What causes prostate to enlarge a the age of 44,best supplement for health,prostate diseases ppt slides - Reviews

Description:A homeopathic ingredient that favorably influences and modifies the craving for tobacco. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.
The glandular cells produce a milky fluid, and during sex the smooth muscles contract and squeeze this fluid into the urethra. The prostate gland also contains an enzyme, called 5 alpha-reductase, that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, another male hormone that has a major impact on the prostate. Scientists are researching other genetic variations that may increase prostate cancer risk. A gene is a short segment of DNA which is interpreted by the body as a plan or template for building a specific protein.
Male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone, may play a role in the development or aggressiveness of prostate cancer.
Researchers are studying whether prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk.
Because a Western lifestyle is associated with prostate cancer, so dietary factors have been intensively studied. Click the icon to see an image of the sources of vitamin D.Click the icon to see an image of the sources of vitamin E. Finasteride (Proscar, generic) and dutasteride (Avodart) are drugs used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Finasteride and dutasteride may cause reduced sexual drive and problems with erection during the first 1 - 2 years of use.
A survival rate indicates the percentage of patients who live a specific number of years after the cancer is diagnosed. Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.
Because so many prostate tumors are low-grade and slow growing, survival rates are excellent when prostate cancer is detected in its early stages.
If the disease is at the locally-advanced stage, in which it has spread beyond the prostate but only to nearby regions, it is more difficult to cure, but survival rates can be prolonged for years in many men. If prostate cancer has spread to distant organs (metastasized), average survival time is 1 - 3 years, but some of these patients may live much longer. If cancer recurs after initial treatment for early-stage tumors, it is still potentially curable if it is contained within the prostate, although in most cases the cancer has spread.
Urine flows from the kidney through the ureters into the urinary bladder where it is temporarily stored.
Significant pain in one or more bones may indicate the occurrence of metastases (spread of disease).
BPH is a urinary condition that can develop into an enlarged prostate, which puts pressure on the urethra and causes urinary problems. Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, commonly found in men over the age of 50.
Men ages 50 - 75 should be offered annual screening with the PSA test and digital rectal exam.
Men with a family history of prostate cancer and all African-American men should consider annual screening at about age 40 - 45. PSA screening may result in the detection of some possible cancers that would never have bothered the patient and would never have posed a threat to his life. An ultrasound procedure called transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) may be used to help the doctor see where to take the needle biopsy. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can further pinpoint the location of cancer that has spread beyond the prostate.
N followed by 0 through 3 refers to whether the cancer has reached the regional lymph nodes, which are located next to the prostate in the pelvic region. Tumors are assigned scores according to a scale known as the Gleason system, which measure how well or how poorly organized the cancer cells are under the microscope. Score 7 - 10: Moderately poorly to poorly differentiated, with 15-year survival rates of 15 - 40%. Patients should be aware that doctors may be biased to prefer a specific treatment depending on their specialty, with urologists tending to recommend surgery and radiation oncologists recommending radiation therapy.
Stage III, locally advanced cancer, means that the cancer has spread into the seminal vesicles (glands at the base of the bladder, which are connected to the prostate gland and help produce semen). Recent guidelines recommend that patients with localized cancer should be classified as low, intermediate, or high risk. Compared with active surveillance, radical prostatectomy may lower the risk of cancer recurrence and death, at least in men younger than age 65 at the time of diagnosis. For men at intermediate and high risk, adding androgen deprivation (hormonal) therapy to external beam radiation may improve survival but increase adverse side effects. Initial (first-line) androgen deprivation therapy is seldom recommended for localized prostate cancer except for the relief of symptoms in patients with poor prognoses.
Patients with localized prostate cancer should have the opportunity to enroll in clinical trials investigating new types of therapy.
If prostate cancer has been eliminated after initial treatment, PSA levels should drop after surgery. It is common for PSA levels to temporarily rise following radiation seed implantation without signaling cancer recurrence. Treatment options for recurrent cancer depend on various factors, including prior treatment, site of recurrence, coexistent illnesses, and individual patient considerations. Patients whose cancer recurs locally after prostatectomy: Radiation therapy, androgen deprivation therapy.
