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A tire (in American English and Canadian English) or tyre (in British English, Australian English and others) is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground. The fundamental materials of modern tires are Synthetic Rubber, Natural Rubber, Fabric, and Wire, along with other compound chemicals.
Tread blocks provide space for the rib to flex and deform as it enters and exits the footprint.
The groove is a design element of the tread pattern specifically arranged to channel water away from the footprint. Tread rib often feature small narrow blocks, or sipes, that improve the flexibility of the rib to deform as it traverses the footprint area. The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall. The radial plies are comprised of the textile fiber cables that are bonded into the rubber. Wear bars (or wear indicators) are raised features located at the bottom of the tread grooves that indicate the tire has reached its wear limit. The contact patch, or footprint, of the tire, is merely the area of the tread that is in contact with the road surface. Bias tire (or cross ply) construction utilizes body ply cords that extend diagonally from bead to bead, usually at angles in the range of 30 to 40 degrees, with successive plies laid at opposing angles forming a crisscross pattern to which the tread is applied. A belted bias tire starts with two or more bias-plies to which stabilizer belts are bonded directly beneath the tread. Radial tire construction utilizes body ply cords extending from the beads and across the tread so that the cords are laid at approximately right angles to the centerline of the tread, and parallel to each other, as well as stabilizer belts directly beneath the tread.
Many tires used in industrial and commercial applications are non-pneumatic, and are manufactured from solid rubber and plastic compounds via molding operations. Tires that are hollow but are not pressurized have also been designed for automotive use, such as the tweel (a portmanteau of tire and wheel), which is an experimental tire design being developed at Michelin. Tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) are electronic systems that monitor the tire pressures on individual wheels on a vehicle, and alert the driver when the pressure goes below a warning limit. When referring to the purely geometrical data, a shortened form of the full notation is used. Less commonly used in the USA and Europe (but often in Japan for example) is a notation that indicates the full tire diameter instead of the side-wall height. Whilst this is theoretically ambiguous, in practice these two notations may easily be distinguished because the height of the side-wall of an automotive tire is typically much less than the width. The load index for any tire indicated the maximum weight that each tire is able to sustain. This can be seen by consulting the standards published every year by the industry standards group, the Tire and Rim Association. It is essential to consult the guides like those just mentioned when making tire substitutions, and to read exactly what is imprinted on the sidewalls of tires. If a tire is replaced with a lower speed rating than originally specified by the vehicle manufacturer, then this may render the vehicle insurance invalid. The Tire & Rim Association has identified three main rotation patterns that can be used for most vehicles in this scenario.
In addition to the three main rotation patterns listed above, there are two additional patterns that can be used for today's high-performance tire and wheel trends. Although it may not seem to make a difference how much air is put into a tire as long as it is full and the car moves, it truly does affect many aspects of driving.
If the tires are under-inflated, there is much more contact with the ground which slows down the car, weakens the quick responsive handling, and has limited durability and life. On the other hand, with over-inflated tires, the contact patch is smaller and thus there is less traction as well as over-inflation weakens the structural integrity of the tire as well.
The primary angles are the basic angle alignment of the wheels relative to each other and to the car body. Mud and Snow, (or M+S, or M&S), is a classification for specific winter tires designed to provide improved performance under low temperature conditions, compared to all-season tires. Some winter tires may be designed to accept the installation of metal studs for additional traction on icy roads. Some jurisdictions may require snow tires or tire chains on vehicles driven in certain areas during extreme weather conditions. Mud tires are specialty tires with large, chunky tread patterns designed to bite into muddy surfaces.
Some vehicles carry a spare tire, already mounted on a wheel, to be used in the event of flat tire or blowout. Several innovative designs have been introduced that permit tires to run safely with no air for a limited range at a limited speed. A disadvantage is that run-flat tires cannot be repaired if a puncture occurs, this is due to manufacturer's informing the automotive industry that you cannot tell what kind of state the sidewall is in due to the compacted sidewall of rubber. Each tire manufacturer performs its own tests in these areas, following government prescribed test procedures.
Traction grades measure the tire's ability to stop a car in straight-ahead motion on a wet test surface pavement.
Temperature ratings are determined by running tires on an indoor road wheel test under specified conditions. In order to maintain optimum control and stability for your vehicle, you should use identical tires with the same tread pattern, size, and construction. Examples of mismatched tires include mixing winter and all-season or summer tires, tires with different tread patterns, tires from different manufacturers, run-flat tires with non-run-flat tires, and tires with different construction characteristics or sizes. In addition to maintaining optimum control and stability, having a uniform set of tires allows you to regularly rotate them. Although it is ideal to have your tires wear evenly throughout their lives, it is not always possible, even with regular rotations. Obviously, it is best to replace all the tires at the same time because it will restore the handling and traction to optimum levels. If you decide to replace just two of the tires, the best choice is to replace them with the exact same brand, style, and size as the tires already on the vehicle.
