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The hard times faced by the American working class in the nation’s rust belt inform these poetic oral histories.
In the narrative and investigative tradition of Gwendolyn Brooks, Edward Sanders, and Muriel Rukeyser, this riveting collection of poetic plays and photo-documentary poems exposes the human cost of corporate greed and gives voice to the growing crisis faced in industrial communities across America. Concept artist Ben Lo was kind enough to share with us some of the concept art he created for BioShock Infinite.
Although many marketing challenges remain constant, Eduardo Conrado, senior VP-CMO at Motorola Solutions and BMA chairman, provided his take which I found to be spot on – all focusing around the customer. ABOUTLePoidevin Marketing is a strategic communications agency primarily serving business-to-business firms.
The Sea Otter is considered to be Endangered due its vulnerability to large-scale population declines. In Alaska, precipitous population declines occurred in the Aleutian Islands beginning in the late 1980s–2005. Recent studies have found infectious disease to be an important mortality factor in California Sea Otter populations (Conrad et al. Throughout their range, Sea Otters use a variety of near shore marine environments and 84% of foraging occurs in water ? 30m in depth (Bodkin et al. 2004) and throughout much of their range, foraging occurs within a kilometer of the shore.
Sea Otters are weakly territorial (Kenyon 1969) with fighting and aggression rare (Loughlin 1980). The diet of Sea Otter consists almost exclusively of marine invertebrates, including sea urchins, a variety of bivalves such as clams and mussels, abalone, other molluscs, crustaceans, and snails. Male Sea Otters reach sexual maturity around age five or six, but probably do not become territorial or reproductively successful for two or three subsequent years (Riedman and Estes 1990). When the Fur Seal Islands were discovered the sea otters there were very numerous, and two sailors killed five thousand there the first year.  The next year less than one thousand were killed, and from the end of the next six years to the present day the Sea Otter has been unknown there. All otters in Thailand are severely threatened due to habitat destruction, pollution of waterways, and human encroachment. The Asian small-clawed otter is still found in many wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Thailand, where it frequents streams, rivers, marshy wetlands, and the sea coasts.
Legal StatusAll four otter species were officially declared protected wild animals of the first category by the Ministerial Regulation No.
Municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastes in most waterways throughout Thailand have severely threatened the otter populations. Habitat destruction, including logging and hydroelectric projects which alter river systems, have reduced the habitat available to otters. Competition with people for fish supplies has resulted in direct killing of otters in areas where they would otherwise occur. Insufficient enforcement of existing wildlife laws and reserved areas provide little more than “paper” protection for otters and their remaining habitats.
A complete survey of otters and their remaining habitats needs to be initiated quickly to pinpoint areas of critical concern for each otter species. Habitats that still contain otter populations should be declared “otter reserves” and legal action should be taken to protect these areas.
Public education programs should be initiated to develop awareness of the importance of conservation of otters and other wetland inhabitants and of a clean environment in general. Reintroduction programs should not be considered at this time; efforts should focus instead on protecting the habitats of the remaining otters in Thailand. The Asian small-clawed otter has a large distribution range, extending from India in South Asia east ward through entire Southeast Asia up to Palawan (Philippines) and Taiwan and southern China in the north (Mason and Macdonald 1986, Wozencraft 1993, Hussain 2000).
In most of their range the Asian small-clawed otter is sympatric with smooth-coated and Eurasian otters.
The typical habitats of the Asian small-clawed otter in west Java are wetland systems having pools and stagnant water, including shallow stretches, with depth less than 1 m.
In west Java, its presence is positively correlated with slow flowing and stagnant broad rivers and smaller streams, depicting a distinct decline in preference from slow to deep-water bodies. The small-clawed otter is adapted to feed on invertebrates as evident from the last two upper teeth (pm4 and m3) which are larger in size for crushing the exoskeleton of crabs and other hard shelled prey. Preliminary analysis of the small-clawed otter spraints from west Java showed their preference for crabs in both natural and man-made habitats (Melisch et al. 1996). In captivity mating usually takes place in the water, but has also been observed on land on a few occasions.