Patients whose cancer recurs locally after radiation therapy: Androgen deprivation therapy, prostatectomy (very select patients).
Prostate cancer treatments can cause distressing side effects by impairing sexual function (erectile dysfunction), urination (incontinence or difficulty urinating), bowel function (incontinence), and energy levels (fatigue). Side effects vary among patients and it is difficult to predict how an individual patient will respond. External beam radiation therapy provides the best initial results for recovery of sexual function. Nerve-sparing prostatectomy generally produces better sexual function than conventional radical prostatectomy. External beam radiation therapy produces better urinary control and sexual function than brachytherapy, but brachytherapy has better results for these side effects than radical prostatectomy. Radiotherapy (both brachytherapy and external beam radiation) generally causes more bowel problems than surgery, although this side effect usually improves after 1 year. Some doctors think that because prostate cancer grows so slowly, it is likely that older men will die from causes unrelated to the cancer.
Radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland along with the seminal vesicles (the vessels that carry semen) and surrounding tissue.
Retropubically (through the abdomen and under the pubic bone, exposing the entire surface of the prostate). Nerve-sparing techniques can improve quality of life, by decreasing the occurrence of incontinence and erectile dysfunction.
Patients remain hospitalized for about 3 days after an open procedure or 2 days after less invasive procedure. The main complications from radical prostatectomy are urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.
Erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy is caused by nerves that were damaged or removed during the surgery. With the use of effective nerve-sparing techniques, men who were sexually active before surgery and are involved in an ongoing relationship seem to have a better chance of returned sexual function. Radiation therapy used to be reserved for older men (over age 70) with locally advanced prostate cancer who had a life expectancy of 15 years or less. In external beam radiation therapy, a doctor focuses a beam of radiation directly on the tumor for 35 3-minute treatments given 5 times a week over 7 weeks. Patients considering external beam radiation should be aware that higher radiation doses may reduce the risk for cancer recurrence and improve survival outcome. Brachytherapy is mainly used for men who have early stage prostate cancer that is relatively slow growing.
Many patients experience a need for frequent urination shortly after radiation therapy, and urgency persists longterm for about some patients. Unlike surgery, erectile dysfunction does not usually occur immediately following radiation therapy. Cryosurgery is an alternative to standard prostatectomy for men with localized prostate cancer who do not want or who are not appropriate candidates for radical prostatectomy.
Cryosurgery is typically a 2-hour outpatient procedure, although some patients may need to stay in the hospital overnight. Nearly all patients experience erectile dysfunction after cryosurgery, and urinary incontinence is also common. This therapy is still considered experimental by some doctors, and there are no long-term data to compare its effectiveness with standard prostatectomy. Male hormones (called androgens), particularly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, determine male secondary sex characteristics and stimulate prostate cell growth. Androgen deprivation therapy (also called androgen suppression therapy or hormone therapy) uses drugs or surgery to suppress or block male hormones, particularly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, that stimulate the growth of prostate cells. Androgen deprivation therapy is used for advanced and metastatic cancer and may be used if treatment for localized prostate cancer has failed and cancer recurs (as indicated by rising PSA levels). ASCO recommends either removal of both testicles (bilateral orchiectomy) or injections with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as initial androgen deprivation treatments.
When prescribing hormone therapy drugs, some doctors recommend periodically stopping and restarting treatment (intermittent therapy). The primary drugs used for suppressing androgens are called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones (LHRH) agonists. Treatment with LHRH agonists produces a testosterone surge in the first week, which may actually intensify symptoms.
The main anti-androgen drugs include flutamide (Eulexin, Drogenil), nilutamide (Nilandron), and bicalutamide (Casodex).
In 2008, the FDA approved degarelix as a hormonal drug treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Men often experience fatigue, loss of energy, and emotional distress from androgen suppression treatment. In addition, there is growing evidence that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risks for heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.
Prostate cancer that does not respond to hormonal treatment is called hormone-resistant, or hormone-refractory, cancer.
Chemotherapy drugs for prostate cancer include docetaxel (Taxotere), mitoxantrone (Novantrone), estramustine (Emcyt), and various platinum-based drugs, such as carboplatin.
