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02.05.2016
Prostate cancer with bone metastases can be categorized into stage IV (the most advanced stage of the disease) which typically has the worst prognosis. Bone metastases is also familiar called secondary bone cancer which means cancer that develops and occurs in the bone due to the cancer metastasis from other parts of the body. In this section, we will discuss about the cancer of bone that comes from the cancerous cells of prostate. Bone metastases from cancer of prostate usually occur if the cancerous cells leave their primary original site (prostate) and move into the bloodstream of patient. They are pretty common in patients with advanced prostate cancer (at stage IV or when the cancerous cells have spread beyond the prostate).
So women with primary breast cancer and people with primary cancers of lung or kidneys – they are also more likely to have secondary bone cancer when they have primary cancer at advanced stage (the cancer cells have spread beyond the primary site). Once cancer cells of prostate spread and affect the bone, the disease may still respond the treatment and also may be able to be controlled – but generally it is no longer to be cured completely. When the cancer of prostate has spread into the bones, some common symptoms that may occur include: swelling, problems with movement, and pain that occur in the affected bones. Once a cancerous tumor is formed in the bone, it can produce unfriendly chemicals that affect the normal cycle of the old bone cells replacement by new bone cells.
The cancer also can make the bone release too much Ca (calcium) into bloodstream (this is called hypercalcaemia).
Once you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor usually will perform several test to get to know whether or not the disease has spread into bones.
Higher level of PSA (prostate specific antigen) also can be used to analyze how fast the disease to spread. Thankfully, much can be done to recover from prostate cancer, but the key is prevention and early recognition, as this cancer usually does not express many of the above symptoms (such as hip or bone pain) until it has already spread. If you or a man you know is experiencing any changes in urination or any of the symptoms above, it is highly recommended to visit a trained physician.
Dr Hallee is a naturopathic doctor who has a family practice, with expertise in women’s health.
About the Today Media GroupWe are committed to an open discussion, involving the public, in the management and administration of public affairs in this city. Our commitment to free speech means we will not present a one-sided chronicle of public affairs in our community but rather we will offer differing points of view on the subjects we cover. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix (the opening of uterus) to the outside of the body.
Age and being exposed to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a woman’s risk of vaginal cancer. Tests that examine the vagina and other organs in the pelvis are used to detect (find) and diagnose vaginal cancer. After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the vagina or to other parts of the body.
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. In vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the vagina.
VAIN 1: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost one third of the tissue lining the vagina. VAIN 2: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost two-thirds of the tissue lining the vagina. In stage II, cancer has spread through the wall of the vagina to the tissue around the vagina. Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to parts of the body that are not near the vagina, such as the lung or bone. Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Wide local excision: A surgical procedure that takes out the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.
Lymph node dissection: A surgical procedure in which lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. Pelvic exenteration: Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, bladder, cervix, vagina, and ovaries. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Topical chemotherapy for squamous cell vaginal cancer may be applied to the vagina in a cream or lotion.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. A combination of therapies that may include wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection and internal radiation therapy. Treatment of stage II vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage III vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage IVA vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage IVB vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life. Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with stage IVB vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer. Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with recurrent vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer. Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of vaginal cancer. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. A very common question heard in the urology clinic amongst men with prostate cancer recently, “I heard about __________, a new treatment on the radio for advanced prostate cancer.


Notice the multiple black dots on the skeleton, each represent a small prostate cancer tumor.
From a management standpoint, when prostate cancer spreads to another organ we shift our goals from cure to control, aiming to slow progression, reduce pain and suffering from the disease as much as possible. The AUA recently published new clinical guidelines for men with advanced prostate cancer – click here. If the man with CRPC does have visible tumors on x-rays, though it depends heavily on his overall health, most men will be offered a traditional chemotherapy drug called docetaxal, especially if he is experiencing pain or other physical symptoms directly caused by the metastatic disease. Abiraterone  (Zytiga®): Abiraterone is essentially an advanced hormonal ablation treatment. Xofigo® (Radium-223): Another space age treatment option, this radioactive material is injected directly into the blood stream and targets CRPC that has spread to the bone. Enzalutamide (Xtandia®): Since it is not always possible the prompt the body to stop all testosterone production, the creation of a medication that can block testosterone from impacting prostate cancer cells is advantageous. Before the cancerous cells spread into the bone, typically they will affect the nearby sites first – such as pelvic cavity, rectum, bladder, and nearby muscles. In other words, metastases don’t point to a new form of cancerous tumors, but it actually points to a new growth of the primary cancerous tumor. It is the opposite of secondary type which means cancer of bone that develops from the original cells of the bone.
After affecting the bloodstream, there is a chance from them to lodge in the bone of patient where they begin to form a new growth of cancerous tumor. But in line with the progress of the disease there is a chance for the bone metastases to affect larger area of the bone (many sites), particularly true if left untreated!
Other types of cancer that often spread into the bone are cancers of lung, breast, and kidneys. Therefore, the treatments are more focused on how to eliminate the metastasis of the cancer, ease the symptoms of the disease, and encourage the quality of patient’s life.
There is always a hope for each patient to get the better prognosis – no matter how far the cells of cancer have spread. And the more aggressive of the disease means that it also can grow & spread more quickly (greater chance to spread into the bones). But there are some patients with high level of PSA and they have a slowly growth of prostate cancer.
During the test, the specialist usually uses a special substance which then will be injected into a vein of patient – then the scanning test can be performed about 2-3 hours after the injection.
It seems to be linked to things like low vitamin status, and diets high in sugar, animal products, trans and saturated fats, as well as exposure to tobacco smoke, pesticide and fertilizers to name a few. When it comes to health concerns that can possibly mimic cancer, getting a proper workup may save a life or at least piece of mind. She has been around the world to learn various aspects of health care and is now located in Langley BC at Meditrine Naturopathic Medical Clinic.
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We are issuing an open invitation to all stakeholders, residents and people with something of value to add to the discussion to participate in this web site so that all voices in our community can be heard. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina.
Squamous cell vaginal cancer spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs, liver, or bone. Adenocarcinoma is more likely than squamous cell cancer to spread to the lungs and lymph nodes. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. If a Pap test shows abnormal cells in the vagina, a biopsy may be done during a colposcopy.
An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
A cystoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A ureteroscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the ureter. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.
The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body. For example, if vaginal cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually vaginal cancer cells.
When abnormal cells are found throughout the tissue lining, it is called carcinoma in situ. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Skin grafting is a surgical procedure in which skin is moved from one part of the body to another.
Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner.
Most men are diagnosed early when the disease can be cured with either surgery, radiation, or not treated at all by entering an active surveillance protocol.
Unfortunately most prostate tumors learn to live without testosterone eventually; the positive effect of castration is rarely forever.
Can we see where the cancer has spread to, or do we only know it is there because of an abnormal PSA blood test? Blood is taken from the man, a series of modifications are made to his own blood cells, then transfused back into the patient.
The drug reduces testosterone production more effectively than first line hormonal ablation.