In summary, always try to maintain an even set of tires that are identical in brand, model or style, size, tread pattern, and tread depth. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the Tires & Wheels Direct Terms & Condition and Privacy Policy. HomeWater Craft2012 YAMAHA GRIZZLY 700 4X4 WHEELER LIFT KIT, WHEELS TIRES, REAL TREE CAMO WRAP!



High performance tires have small void ratios to provide more rubber in contact with the road for higher traction, but may be compounded with softer rubber that provides better traction, but wears quickly.
Blocks also provide channels for rainwater, mud, and snow to be channeled away from the footprint.
The plies also provide centrifugal and lateral rigidity to the tire, while also allowing the tire flex sufficiently for a comfortable ride.
The bead is typically reinforced with steel wire and compounded of high strength, low flexibility rubber. When the tread lugs are worn to the point that the wear bars connect across the lugs, the tires are fully worn and should be taken out of service.
The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for strength and flexibility. The design allows the entire tire body to flex easily, providing the main advantage of this construction, a smooth ride on rough surfaces. This construction provides smoother ride that is similar to the bias tire, while lessening rolling resistance because the belts increase tread stiffness. Solid tires include those used for lawn mowers, skateboards, golf carts, scooters, and many types of light industrial vehicles, carts, and trailers.
The outer casing is rubber as in ordinary radial tires, but the interior has special compressible polyurethane springs to contribute to a comfortable ride.
Hence when the height is expressed as a percentage of the width, it is almost always less than 100% (and certainly less than 200%). The actual diameter of a specific tire size can only be found in the TRA Yearbook or the manufacturer's data books. As you can see in the following table, the higher the tire's Load Rating, the greater the load it can carry.
As an example, their 2010 Year Book shows that Load Range C tires may require 35 PSI or 55 PSI, Load Range D tires may require 50 PSI or 65 PSI, and Load Range E tires may require 65 PSI or 80 PSI to achieve their Load Index and Maximum Loads. A different size of tire with the same Load Range may require a higher inflation pressure, and may fail in use if under-inflated. It indicates the maximum permitted speed that the tire can sustain for a ten minute endurance without being in danger. Move the front tires straight back to the rear, and bring the rear tires to the opposite side of the front axle. Move the front tires to the opposite rear positions and move the rear tires to the opposite front positions.
Move the rear tires straight up to the front and move the front tires to the opposite rear positions. If your tires are directional, they should only be rotated from front-to-back (or vice-versa) on the same side of the vehicle.
Move the front tires to the opposite side of the front axle and the rear tires to the opposite rear side. Tires can be both under-inflated and over-inflated, both of which can be detrimental for proper driving. It is important to always make sure that your tires are at the proper pressure and are maintained and check regularly. However setback simply exists because of the measuring system and does not have any specification from car manufacturers. There are usually four camera units in a wheel alignment system (a camera unit for each wheel). Since the manufacturing process, raw materials, and equipment vary according to the tire type, it is common for tire factories to specialize in one or more tire types.
They feature a softer rubber compound for improved traction, especially on high speed cornering. The tread compound is usually softer than that used in tires for summer conditions, thus providing better grip on ice and snow, but wears more quickly at higher temperatures.
The studs also roughen the ice, thus providing better friction between the ice and the soft rubber in winter tires.
These tires often have stiffer sidewalls for greater resistance against puncture when traveling off-road, the tread pattern offers wider spacing than all-season tires to remove mud from the tread. Twenty measurements are taken with an industry standard control tire, on an asphalt surface, and then they are averaged.
Temperature grades represent a properly maintained tire's ability to dissipate heat under controlled indoor test wheel conditions.
Successive 30 minute runs are made in 5 mph increments starting at 75 mph and continuing until the tire fails. The only exception to this would be if your vehicle has a staggered fitment with different sized tires on the front and rear axles of the vehicle.
This will enable you to have even tire wear, thus extending their life and maximizing your investment in your tires.
Tires can wear unevenly if your vehicle has staggered fitments on the front and back, if your vehicle has an alignment or other mechanical problem, if your vehicle is insufficiently maintained, or due to driving conditions. This is wise because the tire's physical dimensions, internal construction, materials, and tread design will be nearly identical to the tires you are replacing. Anything else will compromise your vehicle's comfort, handling, and safety characteristics.
The tread pattern is characterized by the geometrical shape of the grooves, lugs, Voids and sipes. Mud and snow (M&S) tires are designed with higher void ratios to channel away rain and mud, while providing better gripping performance.
Many high performance passenger tires feature rain grooves that are angled from the center toward the sides of the tire. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The length-to-width ratio of the contact patch will affect steering and cornering behavior. The sidewall transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread in order to create traction. This cushioning characteristic also causes the major disadvantages of a bias tire: increased rolling resistance and less control and traction at higher speeds.
The plies and belts are at different angles, which improves performance compared to non-belted bias tires. The advantages of this construction include longer tread life, better steering control, and lower rolling resistance.


