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13.02.2014 admin
Recently, the Governor of Michigan signed into law a requirement that radiologists inform women if their mammogram reveals dense breasts. Risk Determination and Prevention of Breast Cancer[1], published in the journal Breast Cancer Research, identifies the critical gaps that must be addressed if we are to reverse the increase in breast cancer expected over the next 10 years – and reach a tipping point where more breast cancers will be prevented in the general population, not only in women at high risk. The number of people diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK is on the rise and this trend is projected to continue until at least 2030. Risk estimation: Accurate ways to estimate risk in the general population and in women at high risk. Breast density laws require physicians to inform women if they have dense breasts along with the possible risks that can be present. Minnesota becomes the sixteenth state with mandatory breast density notification for women, and Rhode Island became the seventeenth. Connecticut was the first state to pass breast density inform legislation in 2009, followed by Texas, Virginia, California, New York, Hawaii, Maryland, Alabama, Tennessee, Nevada, Oregon, North Carolina and Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Arizona and now Minnesota and Rhode Island. Arizona became the fifteenth state to require physicians to inform women if they have dense breasts along with the possible risks that can be present.
After legislation was introduced at the request of a diagnostic radiologist in Arizona, and went through the procedural votes in both chambers, Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1225 into law late last week. Connecticut was the first state to pass breast density inform legislation in 2009, followed by Texas, Virginia, California, New York, and most recently Hawaii, Maryland, Alabama, Tennessee, Nevada, Oregon, North Carolina and Pennsylvania, New Jersey and now Arizona.
Pushkin approached the FDA about adding an amendment and learned, fortuitously, that the MQSA was up for reauthorization.
She hopes the amendment will require notification in states that clearly and unambiguously tell a woman she has dense breasts, and for doctors to explain what that means. Though recent studies have called ultrasound the best imaging method for dense breasts, Pushkin doesn’t think the notifications should include any further prescriptive advice beyond encouraging women to discuss further steps with their doctors. The California State Legislature passed a bill last Friday requiring doctors to inform women if they have dense breasts after a mammogram, making California the second state this summer and the third state so far to have passed a so-called breast density law. Because your mammogram demonstrates that you have dense breast tissue, which could hide small abnormalities, you might benefit from supplementary screening tests, depending on your individual risk factors.
The American College of Radiology Imaging Network says that around 40 percent of women getting screening mammograms have dense breasts, with younger women typically having denser breasts. A January 2011 study by the Mayo Clinic found three-quarters of cancers in women with dense breasts are missed by mammograms. The idea for the bill came from by Amy Colton, a registered nurse who had breast cancer not discovered by a mammogram, and who learned she had dense breasts only after her cancer was diagnosed, according to Are You Dense. But the bill was backed by several other groups, including the California Nurses Association, the Breast Cancer Fund, the California Association of Health Underwriters and California NOW.
Subjects were excluded if they had a previous diagnosis of invasive breast cancer or if their digital screen resulted in a diagnosis of bilateral breast cancer.
Wolfe’s Parenchymal Pattern and Percentage of the Breast with Mammographic Densities Redundant or Complementary Classifications? 2 clicks for more privacy: On the first click the button will be activated and you can then share the poster with a second click. What factors affect false positive recalls most in digital breast tomosynthesis versus digital mammography? If you’re concerned about breast cancer, you may be wondering if there are steps you can take toward breast cancer prevention. Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables hasn’t been consistently shown to offer protection from breast cancer. However, eating a healthy diet may decrease your risk of other types of cancer, as well as diabetes, heart disease and stroke. By Mayo Clinic staff If you’re concerned about breast cancer, you may be wondering if there are steps you can take toward breast cancer prevention.
The role of vitamin D in preventing breast cancer has been extensively studied and the results encouraging. I hope that more and more of male patients are realizing that evaluating and treating their hormone imbalances is just as important for them as it if for the women in their lives. Stages in cervical cancer are a fundamental key in finding out how the cancer has spread to the surrounding cells or tissues. According to the American Cancer Society, the stages are described using the number 0 and Roman numerals from I to IV, with some stages further divided into sub-stages as indicated by letters and numbers.
