying that their library already offers this. Another 34% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and almost one in five (19%) say libraries should “definitely not” do this.
Additionally, Hispanics (58%) are significantly more likely than whites (38%) to express a strong preference for this idea. On the one hand, many said that they would like to be able to do more online, or have more self-service options in the library. Others said that their library used changed throughout the year, or at different points in their lives—they might like to spend hours there in the summer, when the kids are out of school, but may be busier during the school year and only able to stop by to pick up and drop off books. Some 36% say libraries should “maybe” do this, and one in five (20%) say libraries should “definitely not” do this. One noted that families with small children in particular appreciated of the self-checkout option: “The children feel a sense of accomplishment when they do their own books through the scanner. Meanwhile, almost four in ten (39%) say libraries should “maybe” do this, and almost as many (36%) say libraries should “definitely not” do this.
19%), while computer owners are more likely to say that this is something libraries should “definitely not” do (38% vs. Others whose libraries had tried to move books out the main areas had encountered mixed results. Our list was weighted towards services that are rooted in technology and allow more tech-related interactions with libraries and at them. Older adults, especially those ages 65 and older, are the least likely age group to express an interest in any of these services. In fact, many librarians said that their libraries were already offering these resources in various forms, due to demand from their communities.
Digital media labs were the least popular potential service that we asked about; few already had these at their libraries, and while many librarians said they might be interested in offering these labs, they also foresaw issues such as the high costs of technological resources, a lack of staff time or expertise, and a lack of interest in their communities. At least three-quarters of Americans under age 65 expressed an interest in this resource, compared with 55% of those ages 65 and older. Urban residents (39%) are more likely than rural (29%) residents to express a strong interest in this service. Women (68%) are significantly more likely than men (59%) to express interest in this service.
However, many of the librarians who answered our online questionnaire expressed hesitance due to privacy issues. One wrote, “We have ‘personalized accounts’ and would like to expand to specific reading suggestions.
Library staff members mentioned directing patrons to sites such as Goodreads, BookPsychic, or NoveList Plus.
Urban residents (42%) are significantly more likely than suburban residents (34%) to say they would be “very likely” to use this service, while rural residents (25%) are the least likely to say this. Urban residents (43%) are significantly more than suburban residents (29%) and rural residents (25%) to say they would be “very likely” to use library kiosks. Urban residents (40%) and suburban residents (33%) are also significantly more than rural residents (24%) to say they would be “very likely” to use this service. However, the librarians in our online panel said that a GPS-based library app was unlikely to be a solution. Americans who had not completed high school and those living in households making less than $30,000 per year are also more likely than other groups to express a strong interest in this service. Some said that their libraries already offer this service, with a very positive patron response.
Additionally, about a third (32%) of adults 65 and older say they would be likely to use such a lab overall, compared with over half of younger respondents. Almost a third (32%) of people who do not own a desktop or laptop computer say they would be “very likely” to use a digital media lab, compared with 24% of those who do own a computer, and 33% of tablet users say they would be very likely to use it, compared with 24% of non-tablet owners. Some mentioned staff time, technology resources, budget concerns, and space as primary factors. Overall, 63% of e-reader owners and 58% of tablet owners say they would be likely to use this resource.
Looking at respondents by age group, Americans under the age of 65 are the most likely to express an interest in these classes, with adults ages 30-64 expressing the strongest interest. This article provides examples of 16 Photography sketchbooks to help motivate and inspire students who study high school qualifications such as NCEA Level 3 Photography (Scholarship), A Level Photography, and IB Art. Images have been positioned in an ordered, well-balanced formation, with small, non-distracting annotation.
Melissa gained 100% and Top in New Zealand for her CIE A Level Photography submission (you may be interested in reading our article about her AS Photography Coursework). Amiria has been a teacher of Art & Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools.
If you have an idea for a booklet that would fit this business model, please contact us via email.
Business Expert Press employs a quick, 120-day production timeline after acceptance of completed booklet. Another 20% say they know “not much” about services offered by their library, and 11% say they know “nothing at all” about what is available at their library.
Respondents under the age of 30 are also less likely to say they know much about library services than older adults, particularly those ages 30-64. One parent loved their library and described it as “unbelievable,” but said that she only heard about events when they were already in the library with their children, on their way to participate in another activity or event.
Looking at responses based on device ownership, we find that those who own technological devices such as tablets, e-readers, and smartphones are just as likely as non-users to consider librarians “very important” to the community. Adults ages 50-64 are also somewhat more likely than other age groups to consider quiet study spaces “very important,” although Americans under the age of 50 are most likely to consider these areas important overall.
Those living in lower-income households are also somewhat more likely to consider these activities important compared with those in higher-income households. Many focus group members mentioned stumbling across a list of activities as their library only by accident, when they were on the website for another purpose.
Many said that they enjoyed partnering with other local institutions and organizations to expand the types of activities they could offer.
The least popular idea was moving some print books out of public locations to free up more space for things such as tech centers, reading rooms, meetings rooms, and cultural events; just one-fifth of respondents say libraries should “definitely” do this, while almost four in ten (39%) say libraries should “maybe” do this and almost as many (36%) say libraries should “definitely not” do this. Finally, those living in lower-income households were more likely than those in higher-income households to support moving print stacks out of public areas, offering interactive learning experiences, and helping digitize patrons’ materials. The least popular idea overall was moving print books out of public locations to free up space for other activities.
