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02.02.2016
The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix (the opening of uterus) to the outside of the body. Age and being exposed to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a woman’s risk of vaginal cancer. Tests that examine the vagina and other organs in the pelvis are used to detect (find) and diagnose vaginal cancer. After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the vagina or to other parts of the body.
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
In vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the vagina. VAIN 1: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost one third of the tissue lining the vagina. VAIN 2: Abnormal cells are found in the outermost two-thirds of the tissue lining the vagina.
In stage II, cancer has spread through the wall of the vagina to the tissue around the vagina. Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to parts of the body that are not near the vagina, such as the lung or bone. Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Wide local excision: A surgical procedure that takes out the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it. Lymph node dissection: A surgical procedure in which lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
Pelvic exenteration: Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, bladder, cervix, vagina, and ovaries. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Topical chemotherapy for squamous cell vaginal cancer may be applied to the vagina in a cream or lotion. Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated.
A combination of therapies that may include wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection and internal radiation therapy.
Treatment of stage II vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage III vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma.
Treatment of stage IVA vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Treatment of stage IVB vaginal cancer is the same for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with stage IVB vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer. Although no anticancer drugs have been shown to help patients with recurrent vaginal cancer live longer, they are often treated with regimens used for cervical cancer. Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of vaginal cancer. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. The warning signs of skin cancerLike many cancers, some skin cancers – such as melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma – start as precancerous lesions. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. The liver is an important organ in the body because it has several functions such as filtering toxins from the blood, aiding digestion of food, regulating blood sugar and cholesterol levels and helping to fight infection and disease. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is a medical condition characterized by liver damage which may be caused by alcohol abuse. Other risk factors for alcoholic fatty liver disease include being overweight or obese, being female, having a pre-existing liver condition such as hepatitis C and genetics. There is a new causative link found between a key cell stress response pathway and alcoholic liver disease. A normal healthy prostate gland is about 3-5 cm in length; in this image it is almost 7 cm. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina.
Squamous cell vaginal cancer spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs, liver, or bone. Adenocarcinoma is more likely than squamous cell cancer to spread to the lungs and lymph nodes. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand.
If a Pap test shows abnormal cells in the vagina, a biopsy may be done during a colposcopy. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. A cystoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A ureteroscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) is inserted through the urethra into the ureter. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
For example, if vaginal cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually vaginal cancer cells.
When abnormal cells are found throughout the tissue lining, it is called carcinoma in situ. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Skin grafting is a surgical procedure in which skin is moved from one part of the body to another.
Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials.


The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine.
These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer.
If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. These precancerous lesions are changes in skin that are not cancer but could become cancer over time. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
This medical condition can bring about various signs and symptoms as well as more life-threatening conditions. The first stage is alcoholic fatty liver disease and is caused by drinking large amounts of alcohol for a few days. For more information see An Overview of Acute Prostatitis and Chronic Prostatitis: An Overview. The prostate gland in this picture was removed not due to prostate cancer, but because of a less serious condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. A rare type of adenocarcinoma is linked to being exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth. A biopsy that removes only a small amount of tissue is usually done in the doctor’s office.
A piece of healthy skin is taken from a part of the body that is usually hidden, such as the buttock or thigh, and used to repair or rebuild the area treated with surgery. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug.
Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients.
It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. After consumption of alcohol, some liver cells may die; however the liver has the capacity to develop new cells to replenish old ones. These researchers have discovered that by blocking a protein called ATF6 (or activating transcription factor) helped prevent alcohol-induced fatty liver disease while over expression of the protein caused the disease to develop in zebrafish. Regardless of its cause, an enlarged prostate gland can give urinary symptoms associated with early stage prostate cancer. Adenocarcinomas that are not linked with being exposed to DES are most common in women after menopause. A cone biopsy (removal of a larger, cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal) is usually done in the hospital. In a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, (a) the uterus plus one (unilateral) ovary and fallopian tube are removed; or (b) the uterus plus both (bilateral) ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Symptoms may often include generalized body malaise, weight loss, loss of appetite, yellowing of the eyes and skin or jaundice, swelling of the legs and of the abdomen, confusion, drowsiness, vomiting and bloody stools.