0: Cancer cells are only in the layer of cells lining the cervix (surface cells), without invading deeper tissues of the cervix. II: The cancer has grown beyond the cervix and uterus but has not spread to the walls of the pelvis or the lower part of the vagina.
IIA: The cancer has not spread into the tissues next to the cervix (called the parametria) but may have grown into the upper part of the vagina and not spread to N or M.
IIB: The cancer has spread into the tissues next to the cervix (called the parametria) and not spread to N or M.
III: The cancer has spread to the walls of the pelvis or the lower part of the vagina and not spread to N or M. IIIA: The cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina but not to the walls of the pelvis and not spread to N or M. IVA: The cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum, which are organs close to the cervix and not spread to N or M. Researchers at the University of Colorado Cancer Center have developed a test that identifies a key biomarker in advanced lung cancer that helped reduce the risk of death by 36 percent over a 30- month period in a recent clinical trial.
During the 2012 plan year, more than 4,000 of us earned nearly 1.5 million wellness points - earning gift cards or adding dollars to our health accounts to reduce our out-of-pocket deductible expenses. Our participation in wellness points programs has focused our attention on specific ways to improve our health, like getting enough sleep each night and practicing stress reduction techniques throughout our day.
Each year, we have two opportunities to learn about our health, including the Health Basics Check (HBC) and the Health Risk Assessment (HRA).
In 2012, both of these programs were required to enroll in medical plans other than the Basic Account plan, and this requirement will continue for the 2013-14 plan year. The HBC teaches us our important health numbers which are good indicators of our overall health, including our blood pressure, cholesterol level and Body Mass Index (BMI). The HRA is a confidential online health evaluation that reports our overall health condition, identifies potential risk areas, and provides tools and information to improve both. We're excited to see more employees and their spouses take advantage of these informative screenings. Each year, we take a snapshot of the state of our health using summary HBC and HRA results complied by StayWell, our wellness vendor. Risk factor prevalence is a key indicator of overall health condition: the fewer risks you have, the more likely you are to be healthy overall.
In 2012, our self-reported results also showed improvements in additional risk factors, like back care, healthy eating and physical activity. Preventive care identifies health care issues before they become life-threatening. In 2012, we significantly improved our participation in colonoscopy, breast cancer and cervical cancer screenings. The Take CARE Wellness Program will continue to provide easy-to-understand and practical information about ways to improve our most common health risks.
Watch Daily E-News for details about the 2013 Health Basics Check (HBC) and the online Health Risk Assessment (HRA). You must complete both the 2013 HBC and HRA to enroll in plans other than the Basic Account medical plan.
Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, currently available treatments still can't achieve long-term survivorship in most patients.

Based on the findings of this study and other previous studies by the same group that show the importance of ARF6 in other biological processes, Navigen Inc., a Salt Lake City-based pharmaceutical and medical device company, is investigating new ARF6 inhibitors for pre-clinical studies. Researchers from UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center are part of a team that has identified a protein, called P-Rex1, that is key to the movement of cells called melanoblasts. As with most cancers, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells have abnormal amounts of chromosomes or DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) in their genomes. Using technology they developed, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have identified a previously unknown role of a certain class of proteins: as regulators of gene activity and RNA processing.
In the search for new ways to attack recurrent prostate cancer, researchers at Duke Health report that a novel compound appears to have a unique way of blocking testosterone from fueling the tumors in mice. A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team has identified an additional mechanism for resistance to targeted treatment for BRAF-mutant melanoma. Many types of cancer are caused by gene mutations in the signalling pathways that control cell growth, such as the hedgehog signalling pathway.
Cancers such as breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma release the blood vessel growth factor, VEGF, to encourage blood vessels to grow within the tumor, supplying it with nutrients. Scientists at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute have discovered a key molecule needed to kill the blood vessels that supply tumours.
