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To prepare for the biopsy, you may need to stop taking some medications and start taking others. The most common type of prostate biopsy is the transrectal method using a spring-loaded needle. Blood Tests - may help tell if your prostate cancer has spread and if your organs are working properly. Prostate Cancer is very rare before the age of 50 years but the risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age.
At Stage 4, the cancer has already spread beyond the prostate to the lymph nodes and bones. Upon histological confirmation of cancer, scans are done to confirm the stage of the disease.
Watchful waiting is an option based on autopsy studies which showed that many men who died of other illnesses harboured prostate cancer. Control of the disease is achieved by either reducing the production of testosterone, the hormone that fuels the cancer, or blocking its action.
This group of drugs is given by injection under the skin at either monthly or 3 monthly intervals [Fig 5]. The problem with hormonal control for advanced disease is that hormone-resistance develops in many patients after 1 to 2 years. Because advanced prostate cancer causes excess pain and morbidity, early detection is still the best way to prevent such suffering.
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) utilizes a finger-like probe which is placed in the rectum in order to image the prostate. Sagittal view through male pelvis with biopsy gun and needle against rectal wall taking biopsy specimen from prostate. Selecting an output (digital file, paper print, mounted board, etc.) under "Product Options" will showyou the price of the exhibit with that particular output. With purchase of an animation, you will receive a DVD (playable in a DVD player or in aDVD-ROM drive) containing a clean copy of the animation. This test is performed by drawing some blood and measuring the amount of a specific protein in that blood sample. A high PSA test level (prostate specific antigen test level) is not an accurate indicator of prostate cancer. Why perform unnecessary costly inaccurate procedures that may prompt life threatening further testing (like prostate biopsy)? It is well known that there are many "false positive" results and "false negative" results in the history of this type of testing. The New England Journal of Medicine states: "(the) PSA level test has been found to miss 82 percent of tumors in men under 60, and 65 percent of cancers in older men".
For long term treatment, tests can show if the cancer is under control or if treatment is harming your body.

As the cancer progresses, the enlarging tumour compress the urethra, blocking the flow of urine. Although the tumour has grown to the point where it can be felt, it is still confined within the prostate and cure is still possible.
This is achieved through surgery or radiation, but advocated only for men who are expected to have a life-span of 10 years or more. There are 2 ways to administer this therapy, either externally (DXT) or internally (brachytherapy).
The limitation with radiotherapy is that high-grade cancers may not respond and cure rate not as good as surgery. This is feasible for older men (above 75 years) and those with low-grade, low-volume prostate cancer with low PSA levels at the time of diagnosis. However, most Stage 3 cancers still require hormonal treatment to retard cancer cells that have spread beyond the confines of the prostate.
As 95% of testosterone is produced by the testes, orchidectomy immediately brings down the testosterone levels to negligible levels. They act by shutting down testosterone production in the testicles and similar in action to surgical orchidectomy. When this develops, the PSA will start to rise again, associated with weight loss and bone pain.
With early detection and treatment, prostate cancer can be cured with a survival rate as high as 90%. Aren't these levels the Holy Grail and what we should base ALL of our conclusions on??  NO!Your levels can be high for many reasons. It claims a 98.1% accuracy as opposed to a hit or miss often false positive or false negative that the current method gives. Taking antibiotics do minimize developing an infection after the procedure and patients will be prescribed either an oral medication or an injection which will be administered roughly one hour prior to the biopsy. With local anesthesia, you'll feel a small needle prick and a little burning with some pressure for less than a minute. These will be discussed at the time of the procedure to educate you as to what is normal and abnormal after the procedure. Your doctor will assess your chances of having metastases based on your PSA test, rectal exam and biopsy.
Lymph vessels and nodes are everywhere in the body, which allows prostate cancer to spread to other organs. At this stage, treatment is targeted at preventing further complications and reducing pain. Because this procedure carries risk of infection and bleeding, prophylactic antibiotics are to be given beforehand and anti-platelet drugs like aspirin and plavix must be stopped for at least a week before the biopsy. The problem with adopting this policy is that as high as 30% of such cases progress to aggressive cancers and thereby, still require intervention.

Although this is predominantly a disease of the Western world, this may not be true anymore for Asian men whose increasingly eat a more Westernised diet. This stage is also known as locally advanced stage and the cancer has less chance of being completely cured. As it is now standard practice to take at least 10 to 12 cores, this can be a painful procedure. Side-effects include fatigue, skin reaction, frequent urination, diarrhoea and rectal bleeding.
For this reason, it is preferred by older patients and those with multiple medical problems. In the event of painful bone involvement, direct radiation to the bone or biphosphonate drug infusion eg. As prostate cancer advances, it spreads to the pelvic lymph nodes and the bones, causing leg swelling and bone pain. Hence, local anaesthesia consisting of a peri-prostatic nerve block should be given prior to biopsy. The laparoscopic technique is a minimal invasive method of doing radical prostatectomy with the advantage of less pain and faster recovery, but the robotic method is now favoured because the blood loss is even less and functional outcomes better. Brachytherapy involves placing multiple radioactive seeds within the prostate and requires soft-ware planning and accurate placement as seed migration to the lungs or out of the urethra can occur [Fig 4]. As it takes time for radiation waves to kill the cancer cells, the PSA takes a longer time to drop to zero and this may even be up to 2 years, assuming the cancer cells are radio-sensitive.
Please review MediVisuals' Custom Exhibits webpage for moreinformation or contact us for a complimentary consultation. It uses sound waves to make a picture of the prostate that is seen by your doctor on a computer.
If no cancer if found, your doctor may likely monitor blood tests and rectal exams closely over the next several years to ensure that there is no further suspicion and that a repeat biopsy is not needed. This is made possible by the 3-dimensional, magnified vision and articulate robotic arms which help the surgeon not only in dissecting out the prostate but also join the bladder to the urethra with water-tight precision.
In extreme cases, prostate biopsies have actually been shown to spread localized cancer by perforating the organ the cancer was contained within. This metastization is generally accepted as the cause of around 80-90% of all cancer deaths. More reading on biopsy risks.

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Comments to “Prostate biopsy and complications”

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