Healthy prostate and ovary formula,chronic prostatitis mayo clinic 403 b,oranges good for prostate enlargement - Easy Way

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Healthy Prostate & Ovary formula, was designed by medical doctors and herbalists to be taken for a minimum of 3-6 Months at a time, and along with Crinum Prostate (60 Vegi-Caps) for maximum support.
Get Well Natural LLCs Healthy Prostate & Ovary (HPO) is specially formulated over many years of clinical practice use, to provide an effective & concentrated blend of 7 synergistic Vietnamese and Chinese herbs (see ingredients below).
The only thing they suggested was that I could have surgery that would cut and remove some of the prostate, and I decided against that. I was recommended to call Get Well and ask them about their Healthy Prostate & Ovary herbal formula to support healthy prostate function.
In the past when I had a problem with my prostate, I first began using saw palmetto; however, it did not work for me.
Suggested Usage: As a Dietary Supplement take 3 Capsules twice daily with water on an empty stomach 30 minutes before meals, or as directed by a health care practitioner. Get Well Natural's Healthy Prostate and Ovary herbal supplement provides crucial body balance to support a healthy prostate gland and prostate function.
Maximum Healthy Prostate Support* Amazing Vietnamese Herb Crinum Latifolium for Healthy Prostate Support * Legendary HPO * These Doctor recommended herbal health supplements have been combined. 1st trimester(<10 week) fetus with yolk sacView of a fetus in the late first trimester of pregnancy.
Fetus with Nuchal TranslucencyView of a fetus in the second trimester of pregnancy showing the nuchal translucency (arrow). ClubfootClubfoot is a deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward at birth and remains stuck in this position, resisting realignment.
Cleft lip and palateCleft lip and palate are congenital abnormalities that affect the upper lip and the hard and soft palate of the mouth. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) of the fetal heart musculature. Routine clinical, laboratory, and radiologic examinations for gynecologic malignancies are performed for the purpose of tumor detection, diagnosis, and accurate staging, so as to enable optimal treatment planning. CERVICAL CANCERBackgroundCarcinoma of the cervix is the third most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and the second most common malignancy in women 15 to 34 years of age, with a peak incidence at 45 to 55 years. Studies support that exercise can help lower your chance of getting certain cancers including breast and colon cancers. Maintain a healthy weight as people who are overweight are more likely to get cancers of the prostate, pancreas, uterus, colon, and ovary. Avoid sunburns as too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can lead to skin cancer. Limit alcohol intake as heavy drinking can raise the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and larynx. Robert Rowen MD, Health Sciences Institute periodic publication, as a natural support for the prostate gland and ovaries. I repeatedly found myself in the bathroom 4 or 5 times a night and my elimination flow was a dribble.
I called them and began taking their herbal formula Healthy Prostate & Ovary immediately. Healthy Prostate & Ovary is generally taken for at Least 3-6 Months at a time and is perfect to take along with Crinum Prostate. Nor is any information contained on or in any product label or packaging intended to provide or replace professional health care advice. The arrow points to the inside lining of the uterus where the pregnancy normally attaches and grows.
Severity of the abnormalities may range from a small notch in the lip to a complete fissure extending into the roof of the mouth and nose. Specific radiologic examinations for each malignancy depend on the site, histology, grade, and pattern and extent of spread based on clinical evaluation. Risk factors include low socioeconomic class, black race, early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, multiparity, and infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. It is said that your chances of getting cancer increase after reaching 50 years of age or older, however, leading a healthy lifestyle can help lower your risk. In this chapter, we will discuss each of the three major gynecologic malignancies: cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancers. Because of extensive Papanicolaou smear screening, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer continues to decline.
I was getting up every 10 or 15 minutes at night to urinate; when I did get up to urinate I would usually just get a few drops, instead of a stream of urine.
We will give a brief background, review imaging (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) anatomy, present the most common sites of spread, and evaluate the effectiveness of clinical staging.