The research team from the institute's Molecular Genetics of Cancer and Cancer and Haematology divisions found that for anti-cancer therapies that target tumour blood vessels to work the death- inducing molecule Bim is required. The growth of solid tumours, such as lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma, depends on nutrients and oxygen being provided by the tumour blood supply. New 'anti-angiogenic' medications that attack the blood vessels within tumours are showing promise in starving many types of cancers by reducing their blood supply. In this study, in experimental melanoma, lung cancer and breast cancer models, Bim levels increased in the cells lining the blood vessels when VEGF was depleted by anti-angiogenic drugs, ultimately killing the blood vessel cells. Dr Strasser said this finding suggests that strategies for treating tumours by attacking the tumour blood supply could be optimised by incorporating drugs called BH3-mimetics that cause cell death by acting like Bim at a molecular level. An Australian research team has identified a gene that could be used to stop tumours growing by blocking their blood supply. The development of cancerous tumours is highly dependent on the nutrients the tumours receive through the blood. A DNA-vaccine that restricts the supply of blood to tumours has been developed by scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet. We are more susceptible to infection at certain times of the day as our body clock affects the ability of viruses to replicate and spread between cells, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Scientists in Germany have developed a new approach that may prevent leukemia and lymphoma patients from developing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after therapeutic bone marrow transplants. Coronary artery disease, the number one killer world-wide, restricts and ultimately blocks blood vessels, and cuts off oxygen supply to the heart.
High breast density is highlighted as a significant risk factor for breast cancer that could play a key role in redefining the risk of breast cancer faced by each individual woman. The increase is partly due to an aging population, insufficient levels of physical activity, increases in obesity and alcohol consumption, women having fewer children and having them later in life, all of which are risk factors for the disease.
Adding information about breast density and newly identified genes is likely to improve existing models.
The specificity and depth of density information a woman receives will depend on what is required in her home state. Lincoln Chafee signed Rhode Island’s breast density inform bill into law, and late last week, Gov.
Advocates proposed an amendment to the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) that would require that women screened for breast cancer be informed if they have dense breasts. Together with other advocates and radiologists, Pushkin succeeded in getting the agency to consider the regulatory amendment. A report of your mammography results, which contains information about your breast density, has been sent to your physician’s office and you should contact your physician if you have any questions or concerns about this notice. The connective tissue appears white on a mammogram, just like the cancer, making it harder to diagnose, according to Are You Dense, an advocacy group. Writing about an earlier incarnation of the bill, SB 173, the CMA warned that it could bring legal and practical problems for Calif. Hypoxia is a key factor regulating angiogenesis and metabolism , particularly inducing VEGF but also many other angiogenic factors.
Physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight, which, in turn, helps prevent breast cancer. Combination hormone therapy for more than three to five years increases the risk of breast cancer. Medical-imaging methods, such as computerized tomography, use high doses of radiation, which have been linked with breast cancer risk. In addition, a low-fat diet appears to offer only a slight reduction in the risk of breast cancer. A healthy diet can also help you maintain a healthy weight — a key factor in breast cancer prevention.
More than 50,000 women worldwide develop cervical cancer and if the cancer is detected at its earlier stage, it’s always treatable. It is used to diagnose the size of the tumor, the spread of cancerous cells to distant organs (metastasis) or lymph nodes, or how deeply the tumor or growth has invaded into tissues around or within the affected area. The stage is also called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III (CIN III). The tumor can be any size and may have spread to the lower part of the vagina or walls of the pelvis.
