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It holds about 13 per cent (about one pint or 0.57 litres) of the total blood supply at any given moment and it has over 500 estimated functions. The liver is dark reddish brown in colour and is divided into two main lobes which are further subdivided into approximately 100,000 lobules.
Two-thirds of the body of the liver is the parenchyma, which contains the hepatocytes, and the remainder is the biliary tract. The biliary tract contains the right and left hepatic ducts, which meet to form the common hepatic duct.
The gall bladder stores bile, a greenish-yellow coloured liquid, which is de- livered during a meal into the intestine to assist with the breakdown (emulsifying) of fat in the food digested to allow easier absorption of fat and vitamins A, D,E and K. Gallstones are lumps of solid material that form in the gallbladder and usually resemble small stones or gravel, although some can be as large as pebbles. Cancer of the liver is divided into two main types: Primary Cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) which means cancer that starts in the liver, and Secondary or Metastatic Cancer which means cancer that spreads to the liver from another part of the body. Online first aid certificateIn order to download your first aid certificate you will need to complete all modules of our online first aid course.
In order to access our online first aid course you must have registered an account with us and be logged in. The sign that is universally understood to be the sign indicating choking is clutching the throat with the hand.
St Mark James suggests using the ‘five-and-five’ approach on a choking person when you administer first aid.
After you have established that the person is choking, you may apply the Heimlich maneuver to dislodge the blockage. Position your hands at the base of a breast bone (a bit higher than in normal abdominal thrusts), right above the meeting point of the lower ribs. Keep repeating the back blows and the chest compressions till the child starts breathing again.
There are very high chances that you start choking and there will be no one around to help you. Every week for the last 10 months or so we have spent time hunting for and gathering wild food as part of our commercial foraging project with Rhug Organic Estate. Late on Tuesday afternoon we were looking for young Wild Garlic leaves (also known as Ransomes or Ramsons, properly called Allium ursinum) along the shady banks of one of the rivers bordering the estate.
Pretty much every part of the plant is edible, but they are best sampled at different times of the year.
Later on, towards the height of summer and a few months beyond you can make use of the bulbs themselves – assuming you can identify them safely and harvest them without damaging the delicate ecosystem they may inhabit.
So picture the scene – three intrepid foragers wandering along the riverbed, wading through the shallows to reach the overhanging  banks. We have collected our Wild Garlic leaves and walk out through the fields back to the road, with a light mist descending and a view towards the Clwydian Range.

Also known as herpes simplex, cold sores are viral infections affecting the lips, mouth and the nose. The virus infects a certain region of the skin or the nervous region and remains inactive until it is triggered to erupta€”leading to the formation of cold sores. The blisters caused by cold sores are very contagious and should therefore not come in contact with the eyes or other areas of the body. To prevent the virus from becoming active during its phase of dormancy, try to identify and prevent exposure to certain triggers that may allow it to burst. Although cold sores are rarely mentioned in first aid training, they are another reason why candidates should use pocket masks and barrier devices wheneverA availableA when providing artificial respiration and CPR. About 60 per cent of the liver is made up of liver cells (hepatocytes), and each of these have an average lifespan of 150 days. This is joined by the cystic duct from the gall bladder, which then forms the common bile duct. Breakdown products, such as bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, proteins, electrolytes and water are secreted by hepatocytes and they are transported down the bile ducts. Viruses are the commonest cause but there are others which are non viral, such as alcohol excess, the side effects of some drugs, both illegal and prescribed medicines. If the liver is damaged for a short time some of the cells die and the liver regrows to its original size and shape.
In adults, choking normally occurs due to food being lodged in the throat and in children, it occurs due to swallowing of small objects. When you begin chest compressions, the pressure due to the compressions might be able to dislodge the object. Make sure the head is lower than the chest and place two of your fingers in the middle of the child’s breastbone.
It has been more than a little enlightening, and has taken me to some corners of my local area I didn’t know existed. Wild Garlic is one of my favourite wild foods, and a real highlight of the foraging year for me.
Right about now (for foraging in North Wales at least, in the southern counties you might be a little further ahead in the season) the young leaves are the best, and perfect for use in soups and similar dishes.
The steep Welsh woodland was home to a carpet of green, slightly rubbery leaves with that distinctive smell, somewhere between chives and cultivated garlic.
In the Spring its leaves have a distinctive shape, with two pointed lobes at the base and a narrow taper at the tip.
The root of this one is based on Bears, so I guess that Bears Garlic is the most appropriate name. The infection is caused by the virus, herpes simplex 1 and it often does not lead to any potentially life-threatening or severe effects. The trigger has not been recognized yet, but many people report it to being physical or emotional stress, sunlight, hormonal changes due to menstruation, pregnancy or menopause, illnesses, fever and certain foods and medication.

People recover from minor outbreaks within 2 weeks and are usually not left with any scars. Whether it is food, or a small object, the effect is the same; it cuts off the oxygen supply to the brain and can make a person unconscious. The smell alone reminds me of dozens of woodland trips and adventures, and there are few plants in the British countryside that have such a strong taste, and as many uses.
As the plants mature the leaves are still good to eat, but the stems and seeds become more interesting too. We picked leaves from areas where plants were plentiful, and we could take them safe in the knowledge we were causing no harm.
The root was traditionally used to make a beverage (sold as something called Portland Sago), commonly drunk before the arrival to Europe of tea and coffee.
I had identified it straight away and discarded it – but what if I had been a novice forager, taking my first steps into finding wild food for myself and trying something new – would I have discounted the Arum leaf, or would I have assumed that because it was growing up through the other leaves that it was part of the same plant?
For me it serves as an example of a good reason for learning latin names for plants, particularly ones you plan on eating. You do not want to contract the infection, therefore make sure you wear theA necessary safety equipment, especially gloves.
Smooth liver tissue is replaced by irregular nodules and the liver becomes much harder than normal. Therefore, prompt action must be taken and first aid must be administered to remove the obstruction.
The stems can be treated like spring onions and add a kick to stir fries (pork is my favourite accompaniment) and the seed heads can be pickled and used later in the year like capers. In the Autumn it becomes a tight cluster of red and orange berries – which are the bit you REALLY want to avoid.
They do look similar in colour and size, and although the shape is quite different that would have been less clear if only the top half of the leaf had been picked.
As I grasped one clump and gently pulled a slight difference in the texture of one of the leaves made me stop and check – what was different? They contain oxalates of saponins which have tiny, needle shaped crystals that cause irritation to and inflammation of the nose, lips, mouth, throat, skin and cause symptoms not unlike that of a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis. I opened my hands out and laid the handful of garlic leaves out on the soil and found the unwanted extra – a member of the Araceae family. Arum poisoning, although rare, is the most common type of plant poisoning presented at A & E departments.

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