Docetaxel-based drug regimens are emerging as the main chemotherapy treatment for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Kramer BS.Five-alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer prevention. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Scientists have developed a new mouse model for metastatic prostate cancer that more accurately reflects the most lethal events in human patients. The most widely used mouse models for prostate cancer rarely develop tumors that metastasize, making it almost impossible to study the terminal, lethal events in cancer progression.
Scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) have identified how an enzyme called PKCI¶ suppresses prostate tumor formation.
A study in the Journal of Biological Chemistry identifies a new therapeutic approach to treat prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has variable manifestations, ranging from relatively benign localized tumors to widespread life-threatening metastases.
Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells leave the primary tumor and spread to other sites in the body, is responsible for more than 90 percent of cancer deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States and has been identified as a primary cause of cervical cancer in women. The lack of oxygen in tumor cells changes the cells' gene expression, thereby contributing to the growth of cancer. As scientists learn more about which genetic mutations are driving different types of cancer, they're targeting treatments to small numbers of patients with the potential for big payoffs in improved outcomes.
About chemotherapy for testicular cancerChemotherapy uses anti cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to destroy cancer cells. You may have chemotherapy to lower the chance of early stage cancer coming back after removal of a testicle.
We don't yet know much scientifically about how some nutritional or herbal supplements may interact with chemotherapy. Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103).
This chapter provides an overview of the current health and well-being of the Canadian population aged 65 years and older, including patterns of ill health and disability within this age group. The health status of individuals between 65 and 79 years is often different than that of those aged 80 years and older. Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Health Data 2009 and United Nations.
Sources: (1) Statistics Canada, (2) Public Health Agency of Canada and (3) Alzheimer Society of Canada.

Although seniors are often impacted by multiple physical health issues, such as chronic conditions and reduced mobility and functioning, many feel healthy and are willing to take action to improve their health. Internationally, other developed countries are also experiencing increases in remaining life expectancy at the age of 65. The main causes of death among Canadians who die before age 45 tend to be quite different than those for seniors, with a large proportion of all deaths for this younger age group being due to injuries and poisonings. While the chronic conditions mentioned here are some of the more prevalent illnesses experienced by seniors, it is important to note that many seniors are affected by a combination of chronic conditions.
Despite these positive self-reports, some seniors do experience limitations as a result of long-term physical conditions caused by injury, disease and aging. It is important to note that many issues of functional health that are common among seniors, such as age-related changes in vision, reaction time, power, coordination and the speed of cognitive processing, can have an effect on driving ability.
As people age, certain situations or behaviours can increase the likelihood of falling due to mobility or balance issues.
Although the risks associated with being overweight are known for those under the age of 65, it is thought that there may be a protective effect associated with being slightly overweight for seniors. Many aspects of seniors' daily living are important factors in maintaining and improving their health.
Physical activity plays an important role in preventing illness and dependence and enhancing mental health. Here you can send in your detailed medical queries of your health and these questions will be answered by the Doctors. Risk FactorsThe major risk factors for prostate cancer are age, family history, and ethnicity. They are also more likely to develop prostate cancer at a younger age and to have more aggressive forms of the disease. Other types of hormones, such as the growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), may also be associated with some types of prostate cancer.
In particular, high consumption of red meat and high-fat dairy products has been linked to increased risk for prostate cancer. However, it is not clear whether this is due to the nutrients contained in these foods, or the fact that these foods are low in fat.
Major clinical studies have found that vitamin and mineral supplements (vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, and selenium) do not prevent prostate cancer. They block an enzyme that converts testosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the form of the male hormone that stimulates the prostate. It was based on results of a large 7-year clinical trial that showed that finasteride reduced the overall relative risk of developing prostate cancer by about 25%. For prostate cancer, the 10-year survival rate is about 93% and the 15-year survival rate is about 77%.
As the bladder becomes distended with urine, nerve impulses from the bladder signal the brain that it is full, giving the individual the urge to void. This chronic pain occurs most often in the spine and sometimes flares in the pelvis, the lower back, the hips, or the bones of the upper legs.