Our colleagues like Deana Carrillo have shared their stories about their participation in the Take CARE Wellness Program, inspiring more of us to eat healthier and exercise - through programs like our onsite fitness classes. We also review preventive care participation and the prevalence of chronic health conditions using summary data provided by Cigna, our medical plan administrator. In 2012, our spouses did a better job managing their blood pressure with 3% moving out of the hypertensive category. In 2012, our spouses did a better job maintaining their overall number of risk factors. In 2013, we want to reduce our risk factor prevalence. In 2013, we want to continue to reduce all nine of these risk factors, focusing on stress reduction and weight management. In 2013, we want to continue this positive trend with more of us taking advantage of no-cost preventive care available through all of the CMH medical plans. On an ongoing basis, we want to connect employees and their spouses who have chronic health conditions with Cigna Disease Management services, providing education and resources to help them manage these conditions. With information and support, we're confident we will reduce our risk factors and improve our overall health. The American Heart Association named Children’s Mercy a 2012 Gold Achievement Fit-Friendly Worksite. Inhibition of the protein known as adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) reduces the spread of melanoma to the lungs in mice, according to a study published in the March 5 issue of Science Signaling online, suggesting that targeting ARF6 may be an effective approach to preventing melanoma metastasis. Approximately one in 50 people will develop melanoma in their lifetime, and the number of melanoma cases diagnosed each year is increasing faster than for any other cancer. Grossmann and her colleagues discovered a new molecular pathway involving ARF6 that promotes metastasis and can be inhibited by a small molecule known as SecinH3. Tumors can be treated with anti-cancer medications that kill the cancer cells, and anti-angiogenic medications that starve the tumour by attacking its blood supply. The finding could lead to improved anti-cancer treatments that are based on a two- or three-pronged attack on both the tumour and its blood supply.

Cancer cells encourage the growth of blood vessels to feed a tumour by producing the hormone-like protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our previous research had showed they can directly trigger death in tumour cells, particularly when the tumour is also attacked by chemotherapeutic drugs. The key to many medical problems, like preventing tumour development, is therefore to obstruct the spread of the blood vessels.
Although they are found in virtually every organism, the function of these proteins remained unclear. With this act, Michigan became the 21st state to enact legislation on mandatory reporting of breast density found in breast cancer screening. By population, over fifty percent of American women now live in states that require breast density information be provided to them in the letter they receive after their mammogram. For instance, in some states women receive only general information about breast density, while in other states, women receive clear and unambiguous notification that they have dense breasts. If you choose to drink alcohol — including beer, wine or liquor — limit yourself to no more than one drink a day. For most healthy adults, the Department of Health and Human Services recommends at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity weekly, plus strength training at least twice a week. If you’re taking hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms, ask your doctor about other options. Staging is always evaluated by the doctor’s physical tests such as cystoscopy, proctoscopy or CT (computed tomography) scans of the pelvis and abdomen and it is a key factor in giving the appropriate treatment plan to the cancer patients.
In 2013, we will continue to educate about the importance of knowing and managing blood pressure. In 2013, we will continue to educate about the importance of knowing and managing cholesterol. In 2013, we'll continue to educate about the importance of healthy habits to help maintain a healthier weight. While melanoma generally starts as a single skin tumor, cancer cells can spread, or metastasize, to distant sites throughout the body such as the liver, lungs, and brain.
The study suggests that a third type of medication, BH3-mimetics, may enhance the tumor-killing effect of anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic medications. The research by Drs Edwina Naik, Leigh Coultas and Lorraine O'Reilly, and Professors Jerry Adams and Andreas Strasser showed that VEGF produced by tumours blocks production of Bim in the cells that line the tumour blood vessels. However, in mice in which the blood vessels do not express Bim, VEGF depletion did not affect the number of tumour-associated blood vessels, and tumours grown in Bim-deficient mice did not respond to anti-angiogenic treatments. We now think BH3-mimetics could also impact tumour cells indirectly by killing endothelial cells within tumours. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic drugs can change the biology of the cancer , increasing metastasis or enhancing growth by co-option of vessels.
You may be able to manage your symptoms with nonhormonal therapies, such as physical activity. While more studies are needed, some research suggests a link between breast cancer and exposure to the chemicals found in some workplaces, gasoline fumes and vehicle exhaust. Ideally, we want to reduce the number of us with hypertension (high blood pressure) and pre-hypertension (blood pressure at-risk of being high).