The radioactive compound is incorporated into the bone surrounding the metastatic prostate tumor and kills tumor cells with alpha particles. Therefore, it’s important for doctors to plan the appropriate treatment to prevent the metastasis of prostate cancer. For more detailed information about the stages of prostate cancer and the most common distinct sites for the metastasis of the disease, visit this section! In general, the treatment for secondary type is more focused to treat the original site of where the cancerous cells come from. This metastasis may take several years to develop – depending on the aggressiveness level of the prostate cancer. You may also like to read the previous article about the statistics of life expectancy for the advanced prostate cancer in here! But in many cases, patients with higher PSA level are more likely to have more aggressive cancer of prostate. There are also links to our gene expression as well, which can be what we have inherited from our parents or changes that have occurred from environmental influence. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the blood test which is most ordered for symptoms of prostate cancer, but this test is not entirely accurate. Medicines such as herbal formulations that include things like stinging nettle root are available for such purposes. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. A rare type of adenocarcinoma is linked to being exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth.
A biopsy that removes only a small amount of tissue is usually done in the doctor’s office.
A piece of healthy skin is taken from a part of the body that is usually hidden, such as the buttock or thigh, and used to repair or rebuild the area treated with surgery. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.
For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. While none promise to cure men with the disease, all of these treatments have been shown to provide new hope of longer survival and better control of cancer-related symptoms. At early stages of the disease (such as stage I and stage II), the cancerous cells don’t spread yet and these also are the most treatable stages of the disease. For instance, if the secondary bone cancer is caused by the metastasis of prostate cancer – then doctors more focus to treat the cancer of prostate itself and prevent it to spread to other parts of the body. In the case of prostate cancer, there are many natural treatments that act as wonderful adjuncts to the more modern practices of chemo, radiation and surgery. Adenocarcinomas that are not linked with being exposed to DES are most common in women after menopause. A cone biopsy (removal of a larger, cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal) is usually done in the hospital. In a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, (a) the uterus plus one (unilateral) ovary and fallopian tube are removed; or (b) the uterus plus both (bilateral) ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).
During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. There is no more exciting segment of prostate cancer research than for men with advanced prostate cancer. Every tumor is different, each tumor has it’s own biological clock, and I have seen tumors become resistant to hormonal ablation after just 3 months while other tumors continue to respond for 20 years. Not all men can tolerate docetaxal, and some men refuse chemotherapy because it can cause significant side effects.
These include a weakened flow of urine, an urge to urinate often including at night time and general changes to the urine amount and frequency.
Some of these women develop a rare form of vaginal cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, both ovaries, both fallopian tubes, and nearby tissue are removed.
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. We generally understand that these men cannot be cured of their disease – there is no treatment known that can eradicate prostate cancer once it has spread to other organs. Today we have medications that trick the testicles into shutting down testosterone production. When the tumor begins to grow despite castration, the disease gains a new name: castration-resistant prostate cancer (or CRPC for short). While the exam may be more invasive and uncomfortable, it can tell a doctor a lot about the state of the patient’s prostate. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.
By removing testosterone from the system it is well known that the patient’s prostate cancer will respond and shrink. For most of the past 70 years, once a tumor becomes resistant to castration, progression and eventually death from the disease was an inevitability. If the doctor finds harder nodules, it indicates cancer, but if the prostate is even throughout but large, it indicates BPH.



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