Ben created many environment designs including early concepts for the district area of Finkton. At the 2012 International BMA Conference, one of the speakers argued that the “Four Ps” have become outdated. We provide advertising, creative, public relations and research counsel to marketers seeking that next level of success.
They were hunted so heavily in the 18-19th Centuries that they had to be placed on the U.S. The species is believed to have undergone a decline exceeding 50% over the past 30 years (approximately three generations).
The Sea Otter number on the Commander Islands reached maximum since last 150 years period (A.
Their classic association is with rocky substrates supporting kelp beds, but they also frequent soft-sediment areas where kelp is absent (Riedman and Estes 1990, DeMaster et al. 1996, Burn and Doroff 2005).
Most female Sea Otters are sexually mature at age four or five (Kenyon 1969, Jameson and Johnson 1993, Monson et al. From the Aleutian Islands south to Oregon the Russians found these otters so numerous that they were obtained in numbers running from two to three thousand kills per year. Two species, the Eurasian otter and the hairy-nosed otter, may already have disappeared from Thailand.

Outstanding numbers are found in the western forested areas and in the marshy wetlands in southern Thailand, including Nung Tung Tong Reserve and Pattani and Songkla Provinces.
The hydroelectric dams replace natural rivers with steep-sided reservoirs devoid of surrounding cover and thus unsuitable for otter habitation. Efforts should be made to determine areas where small pockets of the Eurasian otter and the hairy-nosed otter might still occur.
Only if and when the overall pollution problems are solved, can otters be reintroduced into areas where they now no longer occur. The Vulnerable status of the species is based on past population decline rates under criterion A2acd. In recent years, in England it has established itself in the wild after escaping from captivity (Jefferies 1990 and 1991). In India, all the three species occur in Western Ghats and in the Northeast India where the species occur in small group of two to four individuals.
These habitats are represented by freshwater swamps, meandering rivers, mangroves and tidal pools.
On the other hand, they also use shallow fast-flowing mountain creeks narrower than 5 m, particularly when the course of the streams includes natural pools. The small clawed otter feeds mainly on crabs, snails and other molluscs, insects and small fish such as gouramis and catfish (Pocock 1941, Wayre 1978). This is the first study in which quantitative information on the diet of wild small-clawed otter was made. In most cases the exact gestation period could not be ascertained but it is believed to be around 60-86 days (Lancaster 1975, Sobel 1996). To see more great concept art and illustrations from the guys at Irrational Games make sure to check out The Art of BioShock Infinite.
The world-wide population of Sea Otters decreased to approximately 2,000 animals by the end of the commercial fur trade in 1911 (Kenyon 1969). Kelp canopy is an important habitat component, used for foraging and resting (Riedman and Estes 1990).
Males patrol territorial boundaries and attempt to exclude other adult males from the area.
Sea urchins, abalones and rock crabs are the principal prey of Sea Otters in newly reoccupied habitats of central California (Vandevere, 1969) whereas clams and crab will make up the diet in soft-sediment habitats (Kvitek et al. This great increase in the catch during the later years is entirely due to the greater vigor with which the animal has been hunted, and the introduction of fine long-range rifles.  Good rifles now replace to a great extent, the primitive spears.
The changing of mangrove forest into shrimp and fish aquaculture projects also diminishes otter habitats and puts otters in more direct competition with man.