In the United States, there are an estimated 15,700 new cases diagnosed every year.1 The vast majority are squamous cell carcinomas. We will also discuss the roles of the various imaging techniques in terms of the following: indications, advantages, limitations in diagnosis and staging, use in treatment planning, evaluation of tumor regression and recurrence, and detection of treatment complications. Other histologies include adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound AnatomyOn T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the normal cervix has two distinct zones (Fig. The central 2- to 3-mm stripe of high signal intensity represents the epithelium and mucous glands in the cervical canal. As reported by Holland and associates,5 the predominant signal of the cervix is dark in the nonpregnant woman and in the first trimester, isointense in the second and third trimesters, bright at 72 hours before labor, and isointense postpartum. The parametria are depicted as two thin stripes of moderate signal intensity lateral to the cervix (Fig.
Axial T1-weighted MR ( A) and CT ( B) images of the pelvis in a patient with cervical cancer show right parametrial extension of tumor ( arrow ).
The vaginal wall can be separated easily from the urethra and rectum on T2-weighted images (Fig. 1D).6On transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), the cervix is seen as a medium-echogenicity, 3- to 4-cm long, 3-cm thick cylindrical structure. Two layers can be identified in the cervix: the hyperechoic cervical canal and the medium-echogenicity stroma (Fig. Neither of these layers varies markedly in appearance or thickness during the menstrual cycle.
Sagittal ( A) and transverse ( B) sonograms of the pelvis show a markedly enlarged, irregular cervical mass invading both parametria ( black arrows ), encasing the right ureter laterally, and obliterating the fat planes ( white arrows) between the cervix and bladder anteriorly, and cervix and rectum posteriorly. 8).11,12 This finding, however, is nonspecific because it can also be seen in benign cervical strictures caused by either previous cervical inflammation (Fig.
T2-weighted sagittal MRI of the pelvis shows cervical carcinoma ( c) causing hydrometras ( h ).Fig.
Axial CT scan of the pelvis in a 55-year-old woman with stage IB cervical carcinoma causing obstruction of the uterus ( u ). Ideally, the pelvic examination is performed under anesthesia along with proctoscopy and cystoscopy in advanced cases, with or without dilatation and curettage. Staging System for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (FIGO 1995) StageCharacteristics IAInvasive cancer identified only microscopically.
Abdominopelvic CT has replaced EU and lymphangiography, especially in locally advanced disease, because it provides accurate information about ureteral encasement, parametrial and pelvic sidewall extension, and pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement. Barium enema should be considered for the evaluation of patients with stage III and stage IV disease or when symptoms suggest bowel involvement.
MRI and ultrasound are complementary studies that may provide useful information about local extension to the parametria, bladder, ureters, and rectosigmoid.LOCAL CT STAGING.
Poor soft-tissue contrast and restriction to the axial plane limit the ability of CT to determine the depth of stromal invasion or to assess tumor volume.
Tumor confined to the cervix may be seen as an inhomogeneous, hypodense area in an enlarged cervix; however, the size of the cervix cannot be used in staging cervical carcinoma.
The criteria used to diagnose parametrial invasion include irregularity or poor definition of the lateral cervical margins, prominent parametrial soft-tissue strands, eccentric soft-tissue mass (see Fig.
Prominent strands can be seen with inflammation, but are more commonly seen with tumor invasion.
One should be careful in diagnosing parametrial invasion in patients with asymmetry of the cervix because tampon insertion occasionally causes angulation of the uterus.
The reported accuracy of parametrial involvement by CT is 70%, positive predictive value 33%, and negative predictive value 67%.9Fig. CT scan of the pelvis shows inhomogeneous and enlarged cervix ( c) with irregular soft-tissue densities extending into the parametria ( long arrows ), without invasion of the pelvic sidewalls. The periureteral fat planes are partially obliterated by tumor ( short arrows ), but the ureters are not obstructed.

12), a fat plane of less than 3 mm between these muscles and the tumor, muscle encasement by the tumor, and ureteral obstruction.23 CT is much more accurate than clinical examination in detecting pelvic sidewall invasion.
Although CT can detect invasion of the bladder and colon by tumor, it may be difficult to differentiate invasion from mere contiguity to these structures based on the loss of fat planes.24,25 The presence of bladder or rectal wall thickening and intraluminal mass in association with focal fatty plane obliteration may help in differentiation (Fig. Axial CT scan of the pelvis in a patient with stage IIIB cervical carcinoma shows a cervical mass ( c) with right pelvic sidewall invasion ( arrow ).Fig.