One of the most common applications for solid tires is for material handling equipment (forklifts).
These tires often come as a complete assembly with the wheel and even integral ball bearings. Besides the impossibility of going flat, the tires are intended to combine the comfort offered by higher-profile tires (with tall sidewalls) with the resistance to cornering forces offered by low profile tires. Some actually measure the air pressure, and some make indirect measurements, such as gauging when the relative size of the tire changes due to lower air pressure. The sole exception are M+S tires, where a warning sticker stating the allowed maximum speed must be placed within clear sight of the driver inside the vehicle. Tire rotation is the procedure of moving tires to different car positions, such as front-to-rear, in order to even out the wear, thereby extending the life of the tire.
If you have differently-sized directional tires on the front and rear, you cannot use Pattern #5 as shown.
This is especially important for 4WD and AWD vehicles, because if you need to use your spare tire and it has different wear than your other three tires, it could place undue forces on the drive train of your vehicle due to the difference in tread depth. Alignment angles can also be altered beyond the maker's specifications to obtain a specific handling characteristic. The camera units communicate their physical positioning with respect to other camera units to a central computer which calculates and displays how much the camber, toe and caster are misaligned.
In most markets, factories that manufacture passenger and light truck radial tires are separate and distinct from those that make aircraft or OTR tires. Use of studs is regulated in most countries, and even prohibited in some locales due to the increased road wear caused by studs. Mud terrain tires also tend to be wider than other tires, to spread the weight of the vehicle over a greater area to prevent the vehicle from sinking too deeply into the mud. Many tires in the all-terrain category are designed primarily for on-road use, particularly all-terrain tires that are originally sold with the vehicle.
An infamous example of an alternate run-flat technology has plastic load-bearing inserts attached to the rim instead of the reinforced sidewalls. Tires are specially engineered for specific race tracks according to surface conditions, cornering loads, and track temperature. If a manufacturer assigns a treadwear rating of 200 to a new tire, they are indicating that they expect the new tire to have a useful lifespan that is 200% of the life of a Course Monitoring Tire. It is important to remember that traction rating tests are performed only for straight-ahead sliding on concrete and asphalt surfaces that have a specified degree of wetting which simulates most road surfaces in a rainstorm. On the other hand, the less-expensive alternative of replacing two of the tires requires choosing exact, equivalent, or alternative tires. If it is not possible to purchase the exact same tires as those currently needing to be replaced (for example, the tire is no longer available), then the next best option is to choose tires in the same performance category with equivalent load rating, speed rating, handling, and traction characteristics as the original tires.
Before rubber was invented, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal that fitted around wooden wheels in order to prevent wear and tear. Low block areas have high contact area and therefore higher traction on clean, dry pavement. Some tire manufacturers claim that their tread pattern is designed to actively pump water out from under the tire by the action of the tread flexing.
The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The sidewall, in conjunction with the air inflation, also supports the load of the vehicle.
Move the front tires to the rear on the same side and the rear tires to the front axle on the same side of the vehicle.
Instead, you will need to dismount the tires from the wheels, and remount and balance the tires on the opposite wheels. Move the spare tire to the right rear position and let the right front tire become the spare.
These cameras perform the same function as the other style of alignment equipment, yet alleviate numerous issues prone to relocating a heavy precision camera assembly on each vehicle serviced. Racing tires often are engineered to minimum weight targets, so tires for a 500-mile race may run only 100 miles before a tire change. The ratings that result from these tests may not apply to cornering traction or peak values of straight-ahead braking those experienced in non-skid braking tests. The final option of choosing alternative tires that do not match any of the characteristics of your original tires should only be used as a last resort or in an emergency situation. Today, the vast majority of tires are pneumatic, comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion.
During the deformation and recovery cycle the tire exerts variable forces into the vehicle. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile.
Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation, like whitewalls. They can also be rugged, typically used in industrial applications, and are designed to not pull off their rim under use. Move the spare tire to the right rear position and let the left front tire become the spare. Due to them having a thinner wheel base, the tire will have more pressure on the road surface, thus allowing the tires to penetrate the snow layer and grip harder snow or road surface beneath. Once the results of the tests are compared, traction ratings based on government prescribed coefficient levels are assigned to the tires that were tested. This is because the use of tires with different performance characteristics, load ratings, speed ratings, or sizes can cause the vehicle's handling to become unbalanced, especially in adverse weather conditions. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, such as bicycles, motorcycles, cars, trucks, earthmovers, and aircraft. Tread patterns feature non-symmetrical (or non-uniform) lug sizes circumferentially in order to minimize noise levels at discrete frequencies.
Treadwear ratings are only useful for comparing Brand A's entire lineup against itself. Sipes are valleys cut across the tire, usually perpendicular to the grooves, which allow the water from the grooves to escape to the sides in an effort to prevent hydroplaning.



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