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03.04.2016 admin
From a theoretical perspective, Communication Management seems to be one of the most easiest area of ??knowledge in project management. Unfortunately, in most books of Project Management, communication is treated superficial and its importance is underestimated in the context of the project cycle.
Everyone who works as PM, certified or not, know very well the theory behind project management: are true specialists in communication planning, are endowed with a tremendous arsenal of theories, can make brilliant presentations, but when it comes to effective communication, most fail to have a good relationship with noone around them. To avoid wasting time, explaining the theory behind the communication, I will go directly to one of the conclusions we reached by experimenting communication management. One day, I went furious at the office: my projects were always behind of schedule, my team lacked the involvement in the project, above all I felt frustrated. Surprisingly, in that day we delivered everything on time and everyone went home with a smile on his face.
My experience: that of being unhappy and the choice of being happy confirmed me the inner emotions can negatively or positively influence the communication results. Know your eyes! It is obvious that the way I see myself behind my eyes is different from what others see in me when I watch. Listen to your voice! In an experiment, I used cell phone to record myself, I noted with amazement how little I know my voice. Offering a gift or a service is an effective way to begin the communication, but not enough to maintain it. In the communication management there are two key processes that can positively or negatively influence project success: identifying all stakeholderilor and managing stakeholder expectations. Also related to key stakeholders communication, it is worth mentioning the role of a project’s Sponsor. For each type of communication there are different techniques to improve communication, however, even if you manage to improve your personal techniques, it is not enough to have good communication in any situation with everyone. The basic idea remains the same: only 10% of language is verbal, and the rest of 90% is visual, tactile, auditory and internal dialogue, but proportions of visual, tactile, internal  languages may be different from person to person.
Studies related to NLP (Neuro Lingvistic Programming), went so far, nowadays you may think the words can manipulate anyone, anytime (this can be taken to the rank of paranoia as we may think we are victims of a huge conspiracy). Returning to communication management in the management of projects, the main target of a manager is meeting stakeholder expectations. My business is seriously prompted with the writing skills and even using the shape for your site. The fact that children are affected by their surroundings is too obvious to bear repeating. But the long-term effects of early stress, poverty, neglect and maltreatment were well documented and virtually uncontested years before we could “see” them with brain scanning tools. Actually, there are several reasons why we should pay attention to the evidence provided by neuroscience. We begin with a thumbnail sketch of brain anatomy, followed by a closer look at neurons and synapses, the brain’s communication specialists. The easiest way to get to know the brain is to learn the main structures of the adult brain and how they relate to its function (Figure 1).
The folds of the cerebral cortex, which give the brain its wrinkled appearance, are an important feature of the brain’s structure. Scientists use gyri and sulci to divide the cerebral cortex into smaller units called lobes. Although our advanced cognitive abilities are dependent on the cerebral cortex, it is not the only part of the brain relevant to child development. The brain processes information by forming networks of specialized nerve cells, called neurons, which communicate with one another using electrical and chemical signals (Figure 2).
When a neuron (let’s call it Neuron A) receives a chemical signal from another neuron, Neuron A becomes electrically charged in relation to the surrounding fluid outside its membrane. As Neuron A returns to its resting state, the molecules it spilled – called neurotransmitters – make their way across the synaptic cleft to Neuron B’s dendrite. In the first three years, a child’s brain has up to twice as many synapses as it will have in adulthood. Now that we’re a little more familiar with the fundamentals of the brain, let’s take a look at brain development in children. Even more importantly, synapses are formed at a faster rate during these years than at any other time.
Instead, genes allow the brain to fine-tune itself according to the input it receives from the environment. Genes provide a blueprint for the brain, but a child’s environment and experiences carry out the construction. The excess of synapses produced by a child’s brain in the first three years makes the brain especially responsive to external input. About seven weeks after conception the first neurons and synapses begin to develop in the spinal cord. Early in the second trimester, gyri and sulci begin to appear on the brain’s surface; by the end of this trimester, this process is almost complete. The early weeks of the third trimester are a transitional period during which the cerebral cortex begins to assume many duties formerly carried out by the more primitive brainstem.
The remarkable abilities of newborn babies highlight the extent of prenatal brain development. At about three months, an infant’s power of recognition improves dramatically; this coincides with significant growth in the hippocampus, the limbic structure related to recognition memory.
This year’s most dramatic changes involve the brain’s language areas, which are developing more synapses and becoming more interconnected. During the second year, there is a major increase in the rate of myelination, which helps the brain perform more complex tasks. Synaptic density in the prefrontal cortex probably reaches its peak during the third year, up to 200 percent of its adult level. Early brain development is the foundation of human adaptability and resilience, but these qualities come at a price.
First to emphasize the importance of communication in project management were Agile creators. As a fact, communication theory is so bushy and difficult to apply in practice, so, in the future, it could be invented a new job in the management of projects, namely: manager of project communication.
For example, Non-verbal communication (gestures involuntary tics, grimacing, etc.) is almost impossible to control.