Axial CT scan of the pelvis in a patient with a stage IVA cervical carcinoma shows a cervical mass ( c) with invasion ( arrows) of the bladder ( b) and rectum ( r ).LOCAL MRI STAGING.
With its improved soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, MRI is very useful in local staging of cervical carcinoma. Low signal intensity surrounding the tumor in the cervix and preservation of fat planes are consistent with tumor confined to the cervix (Fig. Stage IIA is indicated by the loss of the normal low signal intensity of the vaginal wall (Fig. Stage IIB is indicated by the presence of abnormal thickening of the parametrium on T1-weighted MRI (see Fig. On T2-weighted images, stage IIB is depicted as increased signal intensity in the parametrium with the loss of the normal low signal intensity of the cervical stroma.9 Stage IIIA is indicated by the loss of low signal intensity of the wall of the lower third of the vagina.
In stage IIIB, the lateral pelvic wall muscles lose their normal low signal intensity, with loss of the fat planes separating these muscles from the tumor on T1-weighted images (Fig. Stage IVA is indicated by loss of the normal low signal intensity of the bladder wall (see Fig. Preservation of the fat planes that separate the cervix from the bladder and rectum ( arrows) excludes extension to these organs.
Sagittal T2-weighted MRI of a stage IIA cervical carcinoma ( c) shows invasion in upper third of the posterior vaginal wall ( arrow ). Axial T1-weighted MRI of a stage IIB cervical carcinoma shows a mass ( m) extending from the cervical tumor ( c) in the right parametrium. Sagittal ( A ), low-transverse ( B ), coronal ( C ), and high-transverse ( D) T1-weighted MRI of the pelvis show a large high-signal-intensity mass ( m) (density less than that of fat and more than that of muscle) superior and posterior to the bladder ( b ).
Note thickening of the right lateral and superior bladder wall caused by tumor invasion ( arrows ).
There is thickening and increased signal intensity to the right iliopsoas muscle ( ip) compared to the left.
There is also evidence of increased signal intensity to the bone marrow of the sacrum and L5 in A. Note the focal thickening of the bladder ( b) base ( arrowheads) caused by direct extension from the cervical mass ( c ). Sagittal T2-weighted MRI in a patient with stage IVA cervical cancer shows invasion of the anterior wall of the rectum ( r ). In a study of 57 patients by Hricak and colleagues,26 MRI overstaged the tumor in 11 patients and understaged it in 3 patients, yielding an overall accuracy of 81%. In this study, the accuracy of MRI was 88% for detecting parametrial extension, 95% for vaginal extension, 93% for pelvic sidewall extension, and 96% for bladder wall invasion. In another study of 67 patients, Togashi and co-workers27 overstaged the tumor in 6 patients and understaged it in 10 patients.
Ultrasound may play a role in the evaluation of tumor extension to the parametrium and the pelvic sidewall in patients with an equivocal pelvic examination.38,39 In stage IB, the tumor is confined to the cervix on ultrasound, without parametrial extension (see Fig. In stage IIB, a tongue of the hypoechoic soft-tissue mass extends laterally from the cervix (see Fig.
More recently, high-resolution transrectal ultrasound was found to be more sensitive in assessing parametrial tumor spread compared to clinical evaluation (78% vs 52%, respectively).40 Ultrasound is also capable of detecting tumor extension into the bladder (Fig. Unlike CT, however, it cannot always reliably evaluate the level and cause of the obstruction.Fig. Transverse ( A) and sagittal ( B) sonograms of the pelvis show an irregular hypoechoic adnexal mass ( arrows) invading the bladder wall ( w ). Risk factors include obesity, nulliparity, estrogen replacement, estrogen-secreting ovarian tumors, late-onset menopause, diabetes mellitus, anovulatory cycling, polycystic ovaries, and adenomatous hyperplasia. Uterine sarcomas constitute less than 10% of uterine body tumors and are considered separately because of their different clinical behavior.42,43MRI and Ultrasound AnatomyOn MRI, uterine zonal anatomy is best depicted with T2-weighted imaging. During the menstrual cycle, the width of this stripe ranges from 5 mm early in the cycle to 10 mm late in the cycle.44,45The layer of low signal intensity that underlies the endometrium, called the junctional zone, corresponds to the inner layer of the myometrium.