BPH is not a cancerous or precancerous condition, but its symptoms can mimic late-stage prostate cancer. DiagnosisThere is great uncertainty and controversy over whether the benefits of regular screening for prostate cancer outweigh the risks for most men. Before deciding to be tested, men need to discuss the pros and cons of screening with their doctors. However, the United States Preventive Services Task Force notes that there is insufficient evidence to determine whether routine prostate cancer screening has benefits. Because of shortened lifespan, responding to abnormal PSA results in this age group may lead to overly aggressive treatment.
Prostate cancer forms in the prostate gland, and can sometimes be felt on digital rectal examination.
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced in the prostate gland that keeps semen in liquid form. Only a biopsy, in which a tiny sample of prostate tissue is surgically removed, can actually confirm a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is not effective as a diagnostic tool by itself because it cannot differentiate very well between benign inflammations and cancer. To perform a bone scan, doctors inject low doses of a radioactive substance into the patient's vein, which accumulates in bones that have been damaged by cancer. Staging and GradingA pathologist will read the biopsy report and assign a grade to the tumor cells.
Cancers are staged according to whether they are still localized (still within the prostate gland) or have spread beyond the original site.
Cancer cells are incidentally found in 5% or less of tissue samples from prostate surgery unrelated to cancer. To determine a prognosis, two numbers are assigned, representing the dominant grade and then the minor grade. TreatmentTreatment choices are generally based on the patient's age, the stage and grade of the cancer, overall health status, and the patient's personal preferences for the risks and benefits of each therapy. To date, neither treatment nor active surveillance has emerged with a definitive survival advantage for localized prostate cancer.
Doctors determine the risk category by using criteria such as PSA tests, tumor aggressiveness, and the clinical stage of the tumor.
Adding hormonal therapy to radical prostatectomy does not improve survival or cancer recurrence rates. Rising PSA levels do not necessarily mean that the cancer has spread or even that clinical cancer will recur during a man's lifetime. A man must weigh his own emotional responses to the possibility of these side effects versus the possible stress of active surveillance. Active Surveillance (Watchful Waiting)Watchful waiting involves lifestyle change and careful monitoring for cancer progression. More aggressive therapies (surgery and radiation) are usually recommended for men in their 50s and younger. There is therefore little potential benefit from surgery or radiation, with both posing a risk for erectile dysfunction and incontinence. The perineal approach causes less bleeding and has a shorter recovery time, but it makes it more difficult to preserve nerves and remove lymph nodes. Less invasive surgical techniques using laparoscopy have been developed for radical prostatectomy. In cases where the tumor lies too closely to the nerve, nerve-sparing techniques may not be possible.
Other complications include the usual risks of any surgery, such as blood clots, heart problems, infection, and bleeding. When the urinary catheter is first removed following surgery, nearly all patients lack control of urinary function and will leak urine for at least a few days and sometimes for months. Radiation TherapyRadiation therapy may be used as an initial treatment for localized prostate cancer. 3-D conformal techniques use computers and a three-dimensional image of the prostate to target the tumor precisely, using high-dose radiation beams.
It is also used in combination with external beam radiation to treat intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer.
One area of controversy is whether to use adjuvant radiation after surgery on patients whose PSA levels are very low or undetectable but who have other test results that indicate the cancer is likely to spread. Some studies suggest that salvage radiation could be more beneficial than previously thought, even for men with aggressive prostate cancer. Cryosurgery may also be used as a salvage procedure for patients who have undergone radiation therapy and have had cancer recurrence detected early. Other complications of cryosurgery include urinary retention, swelling, and fistula formation. When prostate cells, both healthy and cancerous, are deprived of androgens, they no longer proliferate and eventually die. Androgen deprivation therapy is not a cure for prostate cancer, but it can help control symptoms and disease progression. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) published clinical guidelines for androgen deprivation therapy in patients with recurrent, progressive, or advanced prostate cancer.
It is the single most effective method of reducing androgen hormones, but because it is permanent it is not suitable for intermittent or temporary androgen deprivation. Patients do not experience a reversal of sex characteristics and the voice does not change. LHRH drugs block the pituitary gland from producing hormones that stimulate testosterone production. They are generally used in combination with LHRH agonists or orchiectomy to completely block androgen hormones.