During that daily meeting, I got angry and I started criticize harshly everyone in the team… I was terrible. I know we’re in deep shit, but by the end of the day we will solve all the problems and we will all leave home happy! We reviewed the situation in which we find ourselves and we know we have some big problems… But you know what?
From the moment I chosed to be happy, everything worked much better in my communication with people!
Seeing the large number of negations used, I started to remove negations from my vocabulary.

At one of the companies I worked, top managers have allocated budgets for protocol meetings.
One of the biggest mistakes we have made ??over the years in project management, it was either that we have not identified all the stakeholders, or have minimized the role that each stakeholder can have within a project. To improve non-verbal communication and paralinguale, we need to know how to interpret gestures, tics, mimic face, voice, etc.
We know he is introvert, so we can logically assume his main language is predominantly auditory and meditative. Note: The synchronization does not necessarily mean being a mirror, because it will be more than obvious you imitate.
There are very interesting studies that come to explain how can we control our negative emotions, how can we influence others, how can we program our subconscious and other wonders of modern science that seem detached from a paranormal story. One example of NLP that I particularly like and I have experienced refers to the power of words. The keywords, seemingly trivial, creates at subconscious level a connection between you and the person you’re talking. Fortunately, very small number of people are able to use efficiently NLP techniques and other methods of mind programming. In other words, the ultimate goal of a manager is to have good relations with all the others and especially with key people inside a project.
In the workshop, we experimented with a group of fellow ways the improvements of communication with clients.
Obviously Alison Gopnik have lectured about some of the strategies that can be used to better our behaviours. Child development specialists have produced decades of research showing that the environment of a child’s earliest years can have effects that last a lifetime.Thanks to recent advances in technology, we have a clearer understanding of how these effects are related to early brain development.
So why should we need an understanding of brain development to show us how important children’s earliest experiences are for their well-being?
However, dramatic advances continue to be made in the field, and brain research continues to enhance education and intervention efforts. We then discuss some unique features of early brain development and show how they make the first three years of life an especially critical period. It should be kept in mind that the relationship between brain structure and function is never simple. While each of the brain’s structures plays an essential role, the cerebrum is the area most involved in higher processes like memory and learning. Appearing during prenatal development, these folds increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex and allow more of it to be “packed” inside the skull.
The limbic system, located in the inner brain beneath the cortex, is a collection of small structures involved in more instinctive behaviors like emotional reactions, stress responses, and reward-seeking behaviors. These messages are the physical basis of learning and memory.7 A neuron consists of a cell body and the branch-like structures that extend from it. This charge travels down its axon, away from the cell body, until it reaches the axon’s end. Between conception and age three, a child’s brain undergoes an impressive amount of change.
In fact, the brain creates many more of them than it needs: at age two or three, the brain has up to twice as many synapses as it will have in adulthood (Figure 3). The answer lies in the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in brain development.
A child’s senses report to the brain about her environment and experiences, and this input stimulates neural activity.
Synapses that are rarely used remain weak and are more likely to be eliminated in the pruning process.
About two weeks after conception, the neural plate, a layer of specialized cells in the embryo, begins to slowly fold over onto itself, eventually forming a tube-shaped structure. These early neural connections allow the fetus to make its first movements, which can be detected by ultrasound and MRI even though in most cases the mother cannot feel them. For example, reflexes such as fetal breathing and responses to external stimuli become more regular. Newborns can recognize human faces, which they prefer over other objects, and can even discriminate between happy and sad expressions. The cerebellum triples in size, which appears to be related to the rapid development of motor skills that occurs during this period. Language circuits in the frontal and temporal lobes become consolidated in the first year, influenced strongly by the language an infant hears. These changes correspond to the sudden spike in children’s language abilities – sometimes called the vocabulary explosion – that typically occurs during this period. Higher-order cognitive abilities like self-awareness are developing: an infant is now more aware of his own emotions and intentions. Because experiences have such a great potential to affect brain development, children are especially vulnerable to persistent negative influences during this period.
Poverty and Brain Development During Childhood: An Approach From Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience. Freeze-frame: a new infant inhibition task and its relation to frontal cortex tasks during infancy and early childhood. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain.
Neural Plasticity: The Effects of the Environment on the Development of the Cerebral Cortex. Nature, nurture and development: from evangelism through science towards policy and practice. Neuroimaging studies of normal brain development and their relevance for understanding childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. The structural development of the human brain as measured longitudinally with magnetic resonance imaging. Structural and functional early human development assessed by three-dimensional and four-dimensional sonography.
Infant speech perception activates Broca’s area: a developmental magnetoencephalography study. Communication is essentially made only by three components: verbal, non-verbal si paralingual. Non-verbal and Paralingual Communication betray our anxiety, fear, ecstasy and other inner emotions that make us sometimes nice, sometimes obnoxious, and depending on each situation, is getting us closer or farther from a good communication. In communication, no matter how someone is trying to hide their feelings behind the words, the non-verbal and paralingual communication will betray him. After that, things started to get even worse than before: the people not only delivered a poor quality work, but they avoid any face to face meeting. Being happy provides psychological comfort to everyone and communication becomes much easier. Every time you speak, the image I want to project for others is the image of me at 25, flat stomach and presentable.