Its width does not vary during the menstrual cycle.The peripheral intermediate-signal-intensity zone represents the outer portion of the myometrium. The latter varies in width and signal intensity during the menstrual cycle, reaching a maximum width of 25 mm and its highest signal intensity during the midsecretory stage.45,46 In postmenopausal women, both endometrium and myometrium decrease in thickness, with a consequent decrease in uterine size. At this stage, the endometrium should not exceed 5 mm in width.44,46On ultrasound, the uterus is seen as a medium-echogenicity, pear-shaped structure with a central hyperechoic zone, called an endometrial stripe (see Fig. In the late proliferative phase, it has a multilayered appearance: a central hyperechoic line representing the endometrial cavity, and subjacent isoechoic and hyperechoic layers representing the endometrium and its glands. In the late secretory phase, the endometrial stripe appears uniformly hyperechoic and fairly thick (up to 15 mm).
Frequently seen subjacent to the endometrial stripe is a hypoechoic junctional zone that is somewhat thinner than the junctional zone seen by MRI.
In postmenopausal women, the endometrial stripe decreases in thickness and should not exceed 5 mm. Similarly, the myometrium decreases in thickness with considerable decrease in the size of the uterus.DiagnosisThe diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma is usually made by endometrial biopsy or by dilatation and curettage. TVUS is the preferred method of screening for endometrial abnormalities in high-risk patients such as those on estrogen replacement therapy and tamoxifen treatment for breast carcinoma. Sagittal TVUS image of the uterus shows marked, inhomogeneous endometrial thickening (between asterisks). Spectral Doppler waveform obtained from the endometrial mass shows a low resistive index suggestive of malignancy.Submucosal fibroids and intrauterine hematomas may also have a hyperechoic appearance that may simulate endometrial carcinoma. The less frequently encountered hypoechoic pattern of endometrial carcinoma can be differentiated from that of intramural fibroids by the association of variable degrees of shadowing with the latter. Other suggestive but nondiagnostic signs of uterine malignancy are a rapid increase or any postmenopausal increase in the size of a uterine mass, extrauterine extension, and coexistence of a uterine mass with abdominal metastases.52 Spectral and color Doppler can enhance the ability of ultrasound to make a more specific diagnosis. Although no flow will be demonstrated in blood clots, high-resistivity flows are typically seen in benign disease compared with low-resistivity flows seen in endometrial carcinoma (Fig.
Endometrial carcinoma may occasionally obstruct the uterus, causing variable degrees of pyometra, hydrometra, or hematometra.The T2-weighted MRI appearance of noninvasive endometrial cancer is nonspecific. Thickening of the endometrial stripe-focal or diffuse, hyperintense or isointense, homogeneous or heterogeneous-may be seen (Fig.
As with ultrasound, it is not always possible to differentiate noninvasive endometrial cancer from adenomatous hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, or blood clots by MRI.53,54 In more advanced cases, it may be difficult to differentiate endometrial cancer from the more common uterine fibroids by MRI. The use of contrast media helps to differentiate viable tumor from retained debris within the endometrial cavity.35,55Fig.
Sagittal T2-weighted MRI in a patient with a stage IA endometrial carcinoma shows replacement of the lower two thirds of the hyperintense endometrium by an inhomogeneous medium-intensity irregular mass ( m) that invades the deeper layer of the myometrium anteriorly.
Note enlargement of the uterus ( u) with a central area of hypodensity and the surrounding ascites ( a ).Leiomyosarcomas constitute 3% of uterine body tumors. The typical ultrasound appearance is that of a very irregular mass with bizarre areas of degeneration, high-level echoes, and invasion of the surrounding pelvic structures (Fig. 24A and B).52 CT shows a large, irregular uterine tumor with invasion of the surrounding pelvic organs, peritoneum, and omentum (Fig. Transverse ( A) and sagittal ( B) sonograms of the uterus show it to be replaced by a large, inhomogeneous solid mass ( m) with high- and medium-level echogenicity.