Given the extent of loss of habitat that is occurring in south and southeast Asia and the intensity of poaching the reduction in population has been observed in many parts of its range (Hussain 1993; Melisch et al. In India it occurs in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh (Kulu), West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh as well as in southern Indian hill ranges of Coorg (Karnataka), Ashambu, Nilgiri and Palni hills (Tamil Nadu) and some places in Kerala (Pocock 1941, Prater 1971, Hussain 2000). Muller (1839) observed small-clawed otter from slow-flowing lowland streams to submontane streams dominated by rocks and boulders in forested areas. In rice fields, they chose slow-flowing irrigation channels narrower than 2 m and with a varied, moderate or low vegetation structure. This study revealed that though the small-clawed otter is adapted for an invertebrate diet it substantiates its diet with large quantity of fish. Remaining part of the spraints consisted of fish bones and scales, ribs and vertebrae, unidentified mammalian hair, shrimps, insects and snake scales.In the Huay Kha Khaeng, Thailand almost 90% of the spraints of small-clawed otter contained remains of crabs Potamon smithianus, whereas 5% scats contained each of Fish and Amphibians. The youngest animal to reproduce was a female of 13 months captive born at Bronx Zoo, and the oldest was a 15 years male at the National Zoo, USA (Foster-Turley and Engfer 1988). To open the Abalone shell they place a small rock on their chest and smash the shell against it. Now the populations have come back to a large extent, but conservationists would like to continue to protect them.
The population recovered from 11 remnant populations located in Russia (Bering Island, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Kuril Islands) and in the United States (in Alaska (Aleutian Islands, Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak archipelago, and Prince William Sound) and California). The probable cause of the decline was increased predation by killer whales (Orcinus orca) (Estes et al. Information collected from forensic-level necropsies of dead Sea Otters and sampling of free-ranging Sea Otters indicate a strong link to protozoan parasites,Toxoplasma gondii and Sacrocystis neurona, that are known to breed in cats and opossums (Thomas and Cole 1996, Conrad et al. 2005) thus sources of mortality for the Sea Otter population include land-based factors. They are found most often in areas with protection from the most severe ocean winds, such as rocky coastlines, thick kelp forests, and barrier reefs. Sea Otters apparently are polygynous, although the exact nature of the mating system may vary.
According to this act, no persons shall kill protected wild animals of the first category except for educational purposes or scientific research.
Irrigated rice fields with many crab species (Brachyura) are extensively used by small-clawed otter if proper shelter for them is available. Like smooth-coated otter the Asian small-clawed otter dislike bare and open areas that do not offer any shelter (Melisch et al. Apart from crabs, the major prey item for small-clawed otter was the mudskipper (Gobioidei). In the females oestrous cycle has duration of anywhere from 28 to 30 days, with breeding occurring the year round (Lancaster 1975).
The remnant populations were small and widely dispersed, as a result, this species has low genetic diversity (Ralls et al. Other factors identified as causing significant mortality include acanthocephalan peritonitis, protozoal encephalitis, bacterial and fungal infections (Thomas and Cole 1996). Although they are most strongly associated with rocky substrates, Sea Otters can also live in areas where the sea floor consists primarily of mud, sand, or silt.

Where prey such as sea urchins, clams, and abalone are present in a range of sizes, Sea Otters tend to select larger items over smaller ones of similar type (Kvitek et al. Although quantitative data on population sizes or trends are lacking, it is suspected that the global population of the smooth-coated otter has declined by> 30% over the past 30 years.
The Asian small-clawed otters occur in freshwater and peat swamp forests, rice fields, lakes, streams, reservoirs, canals, mangrove and along the coast (Sivasothi and Nor 1994). They will use strands of kelp to tie themselves into the kelp beds for a secure night’s sleep. Individuals generally occupy a home range a few kilometers long, and remain there year-round.
Sea Otter annual home ranges can occupy up to 0.8 km? (80 ha) and extend along 16 km of coastline (Kenyon 1969, Loughlin 1980).
The threats to small-clawed otter is prominent in its western range so much so that since last 60 years its range has been shrunk considerable moving west to east from Himachal Pradesh to Assam (Hussain 2007). In Malaysia and Indonesia they occur in coastal wetlands, and along the banks of paddy fields. It prefers pond areas and rice fields than the rivers, whereas it uses mangroves and lakes in proportion to their availability (Melisch et al. Since the 1980s, the species had been recovering in many areas thanks to intensive management and regulatory efforts by several governments. In California, it has been noted that Sea Otters ignore Pismo clams smaller than 3 inches (7 cm) across.