It’s too thick, too unconvincing and has a strange accent! The biggest challenge related to my voice was to control the tone, something that is not easy to manage, because voice tone is unconsciously (paralingual communication).
If your mate fails to do its job, help him because he’s likely to return you the same service! Introvert prefers to listen, so he will always expect you to take initiative in the discussion, which can be an advantage. I’ll take a concrete situation in which you propose to communicate on a subconscious level with a person you want to have a relationship.
Note: The bond is obtained by a using certain sequence and repetition of words, but also can be obtained by accented keywords (voice tone).
But, whether we like it or not, people are biological computers, indeed very sophisticated and similar to computers can be re-programmed. Unmet expectations of stakeholders can lead to failure of the entire project regardless of how well managed the other plans: time, budget, etc. This knowledge can aid our efforts to help children who are at risk and to undo, where possible, the effects of early adversity.
Accordingly, we have expanded this year’s Brain Development chapter to include additional information reflecting the latest scientific research.
Finally, we present an outline of brain development from conception to three, linking developmental events to the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with them.
Although we often hear claims about the “language area” or “emotion center” of the brain, statements like these are simplifications; in reality, even the simplest mental activities involve multiple brain regions. The resulting ridges and grooves form a pattern that is essentially the same from person to person. There is a microscopic gap – the synaptic cleft – between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another. Waiting here inside the axon terminals are a group of storage sites, called vesicles, that contain chemicals manufactured and delivered by the cell body.
Each time a neurotransmitter molecule from Neuron A binds with a receptor on Neuron B, ions from the fluid surrounding the cells enter Neuron B through the unlocked receptor. Synapse strength contributes to the connectivity and efficiency of the networks that support learning, memory, and other cognitive abilities.16,17 Therefore, a child’s experiences not only determine what information enters her brain, but also influence how her brain processes information.
The tube gradually closes as the edges of the plate fuse together; this process is usually complete by four weeks after conception.
These movements, in turn, provide the brain with sensory input that spurs on its development.
For the first few months, a baby in an English-speaking home can distinguish between the sounds of a foreign language. On the other hand, these early years are a window of opportunity for parents, caregivers, and communities: positive early experiences have a huge effect on children’s chances for achievement, success, and happiness.
In the same idea, PMI PMBoK (version 8 a) recently created a dedicated chapter for communication management. To be able to project my image I must communicate through looks, hands, gestures, glances, not only verbally. It is very important to understand your body language and what gestures can help you project the image you want. When you go abroad, do not forget to buy your boss a little souvenir, even if it costs $5, the gesture is priceless!
Interpretation of non-verbal language and paralingual can be found in psychology and neuropsychology studies. By improving communication techniques, we can change the way we think, our mood, our emotions and ultimately help us to improve our lives. Behind the brain stem and below the upper brain is the cerebellum, which is involved in balance and coordination. Although less than one-fourth of an inch thick (in adulthood), it is where the brain’s most advanced activities – such as planning and decision-making – take place. The ridges are called gyri (singular=gyrus); the grooves are called sulci (singular=sulcus). The parietal lobes are associated with bodily sensations like heat, cold, pressure, and pain.
The hypothalamus is the control center for one of the body’s key stress systems, regulating the release of cortisol and other stress hormones.
The cell body is the neuron’s control center; among other duties, it stores DNA and generates energy used by the cell. When the electrical charge arrives at the axon terminal, it causes these vesicles to fuse with the terminal’s cell membrane, spilling their contents out of the cell and into the synaptic cleft.
If the amount of input increases (if more speech is heard) synapses between neurons in that area will be activated more often. At this stage, for example, children are better able to use the past to interpret present events. I’m tired about stakeholders complains, I am tired about the fact we are considered to be incompetents. Find out when is your colleagues birthdate and prepare them in advance a customized gift (original gift does much more than an expensive gift). I am also studying Gestalt therapy.I am regrettably not a therapist but I follow closely Gestalt therapy. If there are specific periods of vulnerability to certain types of experiences, then understanding these patterns will improve our attempts at intervention.
The temporal lobes are involved with hearing, language skills, and social understanding, including perception of other people’s eyes and faces.
The dendrites receive incoming signals from other neurons, and the axon and its terminal branches relay outgoing signals to other neurons. Today, no matter other say, I will choose to be very happy and nothing can stop me to do this! The frontal lobes are associated with memory, abstract thinking, planning, and impulse control. Axons are sometimes coated with myelin, a fatty substance that insulates the axon and increases the efficiency of communication. The forward-most section of the frontal lobes is a distinct area referred to as the prefrontal cortex.
After I got stung myself few times, I started to pay attention to people who can influence key stakeholders. This is the last brain area to mature, undergoing important developmental changes as late as adolescence. So I expanded the list of stakeholders with: known acquaintances and friends of key stakeholders.

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