There is evidence of extension superiorly ( curved arrow) and into the parametria ( long arrows) and bladder ( short arrows ). Serial CT scans of the pelvis ( C and D) show a large mass ( m) that is seen to spread to the mesentery ( t ). Approximately 80% of endometrial carcinomas have clinical stage I disease.62 This accounts for the overall high cure rate for endometrial cancer.
In contrast to cervical cancer staging, endometrial cancer staging is achieved surgically, according to histologic criteria (Table 2). The staging system is based on extent of involvement of the uterus, adjacent structures, and lymph nodes. The differentiation between stages I and II is important because stage I tumors are commonly treated surgically, whereas stage II tumors may be treated with preoperative radiation therapy. Stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC signify extension to the adnexa, vagina, and lymph nodes, respectively.
The prognosis depends on the depth of myometrial extension, tumor histology and grade, and nodal involvement.2,13,63 Clinical evaluation understages tumors in 20% of patients. In patients with endometrial adenocarcinomas, it is frequently very difficult to determine whether the tumor arises from the endometrium or the cervical area.

Treatment for these two conditions is different (total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy versus radical hysterectomy with preoperative radiation therapy).TABLE 2.
Int J Gynecol Obstet 28:189, 1989)Local Radiologic StagingStandard radiologic studies for local staging include EU, MRI, and ultrasound. Abdominopelvic CT is indicated for patients with clinically advanced tumors to evaluate nodal, peritoneal, bowel, or liver spread. MRI and ultrasound can provide additional information for accurate delineation of local spread of uterine body tumors.LOCAL CT STAGING. CT plays a less important role in local staging of endometrial cancer because of its poor contrast resolution and poor multiplanar capability. Myometrial invasion can best be demonstrated on postcontrast scans.25 Uterine size alone cannot be used as an indicator for myometrial invasion. In noninvasive endometrial cancer, the junctional zone on T2-weighted MRI should be intact.
The disruption of the junctional zone by a mass of higher signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging suggests myometrial invasion (see Fig. In stage II, tumor extension to the cervix is usually indicated by the increased size and signal intensity of the cervix on all MRI planes. In stage III, extension to the vagina is indicated by an increase in the signal intensity of its wall.
In stage IV, there is a focal loss of normal low signal intensity between the rectum or bladder and the tumor on T2-weighted images.Several studies addressing the accuracy of MRI staging of endometrial carcinoma have been published. Hricak and associates65 concluded that MRI accuracy is 74% for stage I disease, 89% for superficial invasion, and 54% for deep invasion. Their data also showed a sensitivity of 17% for stage III and stage IV disease and a specificity of 97%. Positive predictive value for stages III and IV was 50%.65 Most errors in MRI were caused by overestimation rather than underestimation.
The size of the uterus, which can be accurately evaluated by ultrasound, is not helpful in staging endometrial carcinoma. There is, however, a statistically significant difference in the echo pattern and shape of the uterus between stages I and II and stages III and IV. Muscular invasion (stage IB and IC) is indicated by the lack of uniformity of this halo (Fig. The degree of invasion is evaluated by comparing the depth of the endometrium to the depth of the myometrium. Using these criteria, Cagnazzo and associates70 found TVUS to be 78% accurate in assessing myometrial invasion, with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 87%, and negative predictive value of 66%. Gross cervical involvement by endometrial carcinoma causes enlargement of the cervix, which can also be accurately assessed by ultrasound (Fig. Sagittal TVUS image of the uterus shows marked, inhomogeneous endometrial thickening ( thick arrows ).
Note the inhomogeneous endometrial thickening and the cervical enlargement caused by invasion of the endometrial carcinoma. Risk factors include multiparity, late menopause, early menarche, and family history of ovarian or endometrial cancer.Eighty percent of ovarian neoplasms are benign.
Only 10% to 15% are primary malignant neoplasms, and 5% are metastatic lesions from bowel tumors, malignant melanoma, or lung or breast carcinoma.74 The most common primary malignant tumors are the epithelial ones, which arise from the serosal mesothelial layer of the gonads. Epithelial tumors include serous cystadenocarcinoma (42%), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (12%), endometrioid carcinoma (15%), undifferentiated carcinoma (17%), and clear cell carcinoma (6%).75MRI and Ultrasound AnatomyOvaries are seen in 96% of premenopausal females on MRI. They have a homogeneous texture of moderately low signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI.76 They are distinguishable from surrounding fat, but not as well from bowel. On T2-weighted MRI, ovarian stroma becomes isointense to fat, and the fluid-filled follicles become hyperintense (see Fig. Simple cysts are isointense to urine on T2-weighted images and hyperintense to urine on T1-weighted images if they contain protein or mucus.On TVUS, the ovaries are seen as medium-echogenicity, almond-shaped structures on both sides of the uterus. In menstruating females, each ovary contains several small cystic structures called follicles (Fig.