1980); however, litters larger than one are rare, and when they occur, neither pup is likely to survive (Jameson and Bodkin 1986).
They were once common in the mangroves of east Calcutta and Sunderbans (Sanyal 1991) is now believed to be locally extinct. Comparable data from Java, Myanmar, and India revealed that the Asian small-clawed otters have a high climatic and trophic adaptability in south and Southeast Asian tropics, occurring from coastal wetlands up to mountain streams (Melisch et al., 1996). Of the 92 scats, 14 scats had crabs size 10-14 cm, 42 scats had 15-19 cm, 26 had 20-24 cm, 12 had 25-29 cm, 4 had 30-34 and 1 had 40-44 cm.
Unlike seals and walrus, sea otters have no blubber to keep them warm in the cold arctic waters.
However contemporary issues (oil spills, potential fisheries interactions, predation, and disease events), have either prevented Sea Otter populations from thriving or have caused population declines throughout much of the species range.
The Commanders Island population of Sea Otter was never so abundant, but in 2008, it was found that the population was on decline.
The maximum confirmed depth of dive was 97 m (Newby 1975); however recent studies using time-depth recorders implanted in Sea Otters indicate average maximum forage depths of 54 m for female and 82m for male Sea Otters (Bodkin et al. Only in the Aleutian archipelago were Sea Otters observed to regularly eat fish, which could comprise up to 50% of their diet. In riverine systems it prefers moderate and low vegetation structure, though their presence was also observed from banks with poor vegetation cover. The size distribution of crabs taken by small-clawed otter was similar to what was available, and there was not much evidence for selection of specific size.
In 2004 the Kuril Islands population of Sea Otter was estimated around 19,000 (Kornev and Korneva 2004), but later count have shown sever decline (up to 40–50% in different locations). The fish species eaten were usually bottom dwelling and sedentary or sluggish forms, such as the Red Irish Lord and Globefish (Estes 1980). Longevity in Sea Otters is estimated to be 15 to 20 years for females and 10 to 15 years for males (Riedman and Estes 1990). As many as 15 individuals were seen in a group in Malaysia (Wayre 1978), four to eight in coastal Sabha (Mason and Macdonald 1986) and two to four in India.
When different otter species occurred in the same site there was evidence of difference in use of the habitats. Neither in ponds nor in rice field areas did they show preference for any of the vegetation structure categories, though poor nor bare structural conditions were the least favoured both in riverine and pond areas and along the rice fields. In west Java a preliminary estimate of preferred size confirmed an average of 3-4 cm carapace width (Melisch et al. Though the causes of such decline are not very clear, the threat due to poaching can’t be ruled out.
They also consume crab, clam, mussels, turban snails, sea cucumbers, squid, octopus, chitons, tubeworms, large barnacles, scallops, and sea stars (Wild and Ames 1974, Riedman and Estes 1990).
Signs of the of small-clawed otter were found wandering further away from the river than the two other species, between patches of reeds and river debris where crabs were more likely to be found (Kruuk et al. Foster-Turly (1992) also examined the diet composition at four different times of the year coinciding with different water levels in the rice fields and concluded that the diet of the small-clawed otter was significantly different at different times of the year. The population in the Kodiak archipelago and lower Cook Inlet appeared stable or increasing during the same period that population declines were documented in the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula (Kodiak and lower Cook Inlet are part of the Southwest population stock), however, this habitat has not been surveyed since 2004. Bivalve molluscs are excavated by digging in sand or mud bottoms and are the most common prey in soft-sediment communities (Calkins 1978, Kvitek et al. Only the relatively rare dietary components of rodents, snails and snakehead fish (Clarius spp.) showed no significant difference among seasons. This difference in the use of these prey are most likely due to difference in the life cycle and availability of these prey at different times of the year.

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