They include estrogen therapy and ketoconazole (Nizoral), an anti-fungal drug that blocks testosterone production.
Degarelix belongs to a class of drugs called gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor inhibitors. Hormonal drugs combined with radiation therapy may improve survival rates in moderate- or high-risk groups. Some studies suggest benefits from using hormone therapy before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) to reduce the tumor size, but this approach does not appear to increase survival. Hormonal therapy may significantly impair quality of life, particularly in men who had no symptoms beforehand and whose cancer has not metastasized.
A number of medications, especially bisphosphonates, are available to help prevent or reduce bone loss. These drugs are often combined with other cancer drugs (such as 5-fluorouacil) or corticosteroids (such as prednisone).
In 2004, the FDA approved docetaxel injection in combination with prednisone for treatment of patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial.
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Quality of life after surgery, external beam irradiation, or brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer: 2006 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline. Survival following primary androgen deprivation therapy among men with localized prostate cancer. Cancer screening in the United States, 2009: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening. Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and harms of treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Shown here is a tumor that metastasized from its original site in the prostate to the lung. In work published today in Cancer Discovery, a CSHL team led by Associate Professor Lloyd Trotman report that they have developed a new mouse model that does generate metastases from primary prostate tumors.
Sinai School of Medicine and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, used RapidCaP to generate mice that developed metastatic prostate cancer with classic hallmarks of this disease, including resistance to hormone therapy. They found that prostate tumors could be driven to metastasize simply by increasing the amount of Myc protein. This is the main conclusion of a research project led by professor Diether Lambrechts and Dr.
You may have chemotherapy to help prevent testicular cancer coming back after removal of the testicle.
High dose treatment means that very high doses of chemotherapy are used that damage your bone marrow cells. It focuses on their physical and mental health as well as economic and social well–being. Despite the inherent limitations of this type of data, such as the subjectivity of individual responses and the exclusion of those living in institutions and on reserves, self-reported data can provide useful information otherwise not available. In particular, certain individual behaviours can significantly influence health and well-being for older Canadians such as physical activity, healthy eating and nutrition, smoking, alcohol and other substance use, and use of medications.
As with any cancer, if it is advanced or left untreated in early stages, it may eventually spread through the blood and lymph fluid to other organs. The central area of the prostate that wraps around the urethra is called the transition zone. It grows only slightly until puberty, when it begins to enlarge rapidly, attaining normal adult size and shape, about that of a walnut, when a man reaches his early 20s. Having one family member with prostate cancer doubles a man's own risk, and having three family members increases risk by 11-fold. Nutritious foods that are part of a healthy diet are the best sources for vitamins and minerals.

However, in this study, a few more men who took finasteride developed a high-grade aggressive form of prostate cancer than the men who did not take finasteride. By voluntarily relaxing the sphincter muscle around the urethra, the bladder can be emptied of urine. Symptoms include urgency, frequency, and pain in urination, sometimes accompanied by fever or blood in the urine. If a man chooses to be tested, or would like the doctor to make the decision, he should be screened yearly with a PSA test and digital rectal exam. The doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the patient's rectum and feels the prostate for bumps or other abnormalities. As a result, the American Cancer Society does not recommend routine PSA testing, although individual men may choose to be tested. A biopsy is usually performed to confirm or rule out cancer based on a combination of PSA test levels, findings on the DRE, family history, and patient’s age and ethnicity. The PSAV may help determine when treatment should begin and which treatment should be used. The Gleason system classifies and scores the cancers cells based on their microscopic appearance. Delaying treatment, while having the cancer monitored for signs of progression, is also an acceptable option.