But the notification women receive varies state to state, with the level of detail differing and not necessarily consistent with the information to be discussed with their physicians. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between smoking and breast cancer risk, particularly in premenopausal women.
If you decide that the benefits of short-term hormone therapy outweigh the risks, use the lowest dose that works for you. Notch signalling is one of these major pathways, and we are studying notch signalling to understand more about the basic mechanisms in a model organism, as well as investigate new mechanisms by which notch signalling can be transferred to distant sites via exosomes and microparticles.Hypoxic cells are under stress and induce many pathways to help their survival. The heparan sulfate editing enzyme Sulf1 plays a novel role in zebrafish VegfA mediated arterial venous identity. Hirsch and his colleagues created a scoring system ranging from 0 to 400 that identified patients with the highest levels of the protein Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). 3 distinct patterns of response [Figure 2] have emerged, using digital contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI]; a marked regression of leaky vessels throughout the tumour [good response, pattern 1], a regression of vessels but emergence of a necrotic core [intermediate response, pattern 2], and no response at all [pattern 3]. A clinical trial held in Europe known as the FLEX-study, found that 30 percent of the advanced lung cancer patients who took part had high levels of the EGFR protein identified by the University of Colorado Cancer Center test. These early patterns provide a model for both de novo resistance, and response followed by induction of hypoxia.We have serial biopsies for gene arrays to investigate the mechanisms. Extensive regulation of the non-coding transcriptome by hypoxia: role of HIF in releasing paused RNApol2. However, experimentally we have shown the key effect of notch signalling causing resistance to Bevacizumab [pattern 3], and recently found that experimental tumours partially responsive to Bevacizumab show the second pattern. One group received standard chemotherapy while the other had chemotherapy along with the drug cetuximab, an antibody that attaches to EGFR receptors atop lung cancer cells and often inhibits their growth. The results were announced at the 2011 European Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference in Stockholm. Using the Cancer Center test, the trial showed that Caucasian patients with an over expression of EGFR and treated with chemotherapy and cetuximab had a 36 percent reduction in deaths compared to the other group. Hirsch, who discussed the study results at the Stockholm conference, said the test is another step toward finding the best, most effective therapy for each patient.
Role of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in generating an aerobic metabolic phenotype and in breast cancer progression.
This is a huge improvement but everything is based on the selection criteria." The CU School of Medicine is a prominent leading institution in lung cancer research.
Ross Camidge, clinical director of the Thoracic Oncology Program at the University of Colorado Hospital and a Cancer Center investigator, has helped develop effective drug treatments for patients with the ALK gene rearrangement, an abnormality that occurs in three to five percent of lung cancer patients. Hirsch is currently leading a clinical trial with colleagues in the Southwest Oncology Group that is similar to the European study. He hopes it will further validate the predictive value of the test in relation to using cetuximab in patients with advanced lung cancer.
Hirsch's research laboratory specializes in identifying biomarkers that can predict benefits from new cancer drugs and place the right patients with the right therapy. The results of the European trial are expected to be published in an upcoming edition of The Lancet Oncology.
A core human primary tumor angiogenesis signature identifies the endothelial orphan receptor ELTD1 as a key regulator of angiogenesis. Dichloroacetate reverses the hypoxic adaptation to bevacizumab and enhances its antitumor effects in mouse xenografts.
High DLL4 expression in tumour-associated vessels predicts for favorable radiotherapy outcome in locally advanced squamous cell head-neck cancer (HNSCC). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity modifies the toxicity of doxorubicin and melphalan in tumour cells in vitro. A 26-gene hypoxia signature predicts benefit from hypoxia-modifying therapy in laryngeal cancer but not bladder cancer. Human CHCHD4 mitochondrial proteins regulate cellular oxygen consumption rate and metabolism and provide a critical role in hypoxia signaling and tumor progression.

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