After ovulation, this becomes the corpus luteum, which decreases in size and acquires a complex echotexture. A pelvic mass may be felt on physical examination.Ultrasound plays a significant role in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
Ultrasound is 84% accurate in the tissue characterization of ovarian masses.77 The ultrasound appearance correlates very well with the morphology of ovarian neoplasms, but not with the histology. 29).80 In a study of 106 patients with ovarian neoplasms, Moyle and associates81 found a high correlation between the percentage of solid components and their malignant nature. Transverse sonogram of the pelvis shows a large echo-free mass ( m) with well-defined margins. Two small papillary projections ( arrows) are seen to arise from the wall, suggesting malignancy. Coronal TVUS image with superimposed color Doppler of a left ovarian mass shows a cystic mass with a large vascular solid component. Spectral Doppler image of the same ovary shows high diastolic flow, indicating neovascularization.Fig. Longitudinal sonogram of the pelvis shows a large, anechoic, well-defined mass ( m) without septations or nodular masses.
Transverse sonogram of the pelvis shows a large, inhomogeneous, solid right adnexal mass ( m ). The mass could not be separated from the uterus ( u ), a finding consistent with uterine invasion.
Transverse sonogram of the pelvis shows a well-marginated hyperechoic mass ( m) in the left ovary typical of teratoma or dermoid. TVUS establishes the exact relationship of masses to various pelvic organs by its high resolution and use of transducer-manual compression. However, TVUS screening for high-risk patients is more cost-effective ($10,144 for each ovarian cancer detected). Typically, because of arteriovenous shunting and the loss of muscular wall in the arterioles that supply these tumors, the resistance to blood flow in the peripheral circulation is decreased. This is depicted on spectral Doppler as a relative increase in diastolic flow causing a decrease in the resistive index to 0.4 or less (Fig. MRI characteristics of ovarian carcinoma include thickened wall, irregular margins, thickened irregular septa, endocystic vegetations, irregular solid portions, and increased tumor vessels (Fig. There is no difference, however, between benign and malignant tumors in terms of signal intensity of vegetations.
Note that the left ovary ( o) is enlarged, lobulated, irregular, and inhomogeneous with areas of high and medium signal intensities. Cystic malignant tumors characteristically have irregular walls, thickened septa (greater than 3 mm), papillary projections, and solid portions that may have regions of necrosis on CT (Fig. 33).103 As ovarian masses increase in size, they may distort pelvic structures, making it difficult to determine the organ of origin (Fig.
Despite contiguity to the uterus ( u ), there was no evidence of uterine invasion at surgery.Fig. Despite their size, the masses remain confined to the ovaries.Methods of SpreadOvarian cancer most commonly spreads by the shedding of tumor cells from gross or microscopic excrescences on the surface of the primary tumor.
This seeding leads to intraperitoneal dissemination13 involving the serosal surfaces of the uterus, bladder, bowel, cul-de-sac, diaphragm, and omentum. Preoperative staging of ovarian masses includes a history and physical examination to exclude other primary cancers, pelvic examination, Pap smear, complete blood count, blood chemistries, and chest radiography. Normal adult ovaries are not necessarily seen on CT as separate structures from the adnexae, which are generally shown as symmetric soft-tissue densities on both sides of the uterus. It may also be difficult to distinguish the ovaries from adjacent bowel loops unless these are well opacified by contrast material. The detailed internal ovarian architecture seen on ultrasound or MRI is not usually seen on CT. Mere contiguity of ovarian masses to the uterus may be difficult to differentiate from uterine invasion (see Fig.
CT is more useful in detecting ascites, pelvic or mesenteric masses, large peritoneal implants, nodal involvement, and liver metastases.

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