Studies indicate that compared to watchful waiting, radical prostatectomy may lower the risk of cancer recurrence and death, particularly for younger men with aggressive tumors. However, several recent studies have suggested that treatment provides a survival advantage over watchful waiting for some men with early-stage prostate cancer. A sudden rise or persistently elevated PSA levels after treatment are often indications that prostate cancer persists. These techniques use smaller incisions and allow faster recovery, but they require special surgical training. A temporary catheter used to pass urine is kept in place when the patient is sent home and is usually removed about 3 weeks after the open operation or 1 week after their robotic procedure. Use of these drugs three times a week accompanied by sexual stimulation is now commonly recommended. It may also be used as treatment for cancer that has not been fully removed or has recurred after surgery. Poorer candidates for brachytherapy include men who have had transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and patients with advanced cancer, high-grade tumors, or very enlarged prostate glands. Patients with adverse findings and low PSA have to weigh the potential complications of radiation therapy against the odds of recurrence without it. The goal of cryosurgery is destruction of the entire prostate gland and possibly surrounding tissue. Incontinence and fistulas tend to occur more when cryosurgery is used as a salvage procedure than when it is used as a primary procedure.
The guidelines recommend that hormone therapy should, in general, be delayed until patients begin to experience symptoms from their cancer. More research needs to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of intermittent therapy. Orchiectomy plus radical prostatectomy may delay progression in patients with cancers that have spread only to the pelvic lymph nodes. It works by suppressing testosterone and thereby slowing the growth and progression of prostate cancer. Patients who received this drug combination survived on average 2.5 months longer than patients who received mitoxantrone and prednisone. Comparative effectiveness of therapies for clinically localized prostate cancer: executive summary no. Scientists were surprise to find the Myc protein in these tumors and, through further experiments, discovered that simply increasing the amount of Myc in the cell is enough to drive metastasis, suggesting a druggable target for metastatic prostate cancer.
Research has been stymied by imperfect animal models of the disease, which are costly, take considerable time to develop, and fail to mimic the most lethal aspects of the illness. To create the model, called RapidCaP, scientists surgically deliver gene mutations directly into the prostate. However, PI 3-kinase activity, a well-known driver of prostate cancer, was notably absent from the metastasized tumors. Trotman collaborated with Dana-Farber's Professor James Bradner to treat these very sick animals with a newly discovered drug called JQ1 that lowers the amount of Myc in cells. Or you may have it to treat cancer that has spread into lymph nodes or other parts of the body.How you have chemotherapyYou usually have treatment with several different drugs as an outpatient. The cancer can also spread to the lungs, and more rarely to other organs such as the brain and liver. For early stage seminoma you usually have 1 treatment with the drug carboplatin (Paraplatin).If you have chemotherapy after surgery for early stage non seminoma you usually have 2 cycles with a combination of chemotherapy drugs called BEP or PEB. For this reason, when appropriate and available, data in this report will be presented accordingly. Unless otherwise stated, data presented from these sources reflect only those seniors who live in the community.
The gland generally remains stable until men reach their mid-40s, when, in most men, the prostate begins to enlarge again through a process of cell multiplication.
Fortunately, the cancer is usually very slow growing and older men with the cancer typically die of something else. Prostate cancer is more common in North America and northern Europe, and less common in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
Lycopene, which is found in tomatoes, has been a target of research interest, but the evidence for its protective benefit is still inconclusive.
A high intake of calcium has been linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer in some studies. More recent studies have suggested that 5-ARI drugs may not increase the risk of developing aggressive cancer. Research indicates that men who are diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancers have a minimal risk of dying from prostate cancer up to 20 years after diagnosis. Doctors cannot yet determine which early-stage tumors pose a risk of being aggressive and need treatment, and which tumors should be left alone. Measuring PSA levels increases the chance for detecting the presence of cancer when it is microscopic. If a biopsy gives a negative result but the doctor still suspects cancer, repeat biopsies may be performed. Based on the grade, PSA test, digital rectal exam, and possibly imaging tests, the doctor stages the cancer. For example, a tumor with a dominant grade of 3 and a minor grade of 4 are given a Gleason score of 7. If test results indicate cancer progression, doctor and patient consider treatment options (surgery, radiation, or drugs).
The general recommendation is that aggressive therapy is suitable for those who have a life expectancy of more than 10 years and who have localized but mid- to high-grade tumors. Laparoscopic surgery may also be done using a robotic system, which involves the surgeon directing a robotic arm through a computer monitor. In general, younger patients with early-stage cancers recover fastest and experience the fewest side effects. A percentage of men will continue to have small amounts of leakage with heavier exertion or possibly sexual activity.