Some participants said that they wished their library had enough copies of the books assigned to their children as readings in class, especially when the school library only has a few copies that are quickly checked out.
Finally, those who live in urban areas are significantly more likely to say that libraries should “definitely” do this than those in suburban or rural areas. They described having a comfortable place where they could focus and get work done, but also feel like a part of their community; where “even if you’re by yourself, you don’t feel like you’re by yourself,” as one participant put it. Finally, those who live in urban areas are significantly more likely to express strong support for this idea than those in suburban or rural areas.
Finally, this idea was significantly more popular with those who had not completed college compared with college graduates, as well as with those in lower-income households compared with those at higher income levels. One of the main concerns was that library staff would have to spend a significant portion of their time helping patrons use the hardware—at a time when many librarians already say that they are spending much of their time helping patrons with other “tech support”-type questions. On the other hand, many participants also said that they really missed the personal connection they had with librarians when they are children, and wished they had that sort of relationship with their library now—that their librarians knew them well enough to recommend books, library services, or other resources to them, based on their interests and family needs.
Still, there was fairly consistent interest in them and there was a notable segment of population – a quarter or more of respondents – who said they would definitely use each of the activities we queried and most times more than half the public said it was at least somewhat likely to take advantage of these new services. Respondents with the lowest levels of education and living in households making less than $30,000 per year are also often more likely to express a strong interest in these services than more educated respondents or those living in higher-income households. However, our librarian panel had mixed views on cell phone apps that would allow patrons to access library resources, a gadget “petting zoo” that would allow patrons to try out new devices, and pre-loaded e-readers that would be available for check-out.
Americans under age 65 are also more likely than those 65 and older to say they would be likely to use such a resource.
Urban residents (30%) and suburban residents (31%) are also significantly more likely than rural residents (20%) to say they would be “very likely” to use this resource.
Respondents under age 50 are also more likely than older adults to be interested in an app. Respondents under age 50 are also significantly more likely than older adults to express strong interest. Respondents ages 65 and older are the least likely to be interested in service—just about four in ten say they would be likely to use pre-loaded e-readers, overall; meanwhile, previous research has shown that Americans ages 16-17 who don’t already borrow e-books are significantly more likely than older non-borrowers to be interested in this service, although the sample size was too small in this survey to report those numbers for the general population. Others who are considering offering pre-loaded e-readers are worried about theft or damage, as well as potential copyright issues.
Finally, urban residents (65%) are more likely than suburban (57%) and rural (48%) residents to express an interest in this service overall. Urban residents (64%) are more likely than suburban (54%) and rural (54%) residents to express an interest in this service overall. Hand-drawn compositions have been included a€“ an excellent way for competent drawers to think through ideas and provide visual variety to their sketchbook pages.
Viewing a sketchbook in its entirety is very helpful, as it shows the exploration and development of ideas over time. If you would like more guidance about this topic, please read our tips for producing an Amazing GCSE or A Level Art Sketchbook! Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. If something was announced or detailed in the email, our kids missed it because they don’t check their email. If our leaders are paying attention (to attention seeking kids, no less) then we have the opportunity to minister in a much better way.
This parent said that they often weren’t even aware of events until she heard the announcement that the event was about to start, when it was too late for her  family to change plans. We are booked for months in advance with the larger rooms and our ‘as available’ small study rooms are always full,” one library staff member wrote. Many described a sort of “coffeeshop” feel or “living room atmosphere,” but without feeling like they need to buy anything or leave in a certain amount of time—“a safe and affordable hangout location,” where they could mingle with other people if they wanted to, but can do their own thing if not. One librarian wrote, “While I think that helping patrons digitize materials might be an interesting idea, I think that it would eat up valuable time for librarians and other staff. Many of those who responded to this battery of questions picked different types of services that they would prefer – in other words, there was only modest share of respondents who said they would “very likely” use each and every one of the news services that we queried. Looking at differences in responses by community type, we find that urban residents expressed more interest in many services, such as library kiosks, digital media labs and library-related cell phone apps, than suburban and rural residents. The main issue with all three of these potential services was having the cost and resources required to not only launch these initiatives, but keep them sufficiently up-to-date.
Those living in households making less than $30,000 per year are also more likely than the highest income levels to be interested in this resource. Some images have been printed with clues about the digital manipulation that has taken place (see top right); this can allow students to look back and understand how various effects were achieved, as well as communicate this to the examiner (it should be noted, however, that documenting every digital manipulation step-by-step is not recommended).
I think a class TEACHING these skills might work out better than just providing scanners and assuming patrons know how to use them, or helping patrons use them individually. There were also worries that pre-loaded e-readers available for check-out could be broken or stolen.
We now mass text through the SYM service and send the text to our Facebook and Twitter pages as well.
The librarians also had mixed thoughts about offering personalized online accounts that could generate reading recommendations based on a patrons’ previous activity, generally due to the privacy issues that such a service could raise.




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