Another cause is drinking more than the recommended limits of alcohol over many years further causing hepatitis and cirrhosis which are the more serious types of liver disease. During this time, the person is not able to feel any symptoms but there is potential for harm.
The final stage of liver disease is cirrhosis which occurs when the liver is scarred too much. If the cancer has spread into or through the muscle layer of the bladder wall then treatment is less likely to be curative, but can often slow the progress of the cancer. Some of these women develop a rare form of vaginal cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma.
It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, both ovaries, both fallopian tubes, and nearby tissue are removed. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. People who drink more than the maximum amounts of alcohol allowed are the ones who are mostly at risk for alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis is no longer a reversible medical condition however alcohol consumption during this stage can decrease the risk for further damage and early death. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish. Actinic keratosis (solar keratosis)The small, scaly patches caused by too much sun exposure commonly occur on the head, neck, or hands, but can be found elsewhere. Life-threatening complications of alcoholic fatty liver disease include internal (variceal) bleeding, a build-up of toxins in the brain (encephalopathy), fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites) with associated kidney failure and also liver cancer. Actinic keratosis usually appears on people after the age of 40, but they can show up in much younger people.
It fills with urine and we pass urine out from time to time through a tube called the urethra. Most do not become cancerous but doctors recommend treatment to prevent them developing into squamous cell skin cancer. Actinic cheilitis (farmer's lip)Related to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition that usually appears on the lower lips. Less common symptoms include swelling of the lip, loss of the sharp border between the lip and skin, and prominent lip lines. Cutaneous hornsThe cutaneous horn appears as a funnel-shaped growth that extends from a red base on the skin. It is composed of compacted keratin (the same protein in nails). It is a type of actininc keratosis.
The size and shape of the growth can vary considerably, but most are a few millimetres in length.
It usually occurs in fair-skinned elderly adults with a history of significant sun exposure. When is a mole a problem?A mole (naevus) is a benign growth of melanocyte skin cells, which give skin its colour. While very few moles become cancer, abnormal or atypical moles can develop into melanoma over time. Dysplastic naevi (atypical moles)Atypical moles are not cancer, but they can become cancer. This happens if some cells break off from the first (primary) tumour and are carried in the bloodstream or lymph channels to other parts of the body. These small groups of cells may then multiply to form secondary tumours (metastases) in one or more parts of the body.


Atypical moles may be larger (6mm or a quarter of an inch across or larger) or more irregular in shape, with notched or fading borders. Know your ABCDEMost moles on a person's body look similar to one another. A mole or freckle that looks different from the others or that has a diameter larger than 6mm or any characteristics of the ABCDE of melanoma should be checked by a doctor. In each case it is important to know exactly what type of cancer has developed, how large it has become, and whether it has spread.
The ABCDE highlights important characteristics to consider when examining your moles or other skin growths. Know your ABCDE: ‘A’ is for asymmetryAsymmetry means one half of a mole does not match the other half.
When checking your moles or freckles, draw an imaginary line through the middle and compare the two halves. Know your ABCDE: ‘B’ is for borderIf the border or edges of the mole are ragged, blurred or irregular, ask your doctor to check it.
Know your ABCDE: 'C' is for colourA mole that does not have the same colour throughout or has shades of tan, brown, black, blue, white or red is suspicious.
Know your ABCDE: 'D' is for diameterA mole is suspicious if the diameter is larger than 6mm. Know your ABCDE: ‘E’ is for evolutionA mole that is evolving – shrinking, growing larger, changing colour, begins to itch or bleed – should be checked  If a portion of the mole appears elevated or raised from the skin, ask your doctor to check it.
These tumours have spread to the muscle layer of the bladder, or right through the wall of the bladder.
Muscle invasive tumours have a high chance of spreading to other parts of the body (metastasise), and treatment has less chance of being curative.
Check the 'hidden' areas: between fingers and toes, the groins, soles of the feet, the backs of the knees. Pay special attention to moles if you're a teenager, pregnant or going through the menopause – times when your hormones may be surging.