Other treatments for erectile dysfunction (alprostadil injections, vaccum devices, penile implants) may also be options. In advanced cancer, radiation therapy is used to shrink the size of the tumor and relieve symptoms. Steel probes are inserted through the skin between the anus and the rectum and into the prostate. However, when therapy is deferred, patients should regularly visit their doctors every 3 - 6 months for careful monitoring of their condition.
Hormonal drugs before radiation (neoadjuvant therapy) may be helpful in shrinking enlarged glands so that brachytherapy (radiation implants) can be used. Side effects can be serious and may include gastrointestinal problems (nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea), fatigue, low blood cell counts, and increased risk for blood clots.
Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Now, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) scientists have developed a new method to rapidly create much better mouse models for metastatic prostate cancer. A luminescent marker is also injected, which enables live monitoring of metastasis, tumor regression after treatment, and disease relapse. In these deadly dispersed tumors, Trotman and his colleagues were surprised to find that a different cancer gene, called Myc, had taken over. Their approach succeeded in shrinking the metastases, suggesting that the switch to Myc is required for maintenance of tumor cells that have metastasized throughout the body. If your doctor suspects this may have happened in your case, they may recommend that you have chemotherapy.
Or if you are prescribed therapies by alternative or complementary therapy practitioners.Talk to your specialist about any other tablets or medicines you take while you are having cancer treatment. You can also contact one of the organisations on our testicular cancer information organisations page.
As many as 90% of all prostate cancers remain dormant and clinically unimportant for decades. However, men diagnosed with more severe forms of prostate cancer have a higher risk of dying within 10 years.
The concern is that routine screening for early detection of tumors may lead to invasive and unnecessary treatment. Recent research suggests that men with early-stage prostate cancer who have a slow PSAV are more likely to live longer than men with rapidly rising PSA levels. The following scores are often used to suggest how well or poorly the tumor is differentiated. The tumor grade may be the best guide for determining the risks in choosing watchful waiting. SurgeryIn men whose cancer is confined to the prostate, surgical resection (radical prostatectomy) offers the potential for cure. Not every hospital can do robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and these procedures are difficult to perform. Even with experienced doctors, the distribution of radioactive seeds may be uneven, increasing the risk for insufficient doses. It usually goes away eventually, but a few patients have diarrhea flare-ups for years afterwards. Liquid nitrogen is pumped through the probes to freeze all prostate cells, both healthy and cancerous.
This discovery allows scientists to investigate the causes of the disease while at the same time testing new therapeutics to treat it. There is information about the safety of herbal, vitamin and diet supplements in the complementary therapies section.Some studies seem to suggest that fish oil preparations may reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs.
For example, Asians who live in the United States have a higher rate of prostate cancer than those who live in Asia. Each year, nearly 200,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer, and about 27,000 die from the disease. Patients should report symptoms such as weight loss, pain, urinary problems, fatigue, or impotence to their doctors. Cure rates from initial surgery in men with localized cancer are about 90%, depending on tumor stage, tumor grade, PSA levels, and overall health of the patient. In addition, in some cases the seeds can migrate through the bloodstream to other parts of the body. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Each round of treatment is called a cycle.For early testicular cancer, you may have only one or two cycles. It is a very specialised type of treatment, and you may be referred to a different hospital to have it.
If you are taking, or thinking of taking, these supplements talk to your doctor to find out whether they could react with your treatment.
PSA levels can be increased by various factors other than prostate cancer, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, advanced age, and ejaculation within 48 hours of the test. The most commonly used treatment is a combination called BEP (or PEB), which is bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
You may stay in hospital for a few days for chemotherapy in the first week, although some people have it as an outpatient. Most patients can consider themselves disease-free if their PSA levels remain undetectable 10 years after surgery. This is a free service that aims to put people with similar medical conditions in touch with each other. This means that very high doses of chemotherapy are used and they damage the bone marrow cells. To correct this, you have your own blood stem cells back through a drip after your chemotherapy.

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