How are moles evaluated?If you find a mole or spot that has any ABCDE signs of possible melanoma – or one that's tender, itching, oozing, scaly, doesn't heal or has redness or swelling beyond the mole – seek medical advice. If found to be cancerous, the entire mole and a rim of normal skin round it will be removed and the wound closed with stitches. Additional treatment may be needed An introduction to skin cancerMalignant melanoma, especially in the later stages, is serious and treatment is difficult. People who've had skin cancer once are at risk of getting it again; they should have regular checkups as advised by their specialist. MelanomaMelanoma is not as common as other types of skin cancer, but it's the most serious and potentially deadly. Squamous cell carcinomaThis non-melanoma skin cancer may appear as a firm red nodule, a scaly growth that bleeds or develops a crust, or a sore that doesn't heal. It most often occurs on the nose, forehead, ears, lower lip, hands and other areas of the body exposed to the sun. Certain workplace and environmental chemicals have been linked to bladder cancer - for example, substances used in the rubber and dye industries. However, bladder cancer may develop as late as 10-25 years after exposure to certain chemicals. Bowen's diseaseBowen's disease is also called squamous cell carcinoma 'in situ.' It is a type of skin cancer that spreads outwards on the surface of the skin.
This means that some cases are still being diagnosed in people who worked with these chemicals years ago. By contrast, 'invasive' squamous cell carcinomas can grow inwards and spread to the interior of the body.
Bowen's disease looks like scaly, reddish patches that may be crusted; it may be mistaken for rashes, eczema, fungus or psoriasis. Basal cell carcinomaBasal cell carcinoma is the most common and easiest to treat skin cancer. Basal cell tumours can take on many forms, including a pearly white or waxy bump, often with visible blood vessels, on the ears, neck or face.
Tumours can also appear as a flat, scaly, flesh-coloured or brown patch on the back or chest, or more rarely, a white, waxy scar. But it doesn't explain skin cancers that develop on skin that isn't usually exposed to sunlight.
Apply sunscreen liberally before going outside (don't forget the lips and ears!), wear a hat and sunglasses and cover up with clothing.
And remember, if you notice changes to your skin such as a new growth, a mole changing appearance, or a sore that won't heal, seek medical advice promptly. If the cancer is a muscle-invasive type, and grows through the wall of the bladder, then other symptoms may develop over time. Further tests are done to confirm or rule out the diagnosis if symptoms suggest bladder cancer. A cystoscopy is where a doctor or nurse looks into the bladder with a special thin telescope called a cystoscope.
A cystoscopy which is done to just look into the bladder is normally done under local anaesthetic. If a procedure is done, such as removing a tumour via a cystoscope, then a general anaesthetic is usually used. During cystoscopy a doctor or nurse can: See any areas on the lining of the bladder which look abnormal. However, these tests are still not sensitive enough to diagnose all bladder cancers so are not routinely used. Ultrasound scan - this is a safe and painless test which uses sound waves to create images of organs and structures inside your body.
Computed tomography (CT) scan - another test called CT urogram is a special type of CT scan that obtains pictures of your urinary tract. This is called transurethral resection (TUR), as the tumour is removed (resected) via a cystoscope which is passed up the urethra. Depending on the stage and type of the cancer, further intravesical chemotherapy may be advised.
This is done by using a catheter (as described above) and may be done every 1-4 weeks for several months. The aim is to be as certain as possible that all cancer cells are killed, which reduces the chance of recurrence of the tumour. It may stimulate the immune system in some way to clear any abnormal cells in the bladder lining.
If a cure is not possible, treatments may be used to reduce the size of a cancer which may ease symptoms such as pain.
If a cancer is advanced then you may require treatments such as painkillers or other treatments to help keep you free of pain or other symptoms.
Before surgery you need a full discussion with a surgeon to understand the implications of the operation planned. For example, you will need an alternative way of passing urine if you have your bladder removed. This is where a surgeon uses a technique to arrange a system for urine to drain into a bag which you wear on the outside of your abdomen.
An alternative operation may be possible where the surgeon creates an artificial type of bladder from a part of the gut. Even if the cancer is advanced and a cure is not possible, some surgical techniques may still have a place to ease symptoms.
For example, if the passage of urine is blocked by a tumour then placing a catheter or other techniques may be appropriate.
Also, routine checks every few months following treatment will often detect recurrences early, and treatment can be repeated as necessary. New treatments continue to be developed and the information above about outlook is very general.
The specialist who knows your case can give more accurate information about your particular outlook, and how well your type and stage of cancer is likely to respond to